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Full text of "Dictionary of Inventions & Discoveries"

WIG AN LEISURE SER VICES 

LIBRARIES 




REFERENCE BOOK 



DICTIONARY 

OF 
INVENTIONS 

AND 
DISCOVERIES 

E. F. Carter 







FREDERICK MULLER 



First published in Great Britain ig66 
by Frederick Muller Ltd., Fleet Street, London, E.G. 4 



Copyright © Frederick Muller ig66 
Revised Edition ig6g 



WIGAN LIBRARIES 

WITHDRAWN FOR 

BOOK SALE 




CxV(=c 



/^V 



Printed and bound by The Garden City Press Limited 
Letchworth, Hertfordshire 



Author's Note 

THE purpose of this work is to set out in alphabetical order 
some of die scientific, technological, and kindred inventions, 
discoveries and developments made since earliest times, indicating 
to whom each is attributable, together with the year in which 
they were made or introduced, if known. 

This knowledge has been gathered from many thousands of 
literary and factual sources, and represents the culmination of 
many years of intensive research, inquiry and travel. But a work 
of such coverage must, at very best, leave much to be desired. 
Any attempt to cover entirely the vast field of human endeavour 
down the ages must necessarily fall short of completeness. 

In this the serious student is invited to explore more fully the 
history of science, technology and engineering; but he must be 
prepared to accept that much early historical evidence still 
remains buried in original documents and periodicals in many 
languages. Here, then, is a wide-open field for his patient research 
and evaluation of the abundant material awaiting his efforts; 
and if this book helps him on his way, its purpose will have been 
fulfilled. 

E. F. S. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



AppL 


Applied 


Aus 


Austrian 


An. 


Attributed to 


Bel 


Belgian 


Const. 


Constructed 


Braz 


Brazilian 


Dem. 


Demonstrated 


Ch 


Chinese 


Des. 


Designed 


Dan 


Danish 


Desc. 


Described 


Eng 


English 


Dev. 


Developed 


Fin 


Finland 


Disc. 


Discovered, Discovers 


Fr 


French 


Est. 


Established 


Ger 


German 


Evol. 


Evolved 


Hoi 


Dutch 


Exhib. 


Exhibited 


Hun 


Hungarian 


Form. 


Formulated 


It 


Italian 


Rlus. 


Illustrated 


J a P 


Japan 


Imp. 


Improved 


Jugoslav Jugoslavian 


Inst. 


Instituted 


Nor 


Norwegian 


Intro. 


Introduced 


Port 


Portuguese 


Inv. 


Invented 


Rus 


Russian 


Isol. 


Isolated 


Scot 


Scottish 


Leg. 


Legendary 


Sp 


Spanish 


Obs. 


Observed 


Swed 


Sweden 


Obt. 


Obtained 


Swit 


Switzerland 


Orig. 


Originated 


U.S. 


United States of 


Pat. 


Patent, patented 




America 


Prep. 


Prepared 


A.E. 


Ancient Egypt 


Prod. 


Produced 


A.G. 


Ancient Greek 


Prop. 


Propounded 


A.R. 


Ancient Roman 


Pub. 


Published 


Asy. 


Assyrian 


b. 


Born 


Gr. 


Greece, Greek 


4. 


Died ' 


Per. 


Persia, Persian 


n.d. 


No date 


Phon. 


Phoenician 



abb£ 



ACETYI4SNE 



A 



ABBE, Ernst (Ger) (1840- 
1905). Friend of Carl Zeiss. See 
Glass, Optical. 
Aberration See Light. 
Absorbent Dressing (sur- 
gery) Inv. Dr. Matthias, Mayor 
of Lausanne, Switzerland. 
Absorbiometer 1855. Inv. 
Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (Ger) 
(1811-99). 

Acarus (Itch insect) Disc. Ebn 
Zoar (Avenzoar) (Arab) (11 70- 
1262). 

Accelerator, Linear 1932. 
Inv. with Ernest Walton by 
John Cockroft. 

Accelerometer 1783. (Mach- 
ine for proving acceleration) 
inv. George Attwood (1746- 
1807). 1909. Modern A. inv. 
H. E. Wimperis and G. K. B. 
Elphinstone. 

Accents (language) 264 b.c. 
Intro, into Greek language by 
Aristophanes of Byzantium. 
1 6 10. First used in French 
language. 

Accordion Inv. 1822. Busch- 
mann of Berlin. (Other sources 
cite inv. 1829 by Damian of 
Vienna.) Intro. G.B. 1829 from 
Vienna. 

AGGUM, Fredrick (1769- 
1838). (Ger). Credited with 
intro. of gas lighting. See Gas, 
coal. 



Accumulator, Electric 1803. 
First attempt to produce a 
storage battery made by Johann 
Wilhelm Ritter (1 776-1810) 
(Ger). 1859. Lead-celled Accu- 
mulator inv. Raimond-Louis- 
Gaston Plant6 (1834-9) ( Fr )« 
1 88 1 . Formed and coated Accu- 
mulator grid inv. C. A. Faure 
(Fr). 1 88 1. Sir Joseph Wilson 
Swan pat. lead-grid Accumu- 
lator. 1888. Modern type Accu- 
mulator grid inv. Karl Erich 
Correns (1864-1933) (Ger). 
1890. Epstein inv. accumulator. 
1897. Marshner inv. accumula- 
tor with ground amber in its 
plates. 1899. Crowdus and 
Larrimer inv. accumulators. 
1900 c. Thomas Alva Edison 
( 1 847-1 931) inv. nickel-alkaline 
A. 

Accumulator, Hydraulic, 
Inv. Sir William Armstrong. 
Ace t aldehyde 1881. Disc. 
Kutscherov (Rus), by passing 
acetylene gas through sul- 
phuric acid in presence of 
mercury as a catalyst. 
Acetylene (gas) 1836. Disc. 
Edmund Davy, obtained from 
potassium carbide. 1896. G. 
Claude and A. Hess first solve 
Acetylene in acetone, c. 1870. 
Prod, from carbon and hydro- 
gen by electric arc by P. E. M. 



ACHARD 

Berthelot (Fr). 1924. Acetylene 
first inhaled as an anaesthetic. 
{See also Synthetic Rubber, 
P.V.G. and Vinyl Acetate.) 
ACHARD, Franz G. (1753- 
1821) (Ger). 1 80 1. Built first 
sugar-beet factory. 
Achromatism 1729. Chester 
Moor Hall disc, how to correct 
chromatic aberration by com- 
bining lenses of flint and crown 
glass. 1755. Achromatic lenses 
dem. by Samuel Klingen- 
steirna (Swed). 1758. Hall's 
disc, re-disc, by John Dolland. 
Acoustics of Buildings 
1809. First theory advanced by 
Sir George Cayley (1773- 

1857)- 

Acre (measurement) 1305. 

English statute Acre defined 
precisely as 4,840 square yards. 
Acromegaly (medicine) 1885. 
First disc, by Pierre Marie (Fr). 
Acrostic Inv. a.d. 328 by 
Porphyrias Optaliamus (Mal- 
chus) of Tyre. (c. 233-404.) 
Actinium (element) 1899. 
Disc. M. Debierne (Fr) in 
pitchblende. 

Actinometer 1825 Des. Sir 
John F. Herschel (1 792-1 871) 
(Ger). 1856. Inv. Robert 
Wilhelm Bunsen (1811-99) 
(Ger) and Sir Henry Roscoe 
(1833-1915). 

ADAMS, John Couch (1819- 
92). 1846. Disc, planet Nep- 
tune. 

Addison's Disease (skin). 
First diagnosed by Doctor 
Thomas Addison, of Guy's 
Hospital, London. 
Adrenaline, or Epinephrine 
1901. Synthesized by Joachi 
Takamine (1854-1922). Also 
independently by Thomas Bell 



AIRCRAFT 

Aldrich. (First isol. of a hor- 
mone.) 

Advertisement 1652. First 
advertisement appeared in a 
Parliamentary paper. 
JElopile (jet steam-engine) 
First recorded by Heron of 
Alexandria (c. 285-222 B.C.). 
See also Turbine, Steam and 
Steam Engine. 

Aeolian Harp Known and 
possibly inv. by Duncan, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury in 10th 
cent. Generally ascribed to 
Athanasius Kircher (1601-80) 
(Ger). 

Aerial, Directional 1905. Inv. 
Gugliemo Marconi (It) (1874- 
1937). 1908. Revolving aerial 
inv. P. N. Havland (Nor.). 
AGRICOLA, Georgius 
(Georg Bauer) (i494~i555) 
(Ger) . Author of De Re Metallica, 
pub. in Basle, 1556. See Pumps, 
Gears, and engineering 
categories. 

Agriculture, application of 
steam to 1684. The brothers 
William, Andrew and John 
Parham, and Thomas Dornaxy 
pat. idea for steam machine 
for agricultural work. 1767. 
Francis Moore pat . machine of 
wood and metal worked by 
fire and water or air for agri- 
cultural purposes. See also Trac- 
tion engine, Steam ploughing 
engines, Steam pumps, etc. 
Aileron (aircraft) 1868. Inv. 
Matthew Piers Watt Boulton. 
{Pat. No. 392.) 

Air 1895. Liquified by K. P. G. 
Lind6 (Ger.). See also Atmo- 
sphere, composition of. 
Air Compressor Peter 
Brotherhood (1839-1902). Pat. 
three-stage dry air compressor. 
Aircraft (including heavier 



AIRCRAFT 



AIRCRAFT 



and lighter than air machines, 
kites and rockets; but not in- 
cluding space-craft or balloons, 
(q.v.) 400 B.C. Archytas of 
Tarentum reported to have 
made a steam-jet propelled 
pigeon. 4th cent. b.c. Kite inv. 
in China. 4th cent. a.d. 
Probable first conception of 
airscrew made in China, c. 
1020. Oliver of Malmesbury 
attempts to fly. c. 1250. 
Roger Bacon speculates about 
flight. 1379. First mention 
of rockets made in Europe 
by Muratori. c. 1500. De- 
signs for a helicopter, aero- 
engine, parachute, retractable 
under-carriage and two types 
of powered projectiles made 
by Leonardo da Vinci. 1503. 
G. B. Danti attempts to fly at 
Perugia. 1507. John Damian 
(It) attempts to fly at Stirling, 
Scodand. 1560. First mention 
of kite in Europe by Schmid- 
lap. 1589. First desc. of kite 
by della Porta, c. 1620. Ver- 
anzio pub. desc. of a para- 
chute. 1634. John Bate pub. 
first drawing in Europe of a 
kite. 1 63 1. Desmarets pub. 
illus. of parachute, c. 1655. 
Model ornithopter tested by 
Robert Hooke. 
attempts to fly 
XIV at St. Germain. 1678. 
Besnier attempts to fly at 
Sabl6. 1680. Borelli pub. report 
of a demonstration of the 
inadequacy of muscle-powered 
flight. 1709. Gusmao des. the 
"Passarola." 1714-15. S^fieden- 
borg des. an idea for an aero- 
plane, c. 1742. De Bacqueville 
attempts to fly across the Seine 
at Paris. 1746. Robins first 
uses the whirling arm. 1768. 



Paucton des. his "pterophore" 
machine. 1 772. Desforges builds 
his "voiture volante." 1781. 
Meerwein builds an ornithop- 
ter-cum-glider. 1 784. First suc- 
cessful test in Europe of a 
model helicopter by Launoy 
and Bienvenu, using a bow- 
string motor. 1784. Valet tests 
first full-sized airscrew (pro- 
pellor (q.v.) ) on a river boat. 

1784. Blanchard makes first 
attempt to propel a balloon 
by airscrew. 1784. First aerial 
voyage in Britain by Lunardi 
in a hydrogen balloon. 1784. 
Meusnier des. dirigible with 
screw propeller. 1784. Gerard 
made first suggestion to propel 
aircraft by rockets. 1784. 
Renaux and Getatf des. 
ornithopters. 1 784. Aries 
attempts to fly at Embrum. 

1785. Blanchard and Jeffries 
make first crossing of the 
English Channel by air in 
a balloon. 1785. Death of 
Romain and de Rozier — the 
first ballooning fatalities. 1792. 
Sir George Cayley flies a model 
helicopter. 1794. First military 
reconnaissance from a balloon 
made at Maubeuge. 1797. 
First human parachute descent 

1660. Allard — made by Garnerin. 1799. First 
before Louis des. of modern configuration of 
aeroplane made by Cayley. 
1804. Cayley tests aerofoils on 
a whirling arm. 1805. Con- 
greve des. modern type rocket 
missiles. 1805-9. Cayley flies 
first unmanned, full-sized 
glider. 1806-17. Dagen at- 
tempts to fly. 1807. Cayley tests 
modified gunpowder engine as 
power-source. 1809. Cayley 
des. solids of least air resistance. 
181 o. Cayley pub. papers on 



AIRCRAFT 



AIRCRAFT 



heavier-than-air flight. 1811. 
Beblinger attempts to fly at 
Ulm. 1 81 8. Dc Lambertye des. 
an ornithopter and a heli- 
copter, c. 1825. Pocock flies a 
man-lifting kite at Bristol. 1827. 
Pocock travels in a kite-drawn 
carriage. 1828. Vittorio Sarti 
des. a contra-rotating device. 
c. 1830. Artingsall tests model 
ornithopter. 1837. Cocking 
killed in a parachute drop. 
1842. W. H. Phillips helicopter 
flies with steam-jets on rotor 
tips. 1842. W. S. Henson, of 
Chard, Somerset des. his 
"Aerial Steam Carriage." 1843. 
Engineer Bourne flies 
model helicopter. 1843. Dr. 
William Miller pub. desc. of 
his ornithopter. 1843. Cayley 
des. a covertiplane. 1847. W. S. 
Henson tests his first powered 
model monoplane. 1848. John 
Stringfellow (1799-1883) tests 
powered aeroplane. 1849. Aus- 
trian Montgolfier pilotless bal- 
loon makes first bombing raid 
in history — against Venice. 
1852 (Sept. 24). First flight by 
Henri Giffard's full-sized, 
manned dirigible — the first full- 
sized aircraft to be powered by 
an aero engine. 1852-53. First 
man-carrying flights by a 
heavier-than-air machine — one 
of Cayley's gliders. 1852. 
Michel Loup des. aeroplane. 
1854. Francois Letur killed on 
a parachute glider. 1856. Car- 
lingford des. an aeroplane. 
1856-68. J. M. Le Bris, a 
French sea-captain tests full- 
sized gliders. 1856-96. L. P. 
Mouillard tests full-size gliders. 
1857-58. Felix du Temple 
(1823-90) made first successful 
powered flight in a modified 



aeroplane. 1858. First aerial 
photograph made from captive 
balloon "Nadir," over Paris. 
1858. Pierre Jullien made twin- 
propellered model aeroplane 
with a twisted-rubber motor 
which flew 39 ft. 1858-59 F. H. 
Wenham (1 824-1 908) makes 
multi-planed glider. 1859. E. S. 
Cordner, an Irish priest, flew a 
man-carrying kite for ship-to- 
shore rescue work. i860. 
Smythies des. ornithopter- 
cum-fixed-wing aeroplane. 
1863. Gabriel de la Landell 
des. a fantastic helicopter. 
1863. Vicomte de Ponton 
d'Amecourt tests steam- 
driven helicopter model. 1863. 
Jules Verne pub. his story 
"Five Weeks in a Balloon." 
1865. De Louvri6, a French 
engineer, des. earliest-known 
jet-propelled heavier-than-air 
aeroplane. 1867. Butler and 
Edwards des. and pat. delta- 
wing jet-powered aeroplane. 
1868. John Stringfellow tests 
first powered triplane, with 
modern aileron system inv. by 
Boulton but not pat. 1868. 
J. M. Kaufinann, of Glasgow 
tests steam-driven ornithopter 
with a modified fixed wing. 
1868. J. J. Bourcart tests his 
ornithopter at Guebwiller. 

1870. Alphonse Penard (1850- 
80) intro. model with twisted- 
rubber power. 1870. G. Trouve 
flies gunpowder-driven model 
aeroplane. 1870s. Danjard flies 
tandem-winged glider. 1871. 
Penard des. his model "Plano- 
phore" and flies it. 1871. First 
wind-tunnel inv. by F. H. 
Wenham and John Browning. 

1 87 1. John Goodman House- 
hold, of South Africa, flew f 



AIRCRAFT 



AIRCRAFT 



mile in a glider of his own des. 
Paul Haenlein (Aus) flew 
first full-sized aircraft fitted 
with an internal-combustion, 
Lenoir gas-engine — a dirig- 
ible, c. 1874. F61ix Du Temple 
flies first powered man-carry- 
ing aeroplane at Brest. 1875. 
Thomas Moy tests large tan- 
dem-wing "Aerial Steamer." 
1876. Penaud pat. full-sized 
des. as an amphibian. 1877. 
Melikoff des. gas-turbine model 
helicopter. 1877. Enrico For- 
lanini (It) des. steam-driven 
helicopter which flew. 1879. 
Victor Tatin des. a compressed- 
air-driven model monoplane. 
1878. Russians claim that A. 
Mozhaiski flew. 1878. Biot 
tests full-sized glider. 1878. 
Brearley des. model "undula- 
tor" which flew. Dandrieux 
des. model "butterfly" heli- 
copter which flew. 1879. Dr. 
Wolfert and Herr Baumgarten 
built airship powered by 
Daimler benzine motor. (Motor 
not originally satisfactory.) 
1880. Linfield of Margate 
des. a 240 lb. machine driven 
by a 9-bladed airscrew 7 ft. in 
diameter, revolving at 112 
r.p.m. 1883. Albert and Gaston 
Tissandier des. first electric- 
ally-driven aircraft — a full- 
sized dirigible. 1884. A. Moz- 
haiski (Rus) tests powered 
man-carrying aeroplane. 1884. 
Renard and Krebs fly in first 
practicable, steerable dirigible. 
1884. Phillips pat. cambered 
wings. 1887. Hargraves inv. 
rotary engine. 1888. First full- 
sized aircraft to be powered in 
flight by a petrol engine — Wol- 
fert's dirigible. 1890. (Oct. 9). 
Clement Ader's "Eole" the 



first full-sized aircraft to leave 
the ground under its own 
power. 1 89 1. Prof. Langley 
tests his first steam-powered, 
tandem-wing model. 1891-96. 
Otto Lilienthal pilots many 
successful glider flights. 1893. 
Horatio Phillips tests large 
multi-wing model aeroplane. 

1893. Hargreaves inv. box- 
kite. 1894. Baden-Powell des. 
first practical man-lifting kites. 

1894. Sir Hiram Maxim (1840- 
1916) tests full-sized aeroplane 
of his own des. 1895. Lilienthal 
flies first piloted biplane glider. 

1895. Perc Y s - Pilcher (1866- 
99), the first British aviator, 
makes first successful piloted 
glider flight on Clydebank in 
"The Bat" (his glider "Hawk" 
was flown at Eynsford, Kent, 
the following year). 1895. 
David Schwartz (Aus) des. 
and built at Berlin first air- 
ship with rigid aluminium 
envelope of 130,000 cu. ft. 
capacity. Tried at Tempel- 
hoferfeld in Nov. 1895. 1896- 
97. Samuel Pierpoint Langley, 
Victor Tatin, and Charles 
Richet fly their model steam 
aeroplanes. 1897. Wilbur 
Wright (U.S.) inv. warping- 
wing system. 1900. Count Zep- 
pelin's first airship flies. 1901. 
The Wright Bros, fly their 
first glider. 1901. Langley flies 
his first petrol-driven model 
aeroplane. Kress's first full- 
sized petrol-driven aeroplane 
destroyed while taxiing. 1901. 
Alberto Santos Dumont (Braz) 
flies his No. 6 dirigible round 
the Eiffel Tower. 1901. Col. 
Cody pat. man-lifting kite. 
1903. Lebaudy Bros, fly first 
fully practicable dirigible. 



AIRCRAFT 



AIRCRAFT 



1903. Karl Jatho (Ger) tests 
aeroplane. 1903. Prof. Lang- 
ley's man-carrying "aero- 
drome" crashes on take-off. 
1903 (Dec. 17). First powered, 
sustained and controlled aero- 
plane flight in history made 
by Wilbur and Orville Wright 
(U.S.). 1904. Ailerons and 
elevons first used by Robert 
Esnault-Pelterie (Fr). 1904-5. 
J. H. G. Elhammer (Dan) tests 
tethered aeroplane on Lind- 
holm Island, and made a 
powered leap in 1906. 1905. 
Gabriel Voisin, Ernest Arch- 
deacon and Louis Bleriot test 
float-gliders and open the first 
aeroplane factory in the world 
at Billancourt, Paris. 1905. 
Capt. F. Ferber intro. a stable, 
powered tractor biplane. 1906. 
First "Antoinette" aero engine 
of 24 h.p. in service. 1906. 
Trajan Vuia (Hun) tests trac- 
tor monoplane. 1906. Santos 
Dumont makes first official 
powered flight in Europe. 1907. 
Phillips makes first tentative 
flight in Britain. 1907. J. W. 
Dunne tested first swept-wing 
tailless biplane at Blair Atholl, 
Scotland. 1907. Gol. Cody 
flies unmanned engine-driven 
kite. 1907. Bleriot tests first 
cantilever monoplanes "Can- 
ard" and "Libellule." 1908 
(Sept. 29). Bros. Breguet Des. 
4-rotored, helicopter driven by 
a 50 h.p. Antoinette engine, 
which carried a man while 
flying tethered at Douai. 1908 
(Nov. 13). Paul Cornu des. 
helicopter with two rotors 
driven by a 24 h.p. engine 
which carried a man in free 
flight at Lisieux. 1908. Flap- 
type ailerons first used by 



Louis Bleriot on his "Bleriot 
VIII" machine, which made 
the first monoplane flight — 
5 minutes. 1908. R. Lorin pub. 
des. for jet aeroplanes. 1908 
(Oct. 3). Col. Cody makes 
first powered flight in Britain. 
1907-15. Long-range aerial 
bombardment of Berlin pro- 
posed by Rene Lerin (Fr) with 
a "torpille aerienne" which 
was to be catapault-launched, 
powered with a pulse-duct 
motor, radio and gyro con- 
trolled, and a 400 lb. explosive 
charge. It was turned down by 
the French Government. 1908. 
A. Goupy tests his triplane. 

1909. 50 h.p. 7-cylinder Gnome 
rotary engine went into service. 

1910. Henri Coanda (Roum- 
Fr) des. unsuccessful jet-pro- 
pelled aeroplane with a ducted 
"turbo-propulseur." 1910. A. 
Eteve inv. the airspeed indica- 
tor. 1910. Hugo Junkers (Ger) 
pat. deep cantilevered wing 
monoplane — the "J-i," which 
first flew in 1915. 1910. Geof- 
frey de Havilland builds two 
aeroplanes. 191 1. Wieneziers 
(Ger) inv. first retractable 
under-carriage. 191 1. Esnault- 
Pelterie (Fr) inv. oleo under- 
carriage. 1 91 2. Ruchounet (Fr) 
inv. monocoque const, applied 
by Bechereau in his Deper- 
dussin monoplane. 191 2. First 
all-metal aeroplane — the 
"Tubavion" flies. 1912. First 
enclosed cabin aeroplanes — 
the Avro mono and biplanes, 
built. 19 1 2. Reissner inv. corru- 
gated aluminium wings. 19 13. 
Dunne flew his tail-less "No. 8" 
from Eastchurch to Paris. 1919. 
Handley Page^af. slotted wing. 
1 919. Rohrbach pat. stressed- 



AIRCRAFT 



AIRCRAFT 



skin metal constr. 1920. Poulain 
leaps 40 ft. on winged pedal- 
cycle. 1920. First modern-type 
retractable under-carriage 
fitted to U.S. Dayton-Wright 
aeroplane. 1923. First refuelling 
in flight accomplished, c. 1924. 
Experiments commenced in 
Germany on what was later 
known as the "V-i" flying- 
bomb; "Ascania" (code name) 
working on tail and control 
des., "Argus" on the pulse- 
motor, and Lusser, of Messrs. 
Fieseler, of Gassel on the body. 
1924. Variable-pitch propeller 
inv. by Dr. H. S. Hely-Shaw 
and T. E. Beacham. 1925. First 
De Havilland "Moth" flew. 
1926. Prof. G. T. Hill flies his 
tailless "Pterodactyl," which 
was the subject of intense 
research in Germany by A. 
Lippisch and H. Koehl. 1926. 
Godard "flies" first liquid-fuel 
rocket. 1926-28. A. A. Griffith 
first proposed and experi- 
mented with a gas-turbine/ 
propellor. 1928. F. Stamer, 
from the Wasserkupp flies first 
rocket-propelled glider. 1929. 
Fritz von Opel made first 
successful jet aeroplane flight 
in history on a cradle-launched 
rocket-glider, flying for 10 
minutes and reached a speed 
of 1 00 m.p.h. 1929. Sperry 
perfects artificial horizon and 
directional gyro. 1930. Frank 
Whittle took out his first turbo- 
jet pats. 1 93 1. Lippisch flies 
delta-wing aeroplane. 1932. 
First practical variable-pitch 
propeller intro. 1934. First 
practical constant-speed pro- 
peller intro. 1935. R. J. 
Mitchell (1895- 1 93 7) des. and 
made a mock-up "Spitfire." 



1936 (Mar. 5). "Spitfire" first 
flies and 450 ordered by British 
Air Ministry. 1936. Focke and 
Dr. Achgelis des. first practical 
helicopter. 1937. First pressur- 
ized-cabin aeroplane — the 
Lockheed XG-35, ^ ies ' I 939* 
First turbo-jet aeroplane — the 
Heinkel 178, flies; powered by 
Dr. H. von Chain's centrifugal- 
flow, turbo-jet engine. 1940. 
Gaproni-Campini quasi-jet 
aeroplane first flies. 1941. First 
British turbo-jet — the Gloster 
E28/39, flies with Whittle en- 
gine. 1942. First U.S. turbo-jet 
— the Bell XP-59a flies with 
Whitde- type engine. 1942 
(Dec). German "V-i" laun- 
ched to glide from "Kondor" 
aeroplane. 1942 (Dec. 24). 
First powered launch of a 
"V-i." 1943. "D.H.-100" 
"Vampire" flies with centri- 
fugal-flow gas-turbine des. by 
Maj. F. B. Halford. 1943. 
First jet-rotored helicopter, des. 
by Doblhoff, flies. 1944. First 
practical rocket-propelled aero- 
plane — the Messerschmitt 
"Me-163," flies. 1944 (June 
12). First "V-i" flying-bombs 
fall on England (10 were fired, 
out of which only 6 reached 
England, 4 crashing at launch 
and blowing-up). 1944. Ger- 
man long-range rocket-bombs 
("A-4") in action against Eng- 
land. 1945. First turbo-prop 
aeroplane — a Rolls-Royce 
Trent-engined Gloster Meteor, 
flies. 1947. Largest aeroplane 
ever built — the Hughes "Her- 
cules," flew, but was unsuc- 
cessful. (It was a flying-boat 
with a 320 ft. wing-span, 
powered by 8 X 3,000 h.p. 
engines and was to have carried 



AIR-CUSHION-VEHICLE 



8 



ALGEBRA 



700 persons.) 1948. First turbo- 
propeller air liner — Vickers 
Viscount, flies. 1948. First jet- 
propelled delta-wing — Gon- 
vair "XF-92A," flies. 1949. 
First D. H. "Comet" flies. 
1949. Leduc "010" ram-jet 
flies. 1950. First ram jet heli- 
copter — the Hillier "Hornet," 
flies. 1954. First wingless 
V.T.O.L. (vertical take-off and 
land) aircraft flies with Rolls- 
Royce engines. 1955. First 
convertiplane makes successful 
translation from vertical to 
horizontal flight (the McDon- 
nell XV-i). 1955. First flying- 
platform helicopter flies. 1955. 
First aeroplane with inflatable 
fabric wings (the M.L. "Util- 
ity") flies. 1956. Peter Twiss 
officially exceeded 1,000 m.p.h. 
in a Fairey Delta II research 
aeroplane. 1965 (May 1). Col. 
Robert L. Stevens and Lieut.- 
Col. Daniel Andre average 
2,062 m.p.h. in a U.S. Lock- 
heed "YF-12A" aeroplane, at 
Edwards Air Force Base, Cali- 
fornia. 1965 (later). John Mac- 
kay reached a speed of 3,614 
m.p.h. in an "X-15A" rocket- 
plane at Edwards Air Force 
Base. (See also under individual 
entries — e.g. Gyro-compass ; 
and under Balloon, Dirigible, 
Engine, Jet, etc.) 
Air-cushion-vehicle (A.G.V.) 
See Hovercraft. 

Air-gun Ctesibus, of Alexan- 
dria, applied elasticity of air to 
const, of "wind-guns" (c.150- 
120 b.c). 13th cent. Pea- 
shooters depicted on two illu- 
minated manuscripts, c. 1320. 
French manuscript shows figure 
aiming a blow-gun at a rabbit. 
1425. Blow-gun known as cer- 



bottana in Italy. (Gf. Arabic 
zabatana and Malayan sumpitan.) 
1495. Air-gun inv. Leonardo di 
Vinci. 1605. Martin (Martin 
Bourgoise), of Lisieux, France, 
inv. air-gun. 1607. Bartolomeo 
Crescentio (It) des. air-gun 
equipped with a powerful 
spring. 1644. Martin Mersenne 
(1586- 1 648) (Fr) mentions air- 
gun. 1 648. John Wilkins ( 1 6 1 4- 
72) mentions "wind-gun." 
1656. Air-gun inv. Guter, of 
Nuremburg. 

ALBERTUS Magnus (Al- 
brecht of Cologne) (1206- 
80) Pioneer of modern biology, 
embriology and botany. 
Alchemy a.d. 410. First book 
on by Zosimus of Panopolis, 
Greece. 

Alcohol 1 100. First redistilled 
at Salerno, Italy. 1320. First 
large-scale production at 
Modena, Italy. 12th cent. First 
obtained by Abucasis. 1830. 
Still inv. Aeneas Coffey for 
production of high purity alco- 
hol, for commercial purposes. 
See also Distillation and Still. 
Alcohol, Amyl 1849. Isol. 
by Prof. Edward Frankland. 
Alcoholometer Inv. Gay-Lus- 
sac (Fr) (1 778-1850). 
Aldehyde 1782. Disc. Carl 
Wilhelm Scheele (1 742-86) 
(Ger). 

Algebra c. a.d. 250. Diophan- 
tus of Alexandria said to have 
inv. and written first book on 
algebra. 9th cent. Algebra 
cultivated by Arabs. 1220. 
Leonardo Bonnacio, of Pisa 
developed Algabra in Italy. 
1494. Luca Paciolo (It) pub- 
lished first printed book in 
Europe — on Algebra. 1522-26. 
Algabraic signs intro. Chris- 



ALIZARIN 



ALUMINIUM 



tophe Rudolph and Michael 
Stifelius, of Nuremburg. 1590. 
Francis Vieta imp. algebraic 
signs, which then came into 
general use. 1637. Ren6 Des- 
cartes ( 1 596-1 650) (Fr) first 
applied algebra to geometry. 
Algebraic signs + and — 
first used by Johann Wid- 
mann (Ger). Michael Stifel 
(Ger) first used signs ^/, ty 
and ty for square, cube, and 
4th roots. 1634. Simon Stevin 
(Stevinius) (1 548-1 620), of 
Bruges, first used sign = as 
equals. 1 574-1 660 William 
Aughtred inv. signs X, for 
multiplication, +» for addi- 
tion, and ::, for proportional 
to. (Only three of his original 
symbols now in use.) Thomas 
Harriot (1 560-1 621) inv. signs 
> (greater than), and < (less 
than); which were used from 
1 63 1. 1603. Mantissa inv. by 
John Walhs (1616-1703). 
Alizarin (red dye) 1831. Disc. 
Robiquet and Colin. 1865. 
Disc, by Heinrich Caro. 1866. 
Obtained by Sir William 
Perkin ( 1 828-1 907) . 1 869. Inde- 
pendently obt. from anthracine 
by Liebermann and Graebe 
(Ger). 

Alkalimeter 18 16. Inv. Dr. 
Andrew Ure, of Glasgow. Type 
inv. Gay-Lussac (Fr) (1778- 
1850). 

Allotropy (chemical) 1841. 
Jons Jacob Berzelius (1779- 
1848) (Swed) first observed 
phenomena by converting char- 
coal into graphite. 1844. Jean- 
Baptiste-Joseph Foucault 
(1819-68) (Fr) and Hippolyte 
Fizeau (1819-96) (Fr) clarified 
the theory of allotropy. 1893. 
Henri Moisson (1852- 1907) 



(Fr) first prod, diamonds from 
carbon. As did Ruff in 191 7. 
Almanac 1150. Solomon 
Jarchus published manuscript 
almanac. 1457. Astronomer 
Purbach published first printed 
almanac, which continued 
yearly for 30 years. 1497. First 
almanac appeared in England, 
translated from the French. 
1 767. Dr. Maskelyne published 
the first Nautical Almanac in 
England. 1680. Francis Moore's 
first almanac published. ("Old 
Moore's Almanack" of later 
years, then known as "Vox 
Stellarum.") 1834. First "mod- 
ern" Nautical Almanac pub- 
lished by British Admiralty. 
Alpaca (textiles) 1836. Intro. 
England by Earl Derby, the 
first weaving made at Bradford, 
Yorkshire by Sir Titus Salt. 
1850. Alpaca first used for 
umbrellas by Sangster. 1852. 
Full-scale alpaca weaveries est. 
by Sir Titus Salt at Saltaire, 
near Shipley, Yorkshire. 
Alternator, Electric 1884. 
Inv. Nicolo Tesla (also Bradley 
and Haselwander). 
Alum c. 1300. Disc, at Rocca, 
Syria. 1470. Disc, in Tuscany. 
1757. Disc, in Ireland. 1790. 
Disc, in Isle of Anglesea. 1845. 
Peter Spence pat. method of 
manufacturing alum by treat- 
ing burnt shale and iron 
pyrites with sulphuric acid. 
Aluminium 1 754. Andreas 
Sigismund Margraff ( 1 709-82) 
(Ger) proved aluminium to be 
a distinct earth from lime. 
1825. Hans Christian Oersted 
(1777-1851) (Dan) first isol. 
aluminium as chloride. 
1827. Disc - F - Wohler (Ger). 
1833. Michael Faraday (1791- 



AMALGAM 



IO 



ANALYSIS 



1867) first prod, aluminium 
electrolytically. 1856. Prod, sim- 
plified by H. St. Claire- 
Deville (Fr). 1882. Aluminium 
electrolysed by Charles Martin 
Hall (1863-19 14) and Paul 
Louis Toussaint Herault (Fr) 
(1863-19 1 4), who produced it 
in an electric furnace from 
cryolite, in 1886. Sodium pro- 
cess of production inv. Hamil- 
ton Y. Castner (U.S.). 
Amalgam 77 b.c. Gold amal- 
gam desc. by Pliny. 27 B.C. 
Gold amalgam desc. by Marcus 
Vitruvius Pollio (c. 50-26 B.C.). 
Ambulance c. 1500. Litters 
used for carrying wounded 
soldiers. 1790. Saint Sauveur 
(Fr), inv. Hammock carriage. 
1800. Jean Dominique Larrey 
(Fr), of Beaudean, Pyrenees, 
and Pierre Francois Percy (Fr), 
inv. "Flying Ambulance" with 
springs. 

Americium (element) Disc. 
1952-53 by Glen T. Seaborg 
(U.S.) and A. G. Liorsa (U.S.). 
See also Elements Berkelium, 
Californium, Einsteinium, Fer- 
mium and Mendelevium. 
Ammeter (Ampmeter) 1820. 
Principle of ammeter inv. Hans 
Christian Oersted (1 777-1 851) 
(Dan). 1884, ampmeter intro- 
duced in electrical engineering. 
Ammonia (gas) 13 15. First 
noticed scientifically by Major- 
can philosopher Raymond 
Lully (Lull) (1232-13 1 5), who 
was stoned to death by towns- 
folk of Parma for his discovery. 
1677. Johann Kunckel (1630- 
I 7°3) (Ger) desc. aqueous 
solution of Ammonia. 1774. 
Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) 
isol. ammonia gas. 1787. 



M. van Marum (Hoi) and A. 
Paeto van Troostwijk (Hoi) 
succeeded in liquefying 
ammonia. 1855. Ammonia gas 
utilized as a refrigerant by 
Carr6 (Fr). Ammonia refriger- 
ation process improved by 
Reece (1869) and Linde (Fr) 
(1880). 1909. Ammonia first 
synthesized by Dr. Fritz Haber 
(Ger) ( 1 868-1 934), who first 
synthesized it from atmospher- 
ic nitrogen. 

Ammoniaphone Inv. 1883. 
Dr. Carter Moffatt. 
AMONTONS, Guillaume 
( 1 663-1 703) (Fr) 1700. Imp. 
Galileo's thermoscope. See 
Thermometer. 

AMPERE, Andre Marie 
( 1 775-1 836) (Fr) 1820. Disc. 
magnetic effect of electricity 
passing through a coil of wire. 
See Electro-magnet. See also 
J. S. C. Schweigger, Oersted, 
Nobili, Pouillet and William 
Thompson. 

Amputation (surgery) 1679. 
Flap method inv. Dr. Lowd- 
ham, of Exeter. 
Amylene (chemistry) 1844. 
First procured from potato 
spirit by Antoine-J6rome Balard 
(1802-76) (Fr), of Paris. 
Anaemia 1926. Use of liver in 
treatment of disc, by Minot 
and Whipple. 

Anagram Inv. by Lycrophon, 
280 B.C. 

Analysis 1830. J. B. A. Dulong 
(Fr) perfected incineration 
method and absorbing gases 
prod, to determine percentage 
of carbon, hydrogen, etc., in 
organic compounds. 1849-53. 
Sir Edward Frankland devised 
new analytical and synthetical 
principles. 



ANATOMY, PATHOLOGICAL II 



APPENDICITIS 



Anatomy, Pathological 

Created by Coiter (Fl. 1534). 
Anatomy, Comparative 

1675. Term intro. by Nehemiah 
Grew ( 1 641-17 1 2). 
Anchor 592 B.C. Supposedly 
inv. Anacharis the Scythian. 
569 b.c. Fluke, or second tooth 
added. (a.d.) 578. Anchors 
first forged in England, c. 1840. 
Porter inv. the feathering 
anchor, c. 1850. John Trotman 
imp. Porter's anchor. 
Anemometer 1667. Anemo- 
meter inv. Dr. Crone. Pendu- 
lum type inv. Robert Hooke 

{rttt-tW)- l 1b$' Pendulum 
type inv. Marquis Poleni (Fr). 
1 744. Pendulum type re-inven- 
ted by Roger Pickering of 
Dartford, Kent. 1775. Fluid- 
type anemometer inv. Dr. Lind. 
U-tube type inv. Pierre Daniel 
Huet (Fr). 1709. Another type 
inv. Wolfius. 1843-6. Dr. 
Robinson, of Armagh inv. 
rotating A. 1844. Pressure- 
plate anemometer inv. by Osier 
and Dr. Whewell and fitted 
to weathercock of Royal Ex- 
change, London, 1862. 
Aneroid See Barometer. 
ANGSTROM, Anders Jonas 
(1814-74} (Swed) 1868. 
Evol. the Angstrom unit. See 
Spectrum, also Angstrom Unit. 
Angstrom Unit 1868. Evolved 
by Anders Jonas Angstrom 
(1814-74) (Swed) to measure 
Fraunhofer's spectrum lines q.v. 
Aniline 1826. Disc. Unver- 
dorben (Ger) among products 
obt. from natural indigo, q.v. 
1 84 1. Aniline first prepared 
by Fritsche (Ger). 1850. Obt. 
from benzol by (Sir) William 
Henry Perkin ( 1 838- 1 907) 



while attempting to synthesize 
quinine {q.v.). 

Animalcuke Disc. Antoine 
van Leeuwenhock (Leeuwen- 
hoek) ( 1 632-1 723). (Pub. in his 
Arcana Naturae, 1696.) 
Anthracine 1832. Disc, in 
coal-tar by Dumas and Lau- 
rent. 1868. Obt. from Alizarine 
by Graebe and Liebermann. 
Anthrax bacillus 1849. Disc. 
Aloys Antoine Pollander. 1877. 
Bacillus life-cycle dem. by Robert 
Koch (Ger). See also Pyocyan- 
ase. 

Anthropology Branch of 
science founded c. 1805 by 
Johann Friedrich Blumenthal 
( 1 752-1 840) (Ger). 
Anticyclone Atmospheric 
high-pressure area. Name 
coined by Sir Francis Galton 
and introduced by him in his 
"Meteorographica," 1861. 
Antifibrin (drug) 1886. Syn- 
thesized. 

Antimony (metallic element) 
1640. First isol. and desc. 
German monk Basil Valentine 
(Johann Tholde). 
Antinomies (of aggregates) 
theory 1897. First prop. Burali- 
Fort (It). 

Antipodes, Idea ofc. 388 B.C. 
First conceived by Plato (429- 

347 # b-c)- 

Antipyrene (drug) 1883. Syn- 
thesized. 

Antiseptic 1865. First used by 
Joseph, Baron Lister (1827- 
1912). 

Antitoxin 1890. Word intro. by 
Emil von Behring ( 1 854-1 9 1 7) . 
Apollonicon (musical instru- 
ment) 181 7. Inv. Flight and 
Robson, of Westminster, Lon- 
don. See also Orchestrion. 
Appendicitis (surgical) First 



APPERT 



12 



ARMSTRONG 



established as a definite lesion 
and named by Reginal Heber 
Fitz (1843-1913) (U.S.), of 
Boston, Mass. 

APPERT, Francois (1750- 
1841) (Fr) 1795. Appl. steriliza- 
tion process to food by bottling 
and canning; heating and seal- 
ing. 

APPLEGARTH, Augustus 
(1788-1871) 1818. Pat. cylin- 
der printing machine. 
APPOLT, John George 
(1800-54) 1825. I™** chamber 
gas-producing retort. 
Aquatint Inv. by German 
artist Le Prince (b. 1723). 
ARAGO, Dominique Fran- 
cois ( 1 786-1853) (Fr) Dis. 
chromatic polarization of light. 
See Optics. 

Arc, Singing 1906. Phenome- 
non first obs. by William Dud- 
dell, F.R.S. (1872-). 
Arc, Electric 1802. Disc, by 
Sir Humphry Davy. 
Arc, Undamped 1903. Inv. by 
Valdemar Poulsen (Dan) for 
transmitting speech by radio 
and dev. by H. P. Dwyer (U.S.) 
to transmit on 500 metres. 
Arch 1550. Strength of arch 
measured by Andrea Palladio 
(It) (1518-80). Palladio's 
measurements reduced to cor- 
rect formulae by Derand and 
La Hire (Fr), 1695. See also 
Bridge. 

Archery Ascribed to Apollo 
(leg.), who communicated 
weapons to Cretans. Pre-440. 
Intro. England. (First notice, 
Genesis xxi, 20.) 
ARCHIMEDES of Syracuse 
(c. 287-212 b.c.) Made first 
attempt to measure specific 
gravity, q.v. Inv. screw. (See 
also Burning-mirror.) 



ARGAND, Aime (1755-1803) 
(Swit) b. Geneva. 1808. Inv. 
Gas-burning lamp bearing his 
name. 

Argand Lamp 1789. Iron- 
chimney Argand lamp inv. 
Aim6 Argand (1 755-1 803) 
(Swit). Glass chimney Argand 
lamp inv. Lange. 1808. Argand 
burner used by Samuel Clegg 
as gas-burner. See also Lamps, 
Gas-burners. 

Argon (element) 1894. Disc. 
Prof. William Ramsay. 
ARISTOTLE 384-322 b.c. 
Philosopher and logician. 
Arithmetic 600 b.c. said to 
have been introduced into 
Greece from Egypt by Thales 
the Miletian (640-550 B.C.). 
Oldest treaties on arithmetic 
by Euclid (Gr) (Fl. c. 400 b.c.) 
in his 7th, 8th and 9th books of 
Elements. 130. Sexagesimal sys- 
tem of Ptolemy in use. 6th cent. 
Decimal notation (9 digits and 
zero) used in India. 900. Intro. 
Arabia. 980. Intro. Europe. 
991. Intro. France by Gebert. 
1050. Intro. Spain. 1253. Intro. 
England. 1863. Tonal system 
with 1 6 as basis Pub. by Nystrom. 
See also Decimal system. 
ARKWRIGHT, Sir Richard 
(1732-92) 1769. Accredited 
with inv. the roller-spinning 
water-loom. (Machine actually 
inv. Thomas Highs, and process 
by Lewis Paul.) 

Armillary Spheres c. 255 b.c. 
Inv. Eratosthenes (276-196 b.c.) 
(Gr). 1562. Automatic armil- 
lary sphere desc. and illus. by 
J. Taisner (Ger). 
ARMSTRONG, Sir William 
G. (later Lord Armstrong) 
(1810-1900) Inv. Hydraulic 



ARQUEBUS 13 

accumulator, "Armstrong- 
Gun," etc. 

Arquebus Mentioned as early 
as 1476. 1485. Yeomanry armed 
with the arquebus. See also 
Arms. 

ARRHENIUS, Svante Aug- 
ust (1859-192 7) (Swed) 1886. 
Prop, theory of Electrolytic 
Dissociation. 

Arsenic (element) c. 800, 
Geber (Giaber, or Yeber) 
(Arab) (9th cent.) Disc. Arse- 
nic oxide and obtained it from 
burning the mineral realgar 
(arsenic sulphide). 1733. Ken- 
nig Brandt (1 674-1 768) (Ger) 
first examined metallic arsenic 
with precision. 1775. Carl 
Wilhelm Scheele (1742-86) 
(Swed) disc. Arsenic acid. 
ARSONVAL, Jacques 
Arsene d' (1857-1940) (Fr) 
Inv. Mirror Galvanometer. 
Artesian Well See Well. 
Asbestos c. 1 70. Mentioned by 
Greek religious antiquary Pa- 
usanius, as "Carpasian Linen. 
c. 1500. Asbestos spun at 
Venice, 1684. First mentioned 
in modern times at meeting of 
Royal Society, London. Also 
mentioned by Herodotos and 
Pliny. 

Ascorbic Acid 1928. Isolated 
by Gyorgi Szent from oranges, 
lemons and cabbages. King 
and Waugh later obtained it 
in crystal form. 

ASELLI, Gasparo (It) (1581- 
1626) 1627. Disc, the lacteal 
ducts. 

Asphalt 1595. Sir Walter 
Raleigh visited asphalt lake, 
Trinidad. 1712. Asphalt disc. 
Greek Doctor at Neuchatel, 
Switzerland. 1800. After bitu- 
men, used for pavements in 



ATOM 

France. 1849. First road laid 
with Asphalt at Val de 
Granersby by Swiss engineer 
Merian. 

Aspirator (surgery) Inv. 
Armand Trosseau, Paris ( 1 80 1 - 
67). Another type by Pierre 
Carl fidouard Potain (1825- 
1901) (Fr). Imp. by Georges 
Dieulafoy (1839-1911) (Fr) . 
Astatine (element) 1940. Disc. 
K. R. Mackenzie, E. Segr6 and 
D. R. Corson, in U.S. 
Astigmatism 1827. Recog- 
nized by Sir George Airy 
(1831-81), who corrected the 
fault in his own eyes. 
ASTON, F. W. (1877-1941) 
1 93 1. Announced detection of 
U238 in the spectrograph of 
uranium hexafluoride. 
Astrolabe Inv. and used by 
Hipparchus (c. 160-125 B.C.). 
Used by Ptolemy, Claudius 
(2nd cent. B.C.). 15 13. Imp. by 
Fabricius. 

Atmolysis (gas separation) 
1863. Method disc. Prof. T. 
Graham, F.R.S. 
Atmosphere, Composition 
of 1777. Proved to be com- 
posed of oxygen and Nitrogen 
by Karl Wilhelm Scheele 
(Swed) (1735-86). 1 80 1. Pro- 
portions of constituent gases 
(oxygen and nitrogen only) 
found by Joseph-Louis Gay- 
Lussac (Fr) (1 778-1850) and 
Baron Alexander von Hum- 
boldt (Ger) ( 1 769-1 859). 
Atolls 1837. Theory of atolls 
and coral reefs prop, by Charles 
Darwin (1809-82). 1950. Dar- 
win's theory confirmed by 
4,222 ft. borehole on Eniwetok 
Atoll, Pacific Ocean. 
Atom 1913. Niels Bohr (Dan) 
(b. 1885) solved problem of 



ATOMIC THEORY 



14 



AZOIMIDE 



structure of hydrogen atom 
and its spectrum, thus recon- 
ciling Rutherford's nucleus 
theory with the quantum 
theory of energy. 1919. Sir 
Ernest Rutherford (later Lord 
Rutherford) (1871-1937) 
(N.Z.) first artificially disinte- 
grated an element and trans- 
muted many lighter elements. 
Atomic theory 1777. Karl 
Friedrich Wenzel (Ger) (1740- 
93) undertook early work on 
theory. 1808. Theory prop, by 
John Dalton (1 776-1844). {See 
also his Law of multiple pro- 
portions.) 181 1. Amadeo Avo- 
gadro prop. Hypothesis on 
atoms and molecules. 
Atomic Weights 1858. Con- 
sistent system of Atomic 
Weights pioneered by S. Canni- 
zarro (It). 

Atomic Heating Plant 
("B.E.P.O.") 1951. First plant 
opened at Harwell, England. 
Atomic Nuclei 1932. First fis- 
sioned byjohn Cockroft( 1 897-) . 
Attraction (physics) 1520. 
First desc. by Nicholaus Coper- 
nicus (Ger) (i473~ I 543)- 
Theory expanded by Johann 
Kepler (Ger) (1 571-1630). 
1687. Sir Isaac Newton (1642- 
1727) prop, his theory of attrac- 
tion. 

Auction See Valve, Thermionic. 
Auger (tool) 600 b.g. In use in 
Ancient Egypt. 

Aureomycin (drug) 1947. 
Disc. 

Auroras 1735. Relation to 
earth's magnetic field disc. John 
Hadley {d. 1 744) . Desc. Aristotle 
("De Meteoris," lib. 1, c. 4, 5). 



Autocycle Wheels &£ Wheels, 
Autocycle. 

Autogiro 1907. Man first lifted 
by rotating-wing aircraft. Inv. 
Juan de la Cierva (Sp), 1922. 
1923, Jan. 9 First flight (200 
yards). 1923, Jan. 21 Flight of 
2$ miles in 3^ minutes. {See also 
Aircraft.) 

Automata 400 B.C. Flying 
dove made by Archytas of 
Tarentum. 1264. Friar Bacon 
said to have made bronze head 
that spoke. 1649. Jean Pierre 
Camus (Fr) (1 582-1 652) made 
model coach and horses with 
footmen, pages and passenger 
for Louis XIV — when a child. 
1738. Jacques de Vaucanson 
(Fr) (1709-82) made artificial 
duck that ate, drank and 
quacked; also an automatic 
flute-player. 

Automatic Transmission 
See Hydraulic coupling and 
Torque converter. 
Autotypography (metal plate 
from drawings) 1863. Process 
made known by Wallis. 
AVELING, Thomas (pioneer 
traction-engine builder) 1858. 
Built his first engine. See Trac- 
tion-engine. 

AVOGADRO, Count 
Amadeo (It) (1 776-1856) 
181 1. Prop, hypothesis on atoms 
and molecules. 

Axe (tool) 1240 b.g. Inv. {Leg.) 
by Daedalus of Athens. 
Axle, Stub 1828. Inv. by 
Gough. 

Azoimide (hydrazoic acid) 
1890. Disc, by Curtius. 1908. 
Commercial production pro- 
cess inv. by Raschig. 



BABBAGE 



*5 



BALLOON 



B 



BABBAGE, Charles (1791- 
1871) 1812. Des. mechanical 
computing "engine." 
BABBITT, Isaac (1799- 1862) 
1839. Inv. anti-friction alloy 
now bearing his name. 
BABCOGK, G. H. (1832-93) 
1867. With Wilcox inv. tubular 
steam boiler. 

Backgammon 1224 B.C. Inv. 
Palamedes (Gr. Myth.). Also 
said to have been inv. in Wales 
before its conquest. 
Bacteria 1864. First disc. Louis 
Pasteur (Fr) (1822-95). {See 
also Virus.) 

BiEKELAND, Leo Hen- 
drik (Bel) (1 863-1 944) 1909. 
Inv. earliest plastic — Bakelite. 
Baffin Bay 161 6. Disc. 
William Baffin {c. 1584-1622). 
Bagpipes a.d. 51. Greek 
sculpture in Rome depicts bag- 
pipe player dressed as High- 
lander of today. Nero said to 
have played on bagpipes. 
BAINBRIDGE, William 
1803. Inv. the flageolet. 
Baize 1660. First manufac- 
tured in England at Colchester. 
Bakelite (plastic) 1909. Inv. 
Leo Henrik Baekeland (Bel) 
(1863-1944). 

Balance 5000-4000 b.c. Scales 
with 3$ in. beam of red lime- 
stone and set of weights for 
weighing gold-dust found in 
tomb at Naqada, Egypt. 3000 
B.C. Balances widely used in 
trade. 1350 b.c. Balances to 



weigh a shekel (7-14 grammes 
to an accuracy of one per cent 
in use. a.d. 80. Steelyard 
balance in use in Rome. 1694. 
First illus. of spring balance. 
1772 John Sebastian Clais 
(English pat. No. 10 14). Inv. 
"Index Balance" with single 
counterpoise and index-dial 
instead of weights, c. 1780 
Torsion balance inv. Augustin 
Coulomb (Fr) (1 736-1 806). 
BALARD, Antoine Jerome 
(Fr) (1802-76) 1826. Disc. 
element bromine. 
Ballistae (arms) 100 b.c. Men- 
tioned 2 Chronicles xxvi, 15. 
Ballistocardiagraph (medi- 
cal) Inv. by Henderson. 
Ball-joint (pipe) 1880. Inv. 
E. P. Monroe (U.S.). 
Balloon 1670. First idea 
for balloon pub. by Jesuit 
Francesco de Lana. 1 709. Jesuit 
Father Laurencp de Gusmao 
( 1 686-1 724) (Port) b. Santos, 
Brazil; d. Toledo, Spain. Inv. 
hot-air balloon. 1783, June 5. 
Montgolfier brothers (q.v.) 
sailed unmanned hot-air bal- 
loon at Annonay, nr. Lyons, 
France. Aug. 27. Jacques Alex- 
andre Charles (Fr) (1746- 
1823) made first hydrogen bal- 
loon, which ascended from the 
Champ de Mars, Paris, un- 
manned. Oct. 21. Pilatre de 
Rozier (Fr) and Marquise 
d'Arlandes (Fr) first men to 
ascend in free flight. Attained 



BALLOT l6 

height of 3,000 ft. and travelled 
from La Muette, Paris to 
Gonesse, 45 miles. Dec. 1. 
J. A. Charles and the brothers 
Robert (Fr) ascended from 
Tuileries Palace grounds to 
a height of 2 miles. Dec. 28. 
First man to ascend in New 
World: James Wilcox (U.S.). 
1784, Jan. 19. 5,000,000 cu. 
ft. hot-air balloon rose to 
3,000 ft. with 7 passengers, 
including Joseph Montgolfier 
and Pitatre de Rozier. Mar. 
Jean Pierre Blanchard (Fr) 
rose to 9,000 ft. at Paris in a 
"steerable " balloon. April. 
Mm. Morveau and Bertrand 
rose 13,000 ft., and travelled 
18 miles, in 25 minutes at 
Dijon, France. July. First bal- 
looning accident (not fatal), 
over Paris. Sept. First balloon 
voyage over Britain by Vincent 
Lunardi (Neapolitan) from 
London to Standon, Hertford- 
shire. 1785, Jan. 7. Blanchard 
(Fr) and Dr. Jeffries (U.S.) 
made the first balloon crossing 
of the English Channel from 
Dover to Calais. June 15. 
Pitatre de Rozier and Romaine 
(Fr) try to cross Channel from 
Boulogne. Rozier killed and 
Romain survived 10 minutes 
(first flying fatalities). 1803. 
First night flight: Count Zam- 
beccari, Dr. Grassati and Pas- 
cal Andreoli (It) from Bologna 
to Istrian Coast. 1836. Messrs. 
Green, Holland and Monck 
Mason fly 500 miles in 18 hours 
(London-Weilburg, Ger- 
many). 1862. James Glaisher 
reached height of 7 miles. 
1 870-1. Balloons used by 
French at Siege of Paris, 66 
journeys being made carrying 



BARNETT 

66 aeronauts and 102 passen- 
gers; also 9 tons of mail and 
telegrams. 1906, Feb. 20. Mrs. 
Griffith-Brewer the first woman 
to cross English Channel by 
air — in a balloon. (See also 
Aircraft) 

BALLOT, Christopher Hen- 
dryk Buys (Hoi) (1817-90) 
Prop. Law bearing his name 

(*•'■). 

Balmer's Series (spectro- 
scopy) 1885. Formula discover- 
ed for lines of wave-length series 
by Swiss schoolmaster Johann 
Jacob Balmer. See also Rydberg 
(Swed). 

Bank, Savings 1798. First 
prop. Rev. Josiah Smith, of 
Wendover, Buckinghamshire. 
18 10. Penny savings bank est. at 
Paisley (Penny Bank Friendly 
Society) by Rev. Henry Dun- 
can. 181 7. 70 savings banks in 
England and Scotland; 4 in 
Wales and 4 in Ireland. 
Barbed Wire 1875. First inv. 
and used for cattle fencing. 
BARBER, John 1791. Pat. 
power unit working on gas- 
turbine principle. (See Gas 
turbine.) 

Barge, "Dracone" 1956. Inv. 
Prof. W. R. Hawthorne, of 
Cambridge. (See also Boat, 
Ship, etc.) 

Barium (element) 1803. Disc. 
by Sir Humphry Davy. 1803. 
Karl Wilhelm Scheele (Swed) 
(1742-86). 

BARKER, Dr. Robert c. 1 745. 
Inv. water turbine bearing his 
name. 

Barker's Mill c. 1745. Des. 
Dr. Robert Barker. Desaguliers 
(Fr) later made a model of this 
turbine. 
BARNETT, William (U.S.) 



BAROMETER 17 

1838. Pat. two-pump gas-tur- 
bine. 

Barometer 1643. Inv. Evan- 
gelista TorricelU (It) (1606- 
47). 1648. Barometer first used 
as altimeter by Blaise Pascal 
during experiments on Puy de 
Dome. 1844. Aneroid barometer 
inv. Lucien Vidie (Fr) (1805- 
66) , but also ascribed to A. A. S. 
Conte in Fr. 1798. 1668. Wheel 
barometer inv. Dr. Robert 
Hooke ( 1 635-1 703). 1657. 
Water barometer inv. Otto 
Guericke, of Magdeburg. It 
was 33 ft. long and was re-inv. 
by Prof. Daniell in 1830. 1695. 
Pendant barometer inv. 1657 
marine pendant barometer inv. 
1805. Air pressure phenomenon 
disc, by Pascal placed on 
qualitative basis by Pierre 
Simon Laplace (Fr). 1882. 
Glycerine barometer inv. by 
geologist Jordan, of London. 
Barrel-organ See Pianoforte. 
BARSANTI, E. (It) 1857. Inv. 
gas engine (q.v.). 
BARTON, John (n.d.) Inv. 
Metallic Piston packing, (q.v.) 
Bassoon (musical instrument) 
Inv. Alfranio of Ferrara 1530. 
Bathing Machine Inv. c. 1 790. 
First used at Margate, Kent. 
Baton, Conductor's 1820. 
Intro. England by Ludwig 
Spohr (Ger) (1784-1859). 
Battering-ram 441 b.c. Used 
by Pericles (A.G.). 330 b.c. 
Diades, Greek engineer inv. 
roller-mounted battering-ram. 
Battery, Electric 1800. "Vol- 
taic Pile" inv. Alessandro Volta 
(It) (1745-1827). 1802. "Dry 
Pile" inv. Georg Bernhard 
Behrens (1775-1813); re-disc. 
Guiseppe Zamboni (It) (1776- 
1846). 1836. Wet battery inv. 



BAYONET 

John Frederic Daniell (1790- 
1845) ( l v °lt P er cell). 1839. 
Battery inv. Sir Robert William 
Grove (181 1-96) (1.78 volts 
per cell). 1841. Wet battery inv. 
Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (Ger) 
(181 1-99). 1854. Potassium bi- 
chromate battery inv. Grenet 
(Fr) also improved by Poggen- 
dorf (Ger). 1867. Wet battery 
inv. G. Leclanch6 (Fr) (1839- 
82). 1873. Zinc-mercury bat- 
tery inv. Latimer Clark (the 
"standard cell"). 1880. Dr. 
De la Rue inv. silver chloride 
and zinc battery. 1881. Warren 
de la Rue const, silver-cell 
battery giving 10,000 volts. (A 
thermo-electric battery inv. by 
A. G. Becquerel.) 1881. Bich- 
romate cell imp. by Trouv6 
(Fr). i860 Benoist, of Paris, 
battery pat. in England by 
Mennons. 1901. Prof. Trow- 
bridge constr. battery giving 
40,000 volts. See Primary Cells. 
Battery, Floating (Naval 
armament) 1780. Inv. Claude 
fileonore le Michaud, Cheva- 
lier d' Argon (Fr) ( 1 733-1800). 
Ten were made and used to 
attack Gibraltar in 1782. 
BATTIN, Joseph (U.S.) 1856. 
Pat. vertical boilered, oscil- 
lating cylindered steam road 
carriage. 

BAUER, Georg See Agricola, 
Georgius. 

BAYER, Adolf von (Ger) 
187 1 to 1887. Disc, phtalein 
dyes. 

Bayonet (arms) 1641. Origin- 
ated in Bayonne. (Bayonet had 
to be removed from musket 
before firing.) 1691. Socket 
bayonet inv. Br. Gen. Mackay 
1703. Bayonet adopted for all 
French infantry. 1707. Socket 



BEAMS, WROUGHT-IRON 



18 



BEARINGS, ROLLER 



bayonet inv. De la Chaumette 

(Fr). 

Beams, Wrought-iron 5th 

cent. B.C. Used as cantilevers 
to support heavy strucures: 
e.g. Pantheon, Athens. Beams 
5 in. X 12 in. X 15 ft. used to 
cap stone pillars of temple at 
Agrigento. 1846. Intro, as result 
of carpenters' strike in France. 
Beams, Tensile Testing of 
181 5. Dulin (Fr) tested wooden 
beams. 1820. Duleau (Fr) tested 
built-up iron beams. 1826. 
Navier (Fr) tests breaking load 
of beams. 1833. Lam6 and 
Clapeyron (Fr) formulated 
equations to determine stresses 
in continuous beams. 1847. 
Eaton Hodgkinson experi- 
mented with cast-iron beams 
and chose I-beam as the 
strongest. Clapeyron published 
his 3-moment equation. (See 
also Tensile testing machines.) 
Bearing, Antifriction 1839. 
Inv. I. Babbitt (1 799-1 862). 
1 710. De Mondran (Fr) des. 
carriage with anti-friction bear- 
ings. 

Bearing, Ball a.d. 12-41. 
Ball bearing thrust race found 
on Roman galley retrieved 
from Lake Nemi in 1928. 
(Bronze balls between wooden 
discs.) 1772. Ball bearing desc. 
by G. Varlo. 1 780. Ball bearing 
thrust race with 2f in. cast-iron 
balls fitted to post windmill at 
Sprouston, Norfolk. (Race now 
in Bridewell Museum, Nor- 
wich.) 1794. First pat. for ball 
bearing Phillip Vaughan to 
carry radial load. 1849. Edward 
Bancroft (U.S.) inv. self-align- 
ing ball bearing. 1862. A. L. 
Thirion intro. ball bearing to 
bicycle. 1868. Ball bearing 



(first) fitted to bicycles by 
Gowper. 1878. Ball bearing 
fitted to bicycles by Daniel 
Rudge. 1 90 1. Ball-thrust bear- 
ing inv. E. G. Hoffman. 
Bearing, Dry 1954. Plastic 
(Polytetrafluorethylene or 
P.T.F.E.) bearings announced 
as having a dry friction co-effi- 
cient less than that of a 
normally lubricated bearing. 
(280 G. temperature per- 
missible.) 

Bearing, Roller 484-424 b.c. 
Herodotus mentions use of 
rollers for land transport of 
ships, etc. 330 B.C. Engineer 
Diades (A.G.) inv. (?) roller- 
mounted battering-ram: 1st 
cent. b.c. Wooden roller bear- 
ings found on hubs of Dejbjerg 
wagon wheels, c. 1470. Leo- 
nardo da Vinci (1452-15 19) 
mentions rollers as friction 
reducers. 1550. Gcorg Agricola 
(Ger) ( 1 494-1 555) and Augus- 
tin Ramelli (It) (1531-90) 
refer to and illus . machines with 
roller bearings in their books, c. 
1 715. Henry Sully made ship's 
chronometer with anti-friction 
roller bearings. (Usually re- 
ferred to as inv. of roller bear- 
ings.) 1734. British Pat. No. 
543: Jacob Rowe — friction 
wheels with axles bearing on 
other wheels. 1 750. Garnett inv. 
roller bearing. 1 787. L. Garnett, 
of Gloucester took out first 
pat. for a roller bearing. 1787. 
George Watkin (Pat. No. 1602) 
inv. roller bearings with roller 
cage. Also included use of 
cylinders and cones as rollers. 
1800. Thrust roller bearing inv. 
with coned rollers. 1898. Taper- 
ed roller bearing inv. H. Timken 
and R. Heinzelmann. 



BEARING, SELF-ALIGNING 



*9 



BENZENE HEXAGHLORIDE 



Bearing, Self-aligning 1842. 
J. G. Bodmer (Swit) (1786- 
1854) inv. self-aligning bearing. 
1849. Edward Bancroft (U.S.) 
inv. ball self-aligning bearing. 
Bearing, Self-lubricating 
1 750. Used by J. H. Harrison 
in his maritime chronometers. 
BEAU DE ROCHAS, Al- 
phonse (Fr) (1815-91) 1862. 
Prop, four-stroke compression 
cycle for internal combustion 
engines. 

BEGHER, Johann Joachim 
(Ger) (1635-82) 1669. Prop. 
"terra pinguis" (oily earth) 
theory for the combustability 
of chemical compounds. 
BEEKMANN, Isaac (Hoi) 
( 1 588-1 637). Deduced dynam- 
ically the law of falling bodies 
13 years before Galileo. (His 
journal lost until beginning of 
20th cent.) 

BECQUEREL, Antoine 
Cesar (Fr) (1 788-1878) Inv. 
thermoelectric battery; and in 
1850 an electric pyrometer. 
BECQUEREL, Antoine 
Henri (Fr) (1852-1908) 1898. 
Disc, radio-activity. 
Bed c. 1587-1375 b.c. (18th 
Dynasty) Bed with head end 
higher than foot end used in 
Ancient Egypt. 1851. One of 
the earliest metal beds exhi- 
bited at the Great Exhibition 
1851. 

Beef, Extract of 1847. Process 
inv. Baron Justus Frieherr von 
Liebig (Ger) (1803-73). 
Bees 1670. Sex of disc. Swam- 
merdam (Hoi). 1760. Bees intro. 
America. 

"Beetleware" (urea formal- 
dehyde) See Plastics. 
BELISARIUS, General 



(A.R.) (c. 505-65) Inv. floating 

mill. 

BELL, Alexander Graham 

(1847-1922) 1876. Inv. speak- 
ing telephone. (Elisha Grey 
(U.S.) applied for pat. the 
same day.) 

BELL, Henry (1 767-1830) 
1 81 2. Built steamship Comet, 
which plied the River Clyde 
from Glasgow to Greenock. 
BELLIS, George Edward 
(1838- 1 909) 1889. Inv. system 
of forced lubrication for high- 
speed steam engines. 
BELON,Pierre (Fr) (151 7-64) 
Naturalist who first recognized 
cetaceans as mammals. 
Bellows c. 2300 b.c. Suggested 
at Tuyer smelting furnaces 
found at Ur of the Chaldees. 
c. 2000 b.c. Hittite forges used 
bellows. 4th cent. b.c. Double- 
acting piston bellows for con- 
tinuous blast used in China. 
c. 569 b.c. Bellows inv. (Leg.) 
Anacharis of Scythia. a.d. 4th 
cent. House-bellows desc. by 
Decimus Magnus Ausonius 
(A.R.) (310-95). 1 2th cent. 
Forge bellows with wooden 
top and bottom boards and 
leather flap valves inv. 1669. 
Brothers Martin and Nicholas 
Schelhorn, of Coburg, inv. 
wooden bellows. 1550. Made 
at Nuremburg for smelting and 
organ-blowing. 1621. Inv. 
ascribed by Beckrnann to Lewis 
Pfannenschmidt, of Ostfeld, 
near Goslar, Germany. 
BENZ, Carl (Ger) (1844- 
1929) 1884. Inv. a gas-engine 
and an internal combustion 
engine. 

Benzene 1825. Disc. Michael 
Faraday. 
Benzene hexachloride 1825. 



BENZOLE 



20 



BIRKELAND 



First prepared by Michael 
Faraday. 

Benzole 1 825. Disc, by Michael 
Faraday in oils. 1849. Disc, by 
G. B. Mansfield in coal-tar. 
B.E.P.O. See Heating plant, 
Atomic. 

BERGMANN, Torbern 
(1735-64) 1778. With G. W. 
Scheele disc, element molyb- 
denum. 

Beri-beri 1885. Japanese 
medical officer Takaki disc. 
disease to be of dietary origin. 
Berkelium (element) 1949. 
Disc, by Glen T. Seaborg 
(U.S.) in conjunction with 
A. G. Liorso (U.S.). 
BERLINER, Emil (1851- 
1929) 1887. Inv. gramophone 
(disc) sound- reproducing 
machine. 

BERNARD, Claude (Fr) 
(1813-78) 1848. Disc, glycogen 
(animal starch) . Also suggested 
use of hypodermic syringe. 
BERNOULLI, Daniel (Fr) 
(1700-82) (son of Jean Ber- 
noulli) 1745. Prop, the principle 
of areas or principle of the 
moment of momentum. 
BERNOULLI, Jacques (Fr) 
(1654- 1 705) (brother of Jean) 
Solved problem of isoperi- 
meters. (See Calculus of varia- 
tions.) 

BERNOULLI, Jean (Fr) 
(1667-1748) (brother of 
Jacques) 17 15. Elucidated the 
principle of virtual velocities or 
work. Disc, exponential calcu- 
lus. 

BERTHELOT, Pierre 
Eugene Marcelin (Fr) (1827- 
1907) c. 1870. Prod, acetylene 
from carbon and hydrogen at 
temperature of electric arc. 
BERTHOLLET, Claude- 



Louis (Fr) ( 1 748-1882) Disc. 
hypochlorites and chlorites. 
Beryllium (Glucinum) (ele- 
ment) 1798. Disc. Vauquelin. 
1828. First obt. as a metal by 
Friederich Wohler (Ger) ( 1 800 
-82). 

BERZELIUS, Jons Jakob 
(Swed) (1799- 1 848) Disc, ele- 
ments selenium, thorium, sili- 
con and zirconium. 
BESSEMER, Sir Henry 
(1813-98) i860. Inv. steel- 
making process later imp. in 
the 1 8 70s by Sidney Gilchrist 
Thomas. 

BESSON, Jacques (Fr) (c. 
1550) Author of Theatre of 
Instruments, pub. 1582. 
BICKFORD, William of 
Tuckingmill, near Camborne, 
Cornwall. 1831. Inv. miners' 
safety fuse. 

Billiards 1571. Inv. artist 
Henrique Devigne (Fr). 1578. 
Tables kept by Lombards in 
Holland. 1827. Slate bed intro. 
into England. 

Binominal Root 1550. Term 
first used by Robert Ricorde. 
Binominal Theorem 1676. 
First mentioned as his inv. by 
Sir Isaac Newton in a letter 
to Leibnitz. 1770. Theorem 
proved by Leonhard Euler 
(Swit) (1707-83). 
Binominal Nomenclature 
(natural history) Ascribed to 
Linnaeus. Idea proposed by 
Bauhin (Swit). Joachim Jung, 
of Lubecl ( 1 5 1 7- 1 65 7) named 
plants with two names — ■ 
noun and adjective. 
Birds 875. Anatomy of birds 
first desc. by Thebit Ben Corrah 
(Arab). 

BIRKELAND, Kristian ( 1 867 
-191 7) 1903. With Samuel Eyde 



BISMUTH 



21 



BLOOD, PRESSURE OF 



( 1 866-1 940) inv. nitrogen fixa- 
tion process. 

Bismuth (element) 1546. First 
desc. by Georg Bauer (Georgius 
Agricola) (Ger) (i494~i555)> 
also by Johann Tholde (Basil 
Valentine) . 

BLACK, Joseph (1728-99) 
1755. Showed difference be- 
tween caustic and mild alkalis, 
and many other discs, in physics. 
BLACKBURN, A. B. 1877. 
Des. first liquid fuel steam road 
vehicle in great Britain — a 
dog-cart. 

Blagden's Law (relating to 
freezing of liquids) 1 788. First 
obs. by Charles Blagden. 1861. 
F. Riidorff announced law as 
new disc. 1871. De Coppet (Fr) 
rt-disc. Blagden's work. 1882. 
Francois Marie Raoult (Fr) 
(1830-1901) extended re- 
searches on Blagden's law. 
Blankets 1337. First made by 
Blanket Bros., of Bristol. 
Blast Furnace 1621. First 
coal-fired iron-smelting furnace 
claimed by Dud Dudley (1599- 
1684). 1753. First coke-fired 
furnace erected at Coalbrook- 
dale by Abraham Darby Jnr. 
1 758. First blast furnace erected 
by John Wilkinson (1728- 
1808) at Bradley, Bilston. i860. 
Tower-type blast furnace inv. 
Edward Cowper. (See also 
Blowers, air and gas.) 
Blast, Hot (smelting) 1821. 
First tried at Clyde Ironworks, 
by Neilson. 1845. J- p - Budd 
pat. hot blast from furnace 
waste gases, i860. Cowper 
intro. hot blast at Middles- 
brough. 

Bleaching 1500. Blueing for 
bleaching intro. G.B. from Hol- 
land. 1756. Dilute sulphuric 
3— IAD 



acid used for bleaching by 
Hulme. 1 785. Claude-Louis 
Berthollet (Fr) ( 1 748-1 822) 
intro. chemical bleaching with 
"Eau de Javal." 1789. Berthol- 
let inv. chlorine and alkali 
bleaching liquid. 1 799. Charles 
Tennant, of Glasgow (1768- 
1838) heard from James Watt 
of the Berthollet process and 
imp. it by inv. bleaching powder. 
Blind, Printing Systems for 
the 1784. First system inv. 
Haiiy, of Paris. 1832. Sir 
Charles Lowther printed by 
Haiiy 's method. 1834. Gall's 
system inv. 1843. Braille (Fr) 
inv. system. 1876. Dr. Thurs- 
field, of Shrewsbury inv. type- 
writer for use of blind. (See 
Typewriters.) Other systems: 
Lucas's, Frere's and Moon's. 
Blocks, Printing a.d. 868. 
Earliest Chinese books appear 
with blocks. 

Blood 1854. Welcker disc. 
method of finding total amount 
in body. 1889. Constitution of 
at high altitudes disc, by Viault 
in the Peruvian Andes. 191 1. 
Existence of blood groups 
proved by Landsteiner, more 
groups being later found by 
Dungern and Herzfeld. 1940. 
Rhesus factor disc, by Weiner. 
Blood, Circulation of 1553. 
M. Servitus (Sp) published 
clear account of pulmonary 
circulation of blood. Reputed 
as disc, by Honore Fabri (1607- 
88). 1615. Disc. William 
Harvey (1 578-1 657) but not 
announced until 1628. 
Blood, Pressure of Deter- 
mined by Spallanzani (It) 
(1729-99). (See also Sphygmo- 
manometer.) 1905. Korotov 



BLOOD-PUMP, MERCURIAL 



22 



BOILER, STEAM 



(Rus) inv. ausculatory method 
of checking. 

Blood-pump, Mercurial Inv. 
by Karl Ludvig (Ger) (1816- 
95) and perfected by E. F. W. 
Pfliiger (Ger) (1829-19 10). 
Blowers (Air and Gas) 2nd 
cent. B.C. Water-powered 
blowers in use in China, c. 
1500. Italian "trompe" super- 
ceded bellows (q.v.) for iron 
production. (Blast produced 
by suction of water running 
down a chute.) 1866. Rotary 
blowers inv. J. D. Rootes 
(U.S.) and produced at Con- 
nersville, U.S. by P. H. and 
F. M. Rootes. See also Super- 
charger, c. 1 760. John Smeaton 
made the first blower for 
Carron Ironworks. 
Blowpipe, Hand 1750. Intro. 
by Axel Frederick Cronstedt 
(Swed) (1722-65) for isolation 
of nickel from its ores. See 
Addendum. 

BLUMENTHAL, Gellier 
1 808. Inv. and constituted first 
rectifying column for separa- 
ting alcohol from wine. See 
Distillation. 

Boat-lowering Gear 1856. 
Inv. by Charles Clifford. See 
also Ship. 

BODE, Johann Elert (Ger) 
( 1 747-1826) Prop, astronomical 
law named after him. 
Bode's Law (astronomy) 1 778. 
Enunciated by Johann Bode 
(Ger) ( 1 747-1 826), but law 
usually ascribed to Prof. Johann 
Daniell Titius (Tietz) (1729- 
96), of Wittenberg or to Chris- 
tian Wolff ( 1 679-1 754). 
BODMER, John G. (Swit) 
( 1 786- 1 854) Prolific mech- 
anical inv. See Gear-cutting, 
Tyre rolling-mill, Self-aligning 



bearing and Automatic stoker. 
BOEHM, Theo (Ger) 1823. 
Inv. "new" system of keying 
flutes. 

BOETHIUS, Anicius Tor- 
quatus Severinus (A.R.) 
(470 — 526) Writer on mathe- 
matics, astronomy, and music. 
Bogie (railway engineering) 
1812. Pat. by William Chap- 
man in England. 
Boiler, Steam pre- 1725. Cop- 
per and wrought-iron plate 
haystack boiler inv. 1780. 
Multi-tube boiler des. by 
Charles Dallery (Fr) for steam 
road vehicle. 1786. "Cornish- 
type" boiler said to have been 
inv. by Oliver Evans (U.S.). 
1 79 1. Vertical boiler pat. 
Nathan Reed, of Salem, Mass., 
U.S. 1808 (1812?). Cornish 
boiler inv. Richard Trevithick. 
1823. Jacob Perkin inv. flash- 
steam boiler working at 1,500 
p.s.i. 1825. Eve inv. vertical, 
tubular boiler. 1826. Multi- 
tubular type inv. by Sir Golds- 
worthy Gurney (1 793-1875) 
and used in his steam road 
coach. 1827. Marc Seguin (Fr) 
pat. multi-tube boiler and 
applied it to locomotive, 1829. 
1828. Booth inv. multi-fire- tube 
"loco-type" boiler with 
Stephenson. 1828. Steendrup 
inv. vertical boiler. 1830. Nott 
inv. vertical boiler. 1833. Col. 
Francis Macerone des. water- 
tube boiler for road vehicle. 

1843. Earl of Dundonald fitted 
vertical, tubular boilers to U.S. 
steamships Atlantic and Pacific. 

1844. Lancashire boiler inv. Sir 
William Fairbairn. 1866. Oil- 
fired boiler inv. C. J. Richard- 
son, of Woolwich. 1867. Tubu- 
lar boiler inv. Messrs. Babcock 



BOLLEE 23 

and Wilcox (U.S.). 1875. Solar- 
heated boiler inv. Mouchot 
(Fr). (See also Solar power.) 
BOLL&E, Amedee (Fr) 
( 1 844-1 9 1 7) 1873. Des. steam 
road vehicle. (See Road vehicles, 
Steam.) 

Bolometer 1880. Inv. by 
Samuel Pierpoint Langley 
( 1 834-1 906). 

Bolting, Dusting and Sifting 
Machines 1502. Boiler inv. 
bolting machine. 1588. Ram- 
meli inv. bolting machine. 1623 
John Rathbone inv. bolting 
machine. 1686. John Finch, 
John Newcomb and James 
Butler inv. wire screen sifting 
machine. 1765. John Milne 
des. sifting machine or dresser 
to work by wind or water. 
1775. George Robinson des. 
man- or horse-operated dress- 
ing machines for grain. 1783. 
Benjamin Blackmore manu- 
factured bolting-cloth for bolt- 
ing machines. 

Bomb Inv. c. 1495. 1522. 
Used at Siege of Rhodes. Re- 
inv. 1835. J. M. Fieschi (1790- 
1836). 

Bomb, Hydrogen (H. bomb) 
1 95 1 (May). First test of in 
New Mexico, U.S., 1952. 
(Nov 1). 65-ton U.S. bomb 
dropped on Eniwetok 
Atoll, Pacific Ocean. 1953. 
(Aug 4). Russians explode 
experimental bomb. 1954 
(Mar. 1). Second hydrogen 
bomb dropped on Eniwetok 
Atoll. 1954 (Apr. 6). Third 
hydrogen bomb dropped on 
Marshall Island. 
Bones, Napier's 161 7. Inv. 
John N. Napier (1550-16 17). 
Bone-setting 1620. First scien- 
tifically practised. 



BOSCH 

Book 184 B.C. Attalus (Leg) inv. 
first book with leaves of vellum. 
c. 1440. First book printed with 
movable type (Ger). 1448. 
Johann Gensfleisch Gutenberg 
(Ger) (c. 1 397-1468) printed 
first book from cast type at 
Mainz. (? 1454 by Coster, of 
Haarlem, Holland.) 
Bookcase, Revolving c. a.d. 
823. Octagonal revolving 
bookcase with braking device 
inv. in China. 

Books, Thumb-index for 
1884. Inv. Alfred A. Butler, of 
Bay City, Mich., U.S. 
BOOTH, Henry (1788-1869) 
1828. Inv. locomotive-type 
steam boiler. 

Boots c. 907 B.C. First men- 
tioned by Homer. 
Bordeaux Mixture (insecti- 
cide) 1885. Inv. Dr. Gayon (Fr) 
of Bordeaux. 

Boring Machines 1540. First 
mention of boring machine (for 
cannon) by Beringuccio (It) 
(1480-1539). 1769. John 
Smeaton (1724-92) inv. metal 
boring machine. 1775. John 
Wilkinson (1 728-1808) inv. 
metal boring machine and 
erected one in Denbighshire. 
1 799. William Murdock ( 1 754- 
1839) inv. worm-driven cylin- 
der boring machine. Also inv., 
1 8 1 o, circular crown-saw boring 
machine. 

Boron (element) 1809. Disc. 
Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (Fr) 
( 1 778-1 850) and Louis Jacques 
Thenard (Fr) (1 777-1857). 
BOSCH, Robert (Ger) (1874- 
1940) c. 1890. Inv. internal 
combustion engine L.T. mag- 
neto ignition system and H.T. 
magneto in 1902. 



BOTTGER 



24 



BRAKE. HYDRAULIC 



BOTTGER, Johann Fried- 
rich (Ger) (1685-17 1 9) 1705. 
Made first hard porcelain in 
Europe at Meissen, Dresden. 
Bottle-making Machine, 
Automatic 1899. Inv. Michael 
Joseph Owens (U.S.) (1859- 
1923), with E. D. Libby (U.S.). 
1 920. Modern machine evolved. 
Bottling (preserving) 1840. 
Fish and fruit first successfully 
botded. 

BOULTON, Matthew (1728- 
1809) 1787. Inv. the Venturi 
tube. 

BOURDON, Edouard (Fr) 
(1808-84) 1849. Inv. pressure- 
gauge bearing his name. 
BOUSSINGAULT, Jean- 
Baptiste (Fr) (1802-87) c. 
1850. Disc, that plants absorbed 
nitrogen from the soil and their 
carbon from the atmosphere 
(the nitrogen cycle). 
BOUTON, Georges (Fr) 
( 1 847-1 938) 1883-97. & es - an< * 
const, many steam road vehicles 
(q.v.). 

Bow and Arrow 30000-15000 
b.g. First clear representations 
of bow and arrow from Sahara 
Desert area of North Africa. 
Bowden Cable (control) 191 2. 
Pat. by G. F. Larkin and the 
Bowden Wire Company for 
use in motor-cycle and car 
controls. 

BOYDELL, John 1846. Pat. 
track-laying traction-engine 
(q.V.). 

BOYLE, Robert (Irish) 
(1627-91) 1662. Disc, that 
volume of gas varies in inverse 
proportion to its pressure — 
Boyle's Law. See also Henri 
Marriotte (Fr). 
Boyle's Law (Marriotte's 



Law) 1662. Disc. Robert Boyle, 
see previous entry. 
BOYS, C. V. (1855-1944) 
191 2. Des. solar power plant. 
BOZEK, Joseph (Aus) 1815. 
Des. and const, a steam road 
vehicle carrying three persons. 
Brace, Hand 1424. First des. 
1420. Shown on panel of 
Muster Franck's St. Thomas's 
altar. (First example of com- 
pound crank.) 1460. Reproduc- 
tion in book by Jean de 
Tavernier d'Audenarde (Fr). 
Braces 1820. First made of 
india-rubber by J. Hancock. 
Brackets, Poisson's 1925. 
Adrien Maurice Dirac (Fr) 
disc, their significance in mathe- 
matics. Inv. by Simon Denis 
Poisson (Fr) (1 781-1840). 
BRADLEY, James (1692- 
1762) 1727. Disc, aberration of 
light of fixed stars. 
BRAHE, Tycho (Den) (1564- 
1601) Astronomer. Regarded 
the earth as the centre of the 
solar system — the "Tychonic 
System." 

Brain, Human Speech centre 
of human brain disc, by Paul 
Broca (Fr) (1824-80), of Paris. 
Brake, Air 1844. James Nas- 
myth first pat. for air brake. 
1 780. Safety air brake fitted to 
treadmill-operated crane des. 
by Pinchbeck. 1879. John A. P. 
Aspinall inv. effective vacuum 
brake. 1875. George Westing- 
house inv. continuous com- 
pressed air brake. 1869. West- 
inghouse inv. "straight" air 
brake. 

Brake, Steam 1833. Inv. 
Robert Stephenson. 
Brake, Hydraulic 1877. Inv. 
for trains by Barker. Also by 
Clarke. 1904. Inv. for motor 



BRAKE, FRONT WHEEL 



«5 



BRIDGE 



cars by F. G. Heath. 191 7. 
Lockheed hydraulic brake for 
motor cars by M. Loughead. 
Brake, Motor car front 
wheel 1904. Inv. P. L. Renouf. 
1909. Front wheel brakes fitted 
to Argyll motor car. 1906. 
Front wheel brake inv. Allen 
(an imp. on the Renouf patent). 
Brake Linings (automobile 
engineering) 1900. Inv. Herbert 
Frood. 

Brake, Disc 1906. Bronze 
disc brakes installed on 
Darracq motor cars. 19 13. Disc 
brakes installed on A.C. motor 
cars. 

Brake, Railway train Con- 
tinuous brake and train signal 
inv. by James Newall, of Bury, 
Lanes. 

Brake, Servo 1919-26 
Dewandre brakes pat. A. De- 
wandre, F. L. Goodyear and 
J. G. P. Thomas. 1924-29. 
Duo-servo brakes pat. V. 
Bendix. 

Brake Shoes 1902. Internal- 
expanding, cam-operated brake 
shoes inv. Louis Renault. 191 7. 
Adjustable brake shoes inv. R. 
Stevens. 

Brake, Water c. 1880. Inv. by 
William Froude. 
BRAMAH, Joseph (1749- 
18 14) 1796. Inv. hydraulic 
press. 1784. The "Bramah" 
lock. 1778. Water-closet, etc. 
BRANCA (c. 1629) Desc. many 
machines of his day in his 
book Machines. 

Brandy 1667. First used. 1748. 
First distilled from potatoes. 
BRAY, William 1856. Inv. 
steam traction-engine with 
wheels fitted with optional 
spikes to increase adhesion on 
soft ground. 



Bread 1 70 B.C. First made by 
regular bakers of Ancient 
Rome. 

Bread, "Aerated" 1856. Inv. 
Dr. Dauglish. 

BREWSTER, Sir David 
( 1 781-1868) 1833. Disc, fluor- 
escence in chlorophyll. 1838. 
Disc, fluorescence in fluorspar. 
Bricks, Glass building Intro. 

i93i- 

Brickmaking Machinery 

First invented, 1839. 
Bridge c. 4000 b.g. Earliest 
example of unburnt brick arch 
still standing at Nippur, 
Chaldea. a.d. 450. King 
Ghosroes I built 80 ft. wide, 
90 ft. high arch at Ctesiphon. 
104. Apollodorus of Damascus 
built 3,000 ft. timber bridge on 
stone piers over the River 
Danube for Emperor Trajan. 
c. 7th cent. Earliest example of 
regular stone-voussired arch at 
the Phoenician-built canal of 
the Marta, near Graviscae. 
860. Y-shaped bridge built at 
Croyland, Lincolnshire. 994. 
William of Malmesbury built 
bridge over River Thames at 
London. 11 76. First stone 
bridge over River Thames at 
London des. by Peter of Cole- 
church or Colchester. 1 187. St. 
B6nez£t des. and built famous 
Pont d' Avignon over River 
Rhdne (20, 100 ft. arches). 
1570. First known des. for truss 
bridges evolved by Andrea 
Palladio (1518-80). 1697. First 
stone bridge in U.S. built at 
Pennepecka, Germanstown, 
Pa. 1755. 3-arched cast-iron 
bridge over River Rhdne at 
Lyons des. by French army 
engineer Garvin. (Only one 
arch completed owing to high 



BRIDGE 26 

cost.) 1755. Brothers Gruben- 
mann built large timber-span 
bridge over River Rhine 
near Schaffenhausen. 1758. A 
similar bridge over River Lim- 
mat near Zurich erected, and 
another at Wittengen. 1787. 
First cast-iron bridge in Eng- 
land des. by Rowland Burton, 
M.P. (not Thomas Paine, as 
was at one time believed) and 
erected by Abraham Darby III 
and foundry-owner John Wil- 
kinson, over River Severn at 
Golebrookdale. 1 760. Scotsman 
Robert Myln intro. multiple 
wedge centreing on Blackfriars 
bridge over River Thames at 
London. 1800. James Finley 
(U.S.) des. first suspension 
bridge in U.S. with iron chains 
and rods. 1801. Finley des. 
level-floored suspension bridge 
of modern type, across Jacob's 
Creek, Westmoreland County, 
Pa. 181 2. 340 ft. timber bridge 
built across Schuykill River, 
U.S. 1815-25. Thomas Telford 
( I 757 _l8 34) deS' and built 
580 ft. span flat-link, chain 
suspension bridge carrying 
Holyhead Turnpike across the 
Menai Straits to Isle of Angle- 
sea. (The chain-link system 
was inv. by Samuel Brown.) 
1820. Ithiel Town (U.S.) pat. 
wooden-beam lattice truss 
bridge. 1825. Wire suspension 
bridge erected at Lyons by 
Marc Seguin. 1829. Carrolton 
railway viaduct des. and built 
over Gwynne's Falls, Balti- 
more, Maryland, U.S. by 
James Lloyd. 1835. First cast- 
iron bridge in U.S. des. by John 
Herbertson and built by John 
Snowden over Dunlap's Creek, 
Brownsville, Pa. 1840. William 



BRIDGE 



Howe (U.S.) inv. wrought-iron 
(later, steel) bridge truss. 1840. 
Andrew Thomson, of Glasgow 
des. and const, bridge of hollow 
girders of boiler-plates to carry 
road over Pollock and Govan 
Railway. 1840. Earl Turnbull 
builds first cast-iron girder 
bridge in U.S. over Erie Canal 
at Frankfurt, N.Y. 1841. John 
Augustus Roebling inv. parallel, 
instead of twisted wires for 
suspension bridge const. 1844. 
Tubular bridge girder pat. 
France by Dr. Jules Guyot. (Pat . 
England 1846.) 1844. Brothers 
Caleb and Thomas Pratt (U.S.) 
pat. design for special truss for 
steel bridges. 1846. Wrought- 
iron girders first made by rivet- 
ing by shipbuilder William 
Fairbairn. c. 1850. Britannia 
tubular bridge across Menai 
Straits des. Robert Stephenson 
in collaboration with William 
Fairbairn and Eaton Hodgkin- 
son. 1852. J. A. Roebling com- 
mences 822 ft. span suspension 
bridge over Niagara River, 
U.S. 1867. Heinrich Gerber 
(Ger) des. first modern-type 
cantilever bridge over River 
Main. 1868. Finck (U.S.) inv. 
special form of bridge truss. 

1873. Wood and steel truss 
bridge inv. T. W. Pratt (U.S.). 

1874. James Buchanan Eads 
(U.S.) erects first steel arch 
bridge in U.S. at St. Louis, Mo. 
(500-ft., 500-ft. and 520-ft. 
spans). 1876. C. Shaler Smith 
des. first cantilever bridge in 
U.S. — over Kentucky River, 
1895. William Scherzer of 
Chicago inv. rolling-lift bridge 
and erects the first of this type 
in his home city. 1898. Fran- 
coise Hennebique (Fr) des. and 



BRIDGE, PONTOON 



27 



BULLET 



erects 172 ft. span reinforced 
concrete (q.v.) bridge at Chat- 
ellerault. 1905. First reinforced 
concrete cantilever bridge in 
U.S. built at Marion, Iowa 
(3 X 50 ft. spans). 
Bridge, Pontoon (floating) 
1st cent. B.C. Caesar used pon- 
toon bridge to cross River 
Rhine, c. 490 B.C. Xerxes built 
pontoon bridge across the 
Hellespont at Abydos. 1710. 
Pontoon bridge inv. (?) by 
Francoise Joseph Camus (Fr). 
1773. D'Herman (Fr) inv. pon- 
toon bridge. 1804. First pon- 
toon bridge in U.S. across 
Collin's Pond, Lynn, Mass. 
1655. Portable bridge men- 
tioned in Marquis of Wor- 
cester's Century of Inventions No. 
28. 1944. Portable bridge inv. 
Sir Donald Bailey. 
Bridge, Wheatstone (elec- 
tric) c. 1820. Inv. credited by 
Charles Wheatstone (1802-75) 
to Christie. 

Bright's (kidney) Disease 
1837. Disc, and named by Dr. 
R. Bright (1 789-1 858) of 
Bristol and Guy's Hospital, 
London. 

Britannia Metal (Copper, 
Antimony, tin alloy) 1770. 
First made at Sheffield, 1824. 
Named and commercially prod. 
Isaac Babbitt (q.v.). 
Broad Arrow 1698. First used 
to mark dockyard and naval 
property. 

Broadcloth First made in 
England, 1197. 

Brocade First made at Lyons, 
France, 1757. 

Bromine (element) 1826. Disc. 
in salt water by Antoine Jerome 
Balard (1802-76). 



BROTHERHOOD, Peter 

( 1 838-1 902) 1 87 1. Des. three- 
cylinder steam-engine. 
Brougham (horse-drawn 
vehicle) 1839. Inv. Baron 
Henry Peter Brougham (1778- 
1868). 

Brownian Movement 1827. 
Disc, by botanist Robert Brown 
in non-living matter. 1905. 
Brownian movement explained 
by Albert Einstein (1879- 
1955) 

BRUNO, Giordano (It) 
(1473-1543) 1584. First to 
represent the universe as in- 
finite. (See also William Gilbert, 
Copernicus, Galileo and 
Kepler.) 

BRUSH, Charles Francis 
(U.S.) (1849-1929) 1876. 
Designed his first dynamo and 
the following year, his first arc- 
lamp. 

Brushes c. 1400 B.C. Earliest 
record of brushes — Egypt. 
Bucklers (armour) 1370 B.C. 
Inv. Proteus and Achrisius of 
Argos. See also Cuirass. 
Bude Light See Lime light. 
BUFFON, Georges-Louis 
Leclerc, Comte de (Fr) 
(1707-88) See Photometry, 
Optics, and Burning-mirror. 
Bulkhead, Watertight 
Used in Ancient China. 1795. 
Pat. Samuel Bentham. Pre- 
1 798. Intro. Capt. Schanks into 
G.B. on experimental ship 
"Trial." Mentioned in Mar- 
quis of Worcester's Century of 
Inventions, No. 12. 
Bullet (arms) 1514. Stone 
bullets mentioned. 1550. Iron 
bullets mentioned. Pre- 1700. 
Lead bullets mentioned. 1833. 
Conchoidal cup rifle bullet inv. 



BULLET, EXPLOSIVE 



28 



GABLE 



Gapt. Minie (Fr). 1853 Mine's 
inv. modified by Pritchett. 
Ballet, Explosive (arms) 
1495. Evolved by Leonardo da 
Vinci. 1573. First practical 
explosive bullet. 1602. First 
efficient explosive bullet inv. 
Renard Ville (Fr). 
Bullet, Incendiary 1759 
Torre (Fr) inv. incendiary 
bullet. 1772. Wooden gun 
which fired arrows which burst 
into flame when they struck 
inv. J. P. Cost6 (Fr), of Dau- 
phinais. 1786. Fabre (Fr) inv. 
"Bellegarde" bullet. 
Bumpers, Motor car 1905. 
Inv. Frederick R. Sims. 
Buna S (artificial rubber) 
1933. First prod, by F. R. Bock. 
1939. Commercial production 
achieved. 

BUNSEN, Robert Wilhelm 
(181 1-99) (Ger) 1 86 1. With 
G. R. Kirchoffdkr. an improved 



spectroscope, also inv. the 
shadow photometer. 
Buoy 1866. First electrically 
lighted buoy inv. Adolphe 
Miroude (Fr). 

BURALI-FORT (It) 1897. 
Proposed theory of antinomies 
of aggregates. 

Burglar Alarm 1655. Men- 
tioned by Marquis of Worcester 
in Century of Inventions, No. 72. 
Burning Mirror 214 B.C. Inv. 
by Archimedes and used to 
fire ships of Marcellus's fleet at 
Syracuse. 1 739. Archimedes's 
success proved by Buffon. 
BUSCHMANN (Ger) 1821. 
Inv. mouth-organ. 1822. Inv. 
accordion. 

Butylene (chemistry) 1825. 
Disc. Michael Faraday. 
Buys Ballot's Law (meteoro- 
logy) Enunciated c. 1850 by 
Buys Ballot (1817-90), of 
Utrecht, Holland. 



C 



Cab (Cabriolet) 1823. Intro. 
into London. 

Cab, Hansom 1833. Inv. 
Joseph A. Hansom. 
Cables, Iron 1808. Intro, for 
ship's rigging. 181 6. Chain 
cables used at bombardment 
of pirates at Algiers. 1840. 
Chain cables commonly used 
in ship's rigging. See Rope, 



Rope, wire, Cable, chain, 

Chain. 

Cable, Oil-filled electric 

1 9 14. High-tension type inv. 
1914, Emanuelli. c. 1925. 
132,000 volt cable manufac- 
tured. 

Cable, Submarine telegraph 
1850. First laid, Dover to Cap 
Grinez. 1858. First Atlantic 



GABLE 



29 



CALENDAR 



submarine cable laid. (Lasted 
in use for only 3 weeks.) 
Gable, Submarine tele- 
phone 1912. Submarine tele- 
phone cable laid across Straits 
of Dover. 1956. Submarine 
telephone cable laid Nova 
Scotia to Newfoundland. 
Cadmium (element) 181 7. 
Disc. Stromeyer (Ger). 
Caesium (element) i860. Disc. 
Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (Ger) 
(181 1-99). 

CAGNIARD-DE-LA-TOUR, 
Charles (Fr) (1 777-1859) 
1819. Inv. the siren. Pioneered 
work on the propagation of 
acoustic waves in water. 
CAILLETET, Louis Paul 
(Fr) (1832-19 1 3) c. 1877. Pion- 
eer of early experiments in the 
cryogenic field. 

Caisson, Compressed air 
1647. Suggested by Denis Papin 
(Fr). 1779. Again suggested by 
G. A. Coulomb (Fr). 1790. 
Inv. Perronet (Fr). 1830. First 
intro. for foundation construc- 
tion by Sir Thomas Cochrane, 
later the Earl of Dundonald. 
1 85 1. Applied to bridge-build- 
ing at Rochester, Kent, by 
John Wright. 

Calcium (element) 1808. Disc. 
Sir Humphrey Davy (1778- 
1829). 

Calcium Carbide 1891. First 
prod, in electric furnace by 
Borchers. {See also Acetylene.) 
Calculating Machines See 
Computers. 

Calculus 1674. Inv. Gottfried 
Wilhelm Leibnitz (Ger) (1646- 
1716) and made public in 
1684. 

Calculus, Differential 1665. 
Sir Isaac Newton (1642- 1727). 
Inv. "fluxions." 1677. G. F. R. 



Leibnitz (1 646-1 716) inv. diff- 
erential calculus. 
Calculus, Exponential 
c. 1720. Disc. Jean Bernouilli. 
Calculus, Infinitesimal 
1 6 15. Johann Kepler (Ger) 
(1571-1630) pub. "Nova 
Stereometria" containing the 
germs of I.C. idea. 
Calculus of Matrices 1858. 
Inv. A. Cayley, mathematician. 
Calculus of Variations 
1767. Disc. Joseph Louis 
Lagrange (Fr) (1736-1813). 
Theory prop, by Adrien Marie 
Legendre (Fr) and further dev. 
by K. G. Jacobi, K. F. Gauss, 
Simeon Denis Poisson, and 
Augustin-Louis Cauchy. 
Calculus, Tensor Inv. M. M. 
Gregorio Ricci (1 853-1 925) 
and Tullio Levi-Civita (It) 
mathematicians of Padua Uni- 
versity. 

CALDANI, Leopoldo Marc- 
Antonio (It) 1756. Obs. con- 
tractions of a frog preparation 
under the influence of elec- 
tricity. Galvani's name has 
become attached to the complex 
phenomena. 

Calendar 3500 B.C. Egyptians 
used a reasonably accurate 
calendar. 3000 B.C. Egyptians 
intro. civil year of 365 days 
divided into 12 months of 30 
days. 2500 b.c. 12-month lunar 
calendar intro. into Egypt. 357 
b.c. Lunar calendar revised in 
Egypt. 239 b.c. Egyptians 
realized and corrected "drift" 
of calendar and intro. leap- 
year. 45 b.c. Julian calendar 
devised by Sosigenes (54 b.c- 
a.d. 24) and intro. by Julius 
Caesar. 1582. Gregorian cal- 
endar reform: Oct. 5 became 
Oct. 15. 1752. Gregorian cal- 



CALICO 



30 



CANNIZARRO 



endar adopted in Britain. 1 9 1 8. 
Adopted in Russia. 1927. 
Adopted in Turkey. 
Calico 1 63 1. Intro, into Eng- 
land by East India Company. 
Calico Printing See Printing, 
Textile. 

Californium (element) 1950. 
Disc. Glen T. Seaborg (U.S.) 
and A. G. Liorso (U.S.). 
Calipers a.d. 79. Bronze 
outside calipers used in 
Pompeii. 1540. Internal cali- 
pers inv. by an artificer of 
Nuremberg. 1 85 1 . Vernier cali- 
pers inv. J. R. Brown (U.S.). 
Galotype Process 1841. Inv. 
by W. H. Fox-Talbot. See 
Photography. 

Calorimeter Inv. Benjamin 
Thompson (Count Rumford) 
(U.S.) (1753-1814). 1870. Ice 
calorimeter inv. Robert Wil- 
helm Bunsen (Ger) (181 1-99) 
(also attributed to Lavoisier). 
Bomb calorimeter inv. P. E. M. 
Berthelot (Fr). 

Calorimeter (medicine) Res- 
piration calorimeter dev. by 
Atwater, Rose, and Benedict. 
Cam. 983. First useful applica- 
tion in the West in fulling mill 
on River Serchio, in Tuscany. 
1 010. Water-driven, cam-oper- 
ated trip-hammers in use at 
Schmidmiilen, in the Ober- 
pfalz. 

Camera See Photography. 
Camera, Electron 1 93 1 . Elec- 
tron diffraction camera evolved 
by G. I. Finch. (See also Electron 
microscope.) 

Camera Lucida Inv. William 
Hyde Wollaston (1 766-1828). 
Camera Obscura. 1 100. Men- 
tioned by Alhacin (Arab), c. 
1500. Mentioned by Leonardo 
da Vinci (It). (1452-1519). 



c. 1600. Convex lens substituted 
for pin-hole by D. Basbaro and 
Giovanni Battista Porta (It) 
(1543-1615). 1292. Inv. alt. to 
Roger Bacon (c. 1210-93). 
Rainer Gemma Frisius (Hoi) 
used camera obscura to obs. 
solar eclipse on Jan. 25, 1544. 
Johann Kepler (1 571-1630) 
suggested use of convex and 
concave lens to increase size 
of image. (See also Photography.) 
Canals 1 209. Naviglio Grande, 
irrigation canal in Italy opened. 
Later used to transport marble 
from Lake Maggiore to build 
Milan cathedral. 1391. Elbe- 
Stecknitz watershed sur- 
mounted by a canal with two 
locks with a rise of 16 ft. and 
followed by a 12 ft. deep canal 
from Liibeck to Hamburg. 
1458. 12 mile canal with 180 ft. 
descent by 18 locks built, the 
mitred lock-gates being inv. by 
Leonardo da Vinci. 
Candle a.d. i. Huge candle of 
date found at Vaison, near 
Orange. Now in British 
Museum, a.d. 50. Candle- 
making apparatus found in 
ruins of Herculaneum. 1760. 
Wax for candles bleached in 
the sun at Field's London 
Candle Works. 1832. De Milly 
commenced making candles at 
Barriere de l'Etoile, Paris. 
Candlesticks First mentioned 
(c. 1 49 1 B.C.) Exodus xxxvii, 17. 
Canning Process 1795. 
French confectioner Francois 
Appert inv. process for food 
preservation (by bottling) ; 
building a plant for the purpose 
at Bermondsey, London. See 
also Bottling. 

CANNIZARRO, Stanislao 
(1826-1910) 1858. Pioneered 



GANNON 



3* 



CAPSTAN, SHIP S 



system of a consistent system of 
atomic weights. 

Gannon 4th cent. a.d. Vege- 
tius mentions use of scorpiones, 
arcubalistae, fustibuli, fundae, 
ballistae and movable towers. 
1259. Chinese made bamboo 
cannon. 1275. Chinese made 
metal cannon. 1324. Cannon 
used at siege of Metz. 1328. 
Earliest record of use of guns 
during invasion of Scodand. 
1343. Cannon intro. into war 
operations by Moors against 
Alonzo, King of Castile. 1346. 
Cannon used by Edward III 
against the French at battie of 
Crecy. 1370. Cast-iron mortar 
intro. by Merklin Gast, of 
Augsburg. Late 14th cent. 
Wrought-iron cannon firing 
small iron shot and stone 
balls weighing up to 450 lb. 
in common use. 1382. 13 ton 
cannon (bombard) 16 ft. long 
and 25 in. bore built of 
welded longitudinal iron strips 
at Ghent. Its granite ball shot 
weighed 700 lb. 1404. 4^ ton 
cannon cast in Austria. 1494. 
Cannon firing range for batter- 
ing purposes was about 100 
yd. 15th cent. Trunnion 
mounted cannon intro. 1540. 
Cannon rifling intro. by A. 
Kuttner. 1574. Largest English 
cannon 4 tons weight, 8| in. 
bore, used 60 lb. shot. 1543. 
Cannon cast at Buxtead, 
Sussex. Late 16th cent. Hollow 
shot filled with explosive or 
incendiary mixtures fired from 
mortar cannon. 1580. Petard 
intro. 1586. Cannon made in 
England at Long Ditton. 1697. 
Howitzer intro. 1720. First 
cannon cast in one piece by 
Keller, of Cassel. 1799. Carron- 



ade inv. by Gascoigne, director 
of Carron Ironworks, Scodand. 
1859. Rifled bronze cannon 
used at batdes of Magenta 
and Solferino. 1876-78. Arm- 
strong rifled cannon dev. by 
Sir William Armstrong. Alfred 
Krupp (Ger) (1810-87) dev. 
cast-steel cannon. 
Gannon-boring Machine 

1 7 14. Jean Moritz (Swit) inv. 
horizontal drill for boring can- 
non. 1 716. Water-driven drills 
for boring small arms inv. 
Villons (Fr). 1774. John Wil- 
kinson ( 1 728-1 808) inv. cannon 
boring machine. 
Gannon, Breech-loading 

1 715. Inv. by De la Chaumette 
(Fr). 

Gannon, Steam 1803. William 
Murdock (1 754-1839) fired a 
i in. ball from a steam cannon 
at Soho Works, Birmingham. 
c. 1824. Steam cannon dev. by 
Perkin. (Leonardo da Vinci 
(1452-15 1 9) sketched idea for 
steam cannon and artist 
Cesariano pictured steam-ex- 
ploded grenades in 1521.) 
CANTON, John (1718-72) 
One of the English pioneers of 
static electrical machinery. 
Capillaries (anatomy) Disc. 
Marcellus Malpighi (It) (1628- 

94)-. 

Capillary Attraction 1600- 
35. First obs. by Niccolo Aggi- 
unti of Pisa. 1805. Thomas 
Young ( 1 773-1 829) formulated 
theory of capillary attraction. 
Another theory put forward by 
A. C. Clairaut (Fr). 
Capstan, Ship's Late 15th 
cent. Mentioned by Columbus 
on his second voyage as "cabe- 
stante." Re-my. and imp. by 
Sir Samuel Morland ( 1 625-95) • 



CARBOHYDRATE 



3* 



CARICATURE DRAWING 



Carbohydrate 1862. Term 

first used by Ernst Wagner 

(Ger). 

Carbolic Acid (Phenol) i860. 

Disc, to be an antiseptic by Dr. 

J. Baron Lister. 

Carbon (element) 1788. Proved 

a distinct element by Antoine- 

Laurent Lavoisier (Fr) (1743- 

94)- 

Carbon dioxide gas First 

recognized by Jan Baptista van 
Helmont (Hoi) (1 577-1 644) 
1855. First liquefied and solidi- 
fied by Thirolier (Fr). See also 
Mineral waters and Refriger- 
ation. 

Carbon Disulphide 1 796 
Disc. Wilhelm August Lam- 
padius (Ger) (1 772-1 842). 
Carbon Monoxide Gas 1776. 
Disc, by Joseph M. F. de 
Lassonne (Fr) (1717-88) and 
Joseph Priestly (1 733-1 804) in- 
dependently. 

Carborundum (silicon car- 
bide) 1 89 1. Process for making 
evolved by Edward Goodrich 
Acheson, of Monongahela City, 
Pa., U.S.A. 

Carburettor (internal com- 
bustion engine) 1866. Inv. by 
Bowditch. 1888. Edward Butler 
des. and pat . a spray carburet- 
tor. 1893. Float-feed, spray 
carburettor re~inv. Maybach 
(Ger) ( 1 846-1 929). 1896. Sur- 
face carburettor inv. Petreano. 
Wick carburettor, c. 1897. 
Various types inv. W. G. Buck, 
F. Lanchester, and by invs. 
of "Papillon and Balbi" car- 
burettors. 1904. "S.U." car- 
burettor inv. by G. H. and T. C. 
Skinner. 1906. "Claudel-Hob- 
son carburettor inv. C. H. 
Glaudel. 1907. "Zenith" car- 
burettor inv. F. Bavery (Fr). 



1911. Paraffin carburettor dev. 
by Davis, of Kew, London. 
CARDAN, Jerome (Jeromy 
Cardanus) (It) (1501-1576) 
Physician. 1551. Inv. universal 
joint, or Cardan-shaft for driv- 
ing shafts. (See his book, De 
Subtilitate). 

Carding Machines (textiles) 
1 748. Lewis Paul inv. and pat. 
two carding machines. 1782. 
Antoine Germondy, of Lyons 
pat. hand or water-operated 
carding machines, imp. by Four- 
nier de Granges (Fr) 1784. 
1 784. Mule-powered carding 
machine inv. Simon Pla (Fr). 

1 79 1. Carding machine for 
wool and felting inv. Serrazin 
(Fr). 1796. Carding machine 
for wool pat. by Louis Martin, 
and imp. 1797 by TelU6 (Fr). 

1792. Paris physician Lho- 
monde inv. carding machine 
for cotton. 1823. Differential 
roving winding-gear intro. by 
Mansfield tinsmith and used by 
Henry Houldsworth of Glasgow 
on his carding machine of 1825. 
1822. Differential carding 
machine inv. Asa Arnold (U.S.) . 
(Model brought to England 
same year as Houldsworth's 
pat. was taken out.) 1790. 
Carding machine (comber) inv. 
Rev. Edmund Cartwright. 
1 85 1. Carding machine inv. 
Loshua Heilmann (Ger). 
Card-making Machine (tex- 
tiles) 1777. Inv. Oliver Evans 

(U.S.) (1755-1819). 

Cards, Playing 1390. First 

known card game, piquet, inv. 

1 39 1, said to have been inv. in 

France to amuse King Charles 

IV. 

Caricature Drawing 1320. 



CARLISLE 



33 



CATAPULT 



Style inv. Bonamico Buffal- 
macco (It) (1262-1340). 
CARLISLE, Sir Anthony 
(1768-1840) 1800. With 
William Nicholson first decom- 
posed water into oxygen and 
hydrogen with aid of an electric 
pile. 

Carlsbad Mineral Springs 
1370. Disc. Emperor Charles 
IV. 

CARNOT, Lazare-Nicholas- 
Margnerite (Fr) (1 753-1823) 
1792. One of the pioneers of 
the fundamental principles of 
mechanics and the theory of 
the study of motion. 
CARNOT, Nicholas-Leo- 
nard-Sadi (Fr) (1 796-1 832) 
1824. Intro, the idea of the heat 
cyclic process now bearing his 
name. 

Garnot Cycle Prop. 1824. 
N. L. S. Carnot (Fr). See above. 
Carpet 1 589. Intro, into France. 
1 744. Intro, into England. 
Carriage, Road c. i486 b.g. 
Inv. ascribed to Erichthonius of 
Athens. 

Carriage, Sail 552. Used in 
China, constituting the first 
example of high-speed travel. 
Cart Pre-3000 B.C. Two and 
four-wheeled carts used in 
Syria. 

Cartesian Co-ordinates (bio- 
logy) 1637.. Intro, by Rene 
Descartes (Fr) (1 596-1 650). 
Cartwright, Rev. Edmund 
( 1 743-1823) Vicar of Bramp- 
ton, near Chesterfield. 1785. 
Inv. Power loom. 
Carving machine Wood Pre- 
1846. Carving machine for 
ivory inv. Cheverton. 1846. 
Carving machine for wood inv. 
T.B.Jordan. 
Casein 1780. Disc, by C. W. 



Scheele (1742-86). 191 9. Used 
as ingredient of plastics and 
some nylon yarns. 
CASSINI, Giovanni Domen- 
ico (It) (1625-1712) With C. 
Huygens, and Giacomo Filippo 
Maraldi, one of the first astron- 
omers to measure the period of 
axial rotation of the planet 
Mars. 

Casting, Continuous 
method of 1925. Byron E. 
Eldred (U.S.) inv. continuous 
casting process for non-ferrous 
metals. 1927. Dr. Siegfried 
Junghans inv. the Rossi- 
Junghans continuous casting 
process for non-ferrous metals. 
1949 (Mar.). Dr. Junghans 
applies his process to steel. 
Casting, Plastic Metal Shell 
1 94 1. Dev. Johannes Croning 
(Ger), of Hamburg. 
Catalysis (chemical) 1806. 
First desc. Charles Bernard 
Desormes (Fr) (1 777-1862) and 
Nicholas Clement (Fr) (1779- 
1841). 

Catalytic Action Disc. J. J. 
Berzelius ( 1 779-1 848) , who 
named catalysts. 
Catalytic Force Disc, by L. J. 
Thenard (1 777-1 857). 1825. 
Catalytic force used to ignite 
gas by Dobereiner. 
Catapult 399 B.C. Said to 
have been inv. by Dionysius of 
Syracuse. 397 B.C. Stone and 
javelin catapults used against 
Carthaginians. 287-212 B.C. 
Inv. (?) by Archimedes and 
used with great force against 
Romans besieging Syracuse. 
332 b.c. Torsion catapault used 
at siege of Troy. (Later Roman 
catapults could throw up to 
500 yds. and ballistas (cross- 
bows) over that distance. 125 



CATARACT 



34 



CELLULOSE 



b.c. Use of compressed air 
suggested as power by Gtesibus 
of Alexandria. 1139. Lateran 
Council under Pope Innocent 
II prohibited use of catapults 
except against infidels. 
Cataract (surgery) Late 16th 
cent. Georg Bartisch devised 
means of extracting cataract 
from eye. Middle Ages. Cata- 
ract operation performed by 
Arabian physicians. 1706. 
Antoine Maitre-Jean explained 
nature of cataract. 1709. 
Michael Brisseau, of Tournai 
independently explained cata- 
ract. 1730. Francoise Son 
fitienne du Petit (Fr) removed 
cataracts with some success. 
Catheter, Eustacian (sur- 
gery) Inv. Guyot (Fr), at 
Versailles. 

Cathode Rays 1859. Disc. 
Pliicker. See also X-rays. 
Cathode Rays, Charge-to- 
mass ratio of 1897. First 
measured by J. J. Thomson and 
Weichert. 

Catfs-eye, Road 1934 Inv. by 
Percy Shaw, O.B.E. 
CAUCHY, Augustin-Louis 
(Fr) ( 1 789-1857) Mathema- 
tician who helped to perfect 
the undulatory theory of light 
and established a formula ex- 
pressing the speed of light in a 
medium, and thus the refrac- 
tive index of the medium as a 
function of the wavelength. 
CAVALIERI, Bonaventura 
(It) ( 1 598-1 647). c. 1660. With 
Niccolo Zucchi, Marin Mer- 
senne, Rene Descartes and 
James Gregory, anticipated Sir 
Isaac Newton in making a 
reflecting telescope. 
CAVENDISH, Henry (1731- 
18 10) Produced "fixed air" 



(carbon dioxide) from marble 
and acids; also produced "in- 
flammable air" (hydrogen) 
Proved that water was a com- 
pound of oxygen and hydrogen 
by passing sparks through a 
mixture of the two gases and 
obtaining water as dew. 
CAXTON, William (1412- 
92) 1474. Printed first book in 
England. The Game and Play of 
Chesse. 

CAYLEY, Sir George (1774- 
1857) Father of British aero- 
nautics. 1843. Built steam- 
powered aeroplane. 1896. Des. 
model helicopter. 1825. Pat. a 
track-laying tractor. See also 
Henson, Stringfellow and 
Maxim. 

Celanese(rayon acetate) 
1865. Process reactions to make 
rayon acetate known to Schiitz- 
enberger (Ger). 1904. Com- 
mercial production com- 
menced. See also Rayon. 
Cell (biology) 1839. Cell theory 
of tissues prop, by Theodore 
Schwann (Ger) (1810-82). 
1665. Word "cellular" used by 
Robert Hooke (1635- 1703) in 
his book Micrographica. 
Cellophane (Cellon) 191 2. 
First prod, by Jacques Edwin 
Brandenberger ( Swit) . 1 869 . 
Prod, from cellulose acetate 
(q.v.). 1926. Moisture-proof 
Cellophane inv. William Hale 
Church and Karl Edwin 
Pringle, of Du Ponts, U.S. 
1933. First commercial prod, of 
Cellophane commenced in U.S. 
Celluloid 1 860s. Prod, from 
camphor and pyroxylin (cellu- 
lose nitrate) by Brothers. John 
Wesley and Isiah Hyatt, of 
Albany, N.Y., U.S. 
Cellulose 1862. "Parkesine" 



CELSIUS 



(cellulose) made from gun- 
cotton by Alexander Parkes, of 
Birmingham. It could be made 
to simulate ivory, tortoiseshell, 
wood, or india-rubber; and 
was an excellent electrical insu- 
lator. 

CELSIUS, Anders (Swed) 
(1701-44). 1742. Intro, centi- 
grade thermometer scale with 
freezing and boiling-points of 
water as fixed points. 
Cement c. 150 B.C. Lime 
mortar made by Romans 
at Pozzuoli. 1796. James 
Parker re-disc, puzzolina hy- 
draulic cement. John Smeaton 
(1724-92) pat. "Roman" (hy- 
draulic) cement. 1824. L. J. 
Vicat (Fr) inv. cement made 
from chalk and clay. 1824. 
"Portland" cement re-inv. at 
Wakefield by William Aspdin 
(1779-1855). 1839. Vicat's 
cement used in const, of Cher- 
bourg harbour works. 1844. 
I. C. Johnson made artificial 
hydraulic cement. 
Census 1490 B.C. First census 
taken by Moses. 1017 B.C. 
Census taken by King David. 
561 b.c. First Roman census 
taken by Servius Tullius. 1801. 
First British census. 
Central Heating 1777. First 
modern system inv. Bonnemain 
(Fr) , who installed it at Chateau 
du Pecq, near Germain-en- 
Laye. 

Centrifuge i860. Napier used 
centrifuge in inv. of continuous- 
action sugar-drying machine. 
1890. C. G. P. de Laval (1845- 
1913) inv. centrifuge cream 
separator. {See also Separators.) 
1843. Revolving-bucket type 
inv. by Lawrence Hardman for 
sugar-drying. (Also pat. by 



35 chains (cable) 

Seyrig(Fr).) 1850. Self-centring 
centrifuge inv. by Sir Henry 
Bessemer and simultaneously, 
but independently by David 
McCoy Weston (U.S.). 1849. 
Centrifuge to treat sugar-loaves 
inv. by Broonan. 
Centrosome (cytology) 1888. 
Name intro. by Theodore Boveri 
(1862-1915). 

Ceramic, Electrical 1941. 
High di-electric constant of 
barium-titanic oxide ceramics 
disc. (U.S. Pat. 2429588.) 
Ceres (planet) 1801 (Jan. 1). 
Disc. Guiseppe Piazzi (It) 
( 1 746-1 826) , at Palermo. 
Cerium (element) 1803. Disc. 
Martin Klaproth (Ger) and 
independendy by J. Berzelius 
and William Hisinger (both 
Swed). 

CESSART, Louis Alexander 
de (Fr) (1 719-1806) 1787. Des. 
and used on French roads 
horse-drawn, cast-iron rollers. 
Cetaceans First recognized as 
mammals by Pierre Belon (Fr). 
CHADWICK, James (b. 
1891-) Atomic physicist. Trans- 
muted many lighter elements 
with Sir Ernest Rutherford, in 

19*9- 

Chains (cable) 2500 B.C. 
Chains made of rings folded in 
half and passed through next 
link found in cemetery at Ur 
of the Chaldees. 8th cent. B.C. 
Chains with S-shaped links of 
cast bronze found at Nimroud. 
57 b.c. Iron chain cables used 
by Venetii of Brittany. 1771. 
Chain cables suggested in lieu 
of hempen cables, but not used 
until 1808 by naval surgeon 
Slater. 181 1. Chain cables intro. 
Capt. Brown on wrought-iron 
ship Penelope. Twisted links 



CHAINS, DRIVING 



36 



CHEVE MUSICAL NOTATION 



were used. 1822. Sowerby pat. 
inward-bent link. 1825. Brun- 
ton intro. straight-link and cross- 
rod chain. 1828. Hawks pat. 
elliptical, thick-ended link. 
Jacques de Vaucanson (Fr) 
(1709-82) inv. the "Chaine de 
Galle" with eye-shaped links. 
Chains, Driving 1588. Wire- 
link type mentioned by Agos- 
tino Ramelli (1531-90) in his 
book Le Diverse et Artificiose 
Machine. 1852. Andrew Cresta- 
doro inv. endless chain roadway. 
1856. First English chain pat. 
Elias Robison Hancock, for 
chain and chain-wheel, i860. 
John Fowler, Jnr. and William 
Worby inv. driving chains for 
agricultural tractors. 1861. 
Driving chains with side guard 
links inv. Thomas Green and 
Robert Mathers to prevent 
chains slipping off wheels. 1863. 
Richard Hornsby and John 
Bonnall pat. driving chain with 
rollers on links. 1863. Thomas 
Sturgeon inv. T-link driving 
chain. 1864. James Lancelot pat. 
driving chain of corkscrew shape 
with wheels to match. 1864. 
James Slater inv. toothed driv- 
ing chains for working with 
toothed cog-wheels. 1866. John 
Erskine Brown pat. driving 
chains and chain-wheels. 1864. 
Roller driving chain inv. Slater. 
1 868. Roller pitch driving chain 
inv. Slater, c. 1870. Brampton 
imp. Slater's driving chain. 

1879. Hans Reynold started 
business and imp. Slater's and 
Brampton's driving chains. 
z ^79- James Starley built first 
bicycle with driving chain. 

1880. Hans Reynold inv. silent 
driving chain. 1546. Vaucan- 
son-type illus. by Agricola. 



1750. French wire-link driving 
chain inv. by Jacques de Vau- 
canson (Fr) (1709-82). 
Chain Shot 1664. Inv. by 
Admiral de Witt to destroy 
ships' rigging. 

CHAPPE, Claude 1794. Inv. 
semaphore signalling system 
connecting Paris and Lille. 
CHARDONNET, Hilaire, 
Comte de (Fr) (1 839-1 924) 
1884. Pat. process in which 
solution of nitro-cellulose in 
alcohol was pumped through 
fine holes of a spinneret into a 
bath which absorbed the sol- 
vents and left over a "rayon" 
thread. (Artificial silk.) 
Charts (geographical and 
celestial) c. 570 B.C. Inv. 1400. 
Modern sea charts intro. by 
Prince of Portugal. 1489. Intro. 
into England by Columbus's 
brother Bartholomew, c. 1550. 
First fair map of England made 
by George Lilly. 1595. Gerard 
Mercator published his atlas of 
maps. 

Charts, Weather 1859. First 
synoptic weather chart issued. 
Admiral Fitzroy inv. word "syn- 
optic." See also Television. 
CHASSEPOT, Antoine 1868. 
Inv. breech-loading rifle used 
in Franco-Prussian war. 
Cheque 1281. First cheque on 
record dated Windsor, Sept. 10, 
1281. 

Cheque-printing 1836. 
Water-colour security ("Xylo- 
graphic") process inv. Charles 
G. Wright, of New York. 
Chess 680 B.C. Inv. ascribed to 
Palamedes. 

Cheve* Musical Notation 
System 1818. Pierre Galin (Fr) 
intro. system founded on an 
earlier idea of Jean Jacques 



CHEVREUL 



37 



CHRISTMAS CARDS 



Rosseau. 1834. Aim6 Paris (Fr) 
intro. "time-language" to 
Galin's system. 1844. Dr. Emil6 
Cheve" (Paris's brother-in-law) 
compounded a complete system 
known as the Galin-Paris- 
Cheve system; which was a 
rival to the tonic-sol-fa system. 
CHEVREUL, Michel Eu- 
gene (Fr) (1786-1889) 1823. 
Proved animal fats to be com- 
pounds of aliphatic acids and 
glycerine. 

Chewing Gam a.d. goo. 
Mayas of Central America 
chewed chicle, the bases of 
modern chewing gum. 
Chimes, Westminster 1793. 
Composed by Dr. William 
Crotch ( 1 775-1847) for bells 
of St. Mary's church, Cam- 
bridge. 

Chimney-sweeping Tools 
1850. Inv. Joseph Glass. 
CHLADNI, Ernst Florens 
Friedrich (Ger) (1756- 182 7) 
1802. Pioneered the revival of 
the experimental physical 
approach to study of vibrations 
in rods, plates and mem- 
branes. 

Chlorine (gas) 1774. Disc, by 
C. W. Scheele, who called it 
dephlogistigated marine acid 
air. 1 784. Named "oxymuriatic 
acid" by Antoine Lavoisier 
(Fr), and "chlorine," on ac- 
count of its green colour by Sir 
Humphrey Davy in 1810. See 
also Bleaching. 

Chlorodyne (medicine) Inv. 
Dr. James Collis-Browne ( 1 8 1 9- 
1884). 

Chloroform 1831. Disc, by 
Soubeiran (Fr), and by Guth- 
rie (U.S.). 1847. Composition 
denned by Dumas (Fr). 1847. 
First used as anaesthetic at St. 

4— IAD 



Bartholomew's Hospital, Lon- 
don by Sir William Lawrence 
and Mr. Holmes, on the recom- 
mendation of medical student 
M. C. Furnell. (Results not 
published until later.) 1847, 
Nov. 15. Liverpool druggist 
Waldie, in co-operation with 
Sir James Y. Simpson of Edin- 
burgh made personal trial of 
chloroform and intro. it to 
medical profession. Dr. Snow 
later administered Chloroform 
to Queen Victoria. 
Chloromycin Disc. 1947. 
Chlorophyll Disc, and named 
by Pierre Pelletier (Fr) (1788- 
1842) and Joseph Caventon 
( 1 795-1878). 1833. Fluores- 
cence of disc. Sir David Breuster. 
1864. Chemical composition 
disc. 1882. T. W. Engelmann 
( 1 843- 1 909) disc, irregularity 
in activity of various parts of 
spectrum on Chlorophyll, i960. 
Synthesized by R. B. Wood- 
ward, of Boston, U.S. 1906. 
Composition disc. Richard Will- 
statter (Ger). 

Chocolate 1520. Slab eating 
chocolate known in Spain. 
1650. Sold at high prices in 
London coffee-houses. 1853. 
Popularity of chocolate in 
England dates from time of 
Gladstone's free trade budget. 
Cholera 1883. Virus disc, by 
Robert Koch. See also Virus. 
Cholesterol 1951. Synthesized 
from 4-methoxytoluquinone by 
R. B. Woodward, of Boston, 
U.S. 

Choreography 1947. Alpha- 
bet of movement inv. by Rudolf 
Benesh. 

Chorus 556 B.C. Intro, into 
Greek drama. 
Christmas Cards 1844. W. 



CHRISTOFORI 



38 



CINEMATOGRAPHY 



E. T. Dobson, R.A., des. and 
painted the first Xmas Card. 
1862. Intro, commercially by 
English firm of Goodall and 
Son. 

CHRISTOFORI, Bartolom- 
meo (It) Pioneer harpsichord 
maker of Padua. Inv. the piano- 
forte, 1709. 

Chromatography (chemistry) 
1906. Inv. by Twsett (Rus). 
1 94 1. Partition chromato- 
graphy inv. Martin and Synge. 
1944. Paper chromatography 
intro. 

Ghromescope 1869. Inv. by 
Capt. Andrew Noble (engaged 
by William Armstrong), and 
exhibited at Newcastle upon 
Tyne. 

Chromium (element) 1 797. 
Disc, by Vauquelin. 
Chromo-lithography 1836. 
Inv. in England. 
Chronograph, Spark 1928. 
Inv. by Loomis. 
Chronometer See Clocks. 
Chronoscope 1840. Inv. Sir 
Charles Wheatstone (1802-75). 
1844. Imp. C. inv. Claude- 
Servain Pouillet (Fr) (1791- 
1868). 

Chuck, Lathe 1820. Two- 
jawed chuck inv. by Henry 
Maudslay (1711-1832). 1820. 
Three-jawed chuck inv. Lewis 
Gompertz. 

CIERVA, Juan de la (Sp) 
( 1 895-1 936) Inv. autogiro c. 
1924 See Aircraft. 
Cigarette i860. William and 
Henry Charlesworth and T. H. 
Dumbar, of London pat. const. 
of cigarette of leaf tobacco 
attached to a tube of paper or 
wood filled with cut or shredded 
pipe tobacco. 
Cinematography 1824. Per- 



sistence of vision invest, by Dr. 
P. M. Roget. 1864. P. J. C. 
Janssen (Fr) inv. "revolver" 
camera for taking pictures of 
transit of Venus. 1872. Ead- 
weard J. Muybridge (U.S., 
late of Kingston-on-Thames, 
Eng.) took 24 consecutive 
pictures of a trotting horse in 
California; and in 1879, suc- 
cessfully repeated the exper. 
1882. Prof. E. J. Marey, of 
Paris, inv. a pistol camera 
which took pictures on drum- 
mounted sensitized glass plates. 
1876. Wordsworth Donisthorpe 
inv. cine-camera. 1884. William 
Friese-Greene inv. cine-camera. 

1887. L. L. A. LePrince inv. 
first cine-projector/camera. 

1888. W. C. Crofts inv. cine- 
camera. 1893. Thomas Alva 
Edison (U.S.) inv. coin-in-slot 
cine-machines used at Chicago 
World's Fair. 1895. Scientific 
instrument-maker R. W. Paul 
inv. first successful cine-pro- 
jector. Used in film show in 
Hatton Garden, London. 1888. 
Edison makes first film (See 
Kinetoscope). 1895. First cine 
record made by L. Lumiere 
(Fr), of train arriving at station. 
1906. Albert Smith prop., then 
pat. a two-colour process. 1907. 
Two-colour process intro. com- 
mercially. 191 1. "Kinema- 
colour" improved two-colour 
process intro. with red and 
green screens. 19 14. John 
Randolph Bray prod, first ani- 
mated cartoon — "The Dachs- 
hund." 1916. Bray prod, first 
technical animated cartoon and 
the first animated colour car- 
toon released by Paramount. 
1922. Dr. Herbert Thomas 
Kalmus's "Technicolour" pro- 



CIRCLE, QUADRATURE OF THE 39 



CLOCK 



cess used to prod, first successful 
coloured film — "Toll of the 
Sea," shown at Rial to Theatre, 
New York. 1937. Frederick 
Waller inv. three-dimensional 
cinematography ("Viterama") 
and later, with Hazard Reeves 
dev. "Cinerama" and "Cine- 
mascope." . {See also Thaumo- 
scope, Stroboscope, Phenakis- 
tascope, Heliocinegraphe, etc.) 
Circle, Quadrature of the 
22 1 B.C. Archimedes made first 
approach to value of it and 
found the ratio as 4970 is to 
between 15,610 and 15,620. 
1 71 7. Abraham Sharp worked 
out 7r to 72 decimal places. 
1 7 19. Lagny worked it to 
122 places (3- 14*5926535897- 
93238462643383279 . . .). 1841. 
Determined to 208 places 
by Dr. Rutherford. 1846. 
Determined by Dase to 200 
places, and by Dr. Clausen, of 
Dorpat, to 200 places. 1851. 
Determined by William Shanks 
of Houghton-le-Spring, Co. 
Durham to 527 places, and in 
1853, to 607 places. 
Citric Acid 1784. Disc. C. W. 
Scheele (1742-86). 
CLAIRAUT, Alexis-Claude 
(Fr) (1713-65) I 743- Promul- 
gated the theorem bearing his 
name relating the gravity at 
points on the surface of a rota- 
ting ellipsoid with the com- 
pression and centrifugal force 
at the equator. Also put forward 
a theory of capillarity. 
CLAPEYRON, Emile (Fr) 
( 1 799-1 864) 1834. Assimilated 
the thermodynamic ideas of 
Carnot into mathematical form. 
Clarionet 1690. Inv. Denner, 
of Nuremberg. 
CLARK, Thomas (1801-67) 



Inv. water-softening process. 
CLAUSIUS, Rudolf (Ger) 
(1822-88) With William 
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) virtu- 
ally founded the science of 
thermodynamics. 
Clay, China See Kaolin. 
GLEGG, Samuel (1814-56) 
c. 1 81 2. Inv. the water-locked 
gas-holder, gas scrubber, gas 
valves, gas-meter, and other 
units essential in manufacture 
and distribution of coal- 
gas. 

Clepshydra (water-clock) 
1450 B.C. Used in Ancient 
Egypt with various scales for 
different times of the year. 
158 B.C. Intro, into Rome by 
Scipio Nasica. a.d. 725. I- 
Hsing and Liang-Ling-Tsan 
(Chinese) inv. clepshydra with 
a link-work escapement. 
CLERK, Dugald (1 854-1 932) 
1 88 1. Inv. two-stroke gas-engine 
{Pat. Nos. 1089-1881). 
Clock 1276. Falling mercury 
clock desc. by Alfonso of Castile. 
c. 1250. First drawing of escape- 
ment principle made by Villard 
de Honnecourt (Fr), with 
model angel pointing to sun. 
1250. Weight-driven mechan- 
isms in use. c. 1335. Weight- 
driven clock made by Peter 
Lightfoot for Abbott of Glaston- 
bury Abbey. (Worked until 
1835, when frame fitted with 
new gear-train.) 1335. First 
clock of which there is reliable 
knowledge set up at Milan. 
1379. Clock set up in Rouen. 
1386. Oldest surviving clock 
made. (Now at Salisbury 
Cathedral.) 1641. Galileo 
applied pendulum to clock 
made by his son Vicenzio. 
1660. ChristiaanHuygens (Hoi) 



CLOCK, ATOMIC 



40 



COAL-TIPS 



(1629-95) ma de marine clock. 
1676. Rev. Edward Barlow inv. 
rack striking mechanism. 1735. 
John Harrison ( 1 693- 1776) 
made first clock (chronometer) 
with hand-cut gears. 1774. 
Thomas Mudge (1715-94) 
made clock (chronometer) for 
Board of Longitude. 1826. First 
clock with illuminated dials 
fitted St. Brides church, Fleet 
Street, London. (See also Cleps- 
hydra, Escapement, Fusee, 
Watch.) 

Clock, Atomic 1946. Inv. Dr. 
Willard Frank Libby. 
Clock, Electric 1840. First 
devised by Sir Charles Wheat- 
stone (1802-79). 1847. Inv. by 
Alexander Bain, of Edinburgh. 
1 85 1. Electric clock for Crystal 
Palace des. Charles Shepherd. 
1854. A. Hull, of Lloydsville, 
Ohio, took out first U.S. Pat. 
for electric clock. 1873. Ritchie 
(Scot) inv. double-pendulum 
electric clock. 1898. R. J. 
Rudd inv. "Synchronome" 
principle, with free-swinging 
pendulum controlling electric 
slave-clocks. 

Cloisonne Work Devised by 
the Sumerians, reaching climax 
of perfection in ancient Egypt 
(Tutankhamen's collarette.) 
Cloth 588 B.C. Made in Tyre. 
a.d. 960. Made in Flanders. 
1 1 1 1. Intro, into England. 1667. 
First dyeing and dressing of 
cloth in England. 
Cloud Chamber (nuclear 
physics). 1897. C. T. R. Wilson 
disc, that ions would coagulate 
liquid disperse systems and 
condense fine water-drops into 
visibility. 1898. Thompson 
found fine dust-clouds could 
enable him to count charged 



particles. 191 1. "Cloud-cham- 
ber" inv. C. T. R. Wilson. 
Cloud Forms 1803. First 
classified by diarist Luke 
Howard, of London. (Classi- 
fication substantially same as 
now used.) 

Clutch, Friction 1786. Dog 
clutch inv. John Rennie for 
Albion Flour Mills, which he 
des. 1800. Cone clutch inv. Marc 
Isambard Brunei for naval 
block-making machinery at 
Portsmouth. 

Coal, Underground Gasi- 
fication of 1858. Suggested by 
William Siemens (Ger) and 
imp. by him 1883. c. 1890 
Mendeleyer (Rus) and A. G. 
Bates (Eng) imp. process. 1912. 
Sir William Ramsey inv. new 
system, which was tried at Hett 
Gill, Tursdale Colliery, Co. 
Durham. 1931. U.S.S.R. subsi- 
dize experiments and build 
stations at Donetz and other 
coalfields. 1938. Russian system 
industrially in use. 1947. 
Underground gasification of 
coal in use in Italy. 1953. 
Underground gasification of 
coal in use at Gorgas, Alabama, 
U.S. 

Goal-cutting Machine 1761. 
Horse and man-powered coal- 
cutting machines inv. Andrew 
Menzies (Scot). 1863. Toothed- 
wheel, compressed-air turbine 
coal-cutting machine inv. by 
Thomas Harrison. Machines 
also inv. by Firth and Donnis- 
thorpe; Grafton Jones; Nisbet 
(Scot); Ridley; and G. A. 
Mellin, of Smithill, Leeds. 
1875. Gillot and Copley inv. 
compressed air machine. 
Coal-tips, Hydraulically 
operated 1857. First inst. by 



COAL TAR 



4" 



COMET, HALLEY S 



Sir William Armstrong & Com- 
pany at Roath Dock, Cardiff. 
Coal Tar 1822. First recorded 
distillation of; at Glasgow. 
Goal Washing Machine 
c. 1863. Inv. (with hopper con- 
veyor) by Berard. 
Cobalt (element) Isol. by 
Kennig Brandt (Ger) (1694- 
1768). 

Cocaine 1884. Disc, by Karl 
Kroller, of Vienna. 
COCKROFT, John (b. 1897) 
1932. With Ernest Walton inv. 
the linear accelerator to break 
up atoms without the use of 
radium. 

Code, Telegraphic 1837. Inv. 
by Alfred Vail (U.S.). 1838. 
"Dot-dash" code imp. by 
Samuel Breeze Morse (U.S.). 
Codeine 1832. Isol. from opium 
byRobiquet(Fr). 
Coffee 1450. Known and used 
as stimulant in Abyssinia. 1643. 
Intro, in Paris. 1650. Intro, in 
Oxford. 1736. Tree trans- 
planted from Arabia to West 
Indies. 

Coherer (radio detector) Ori- 
ginally dev. by Prof. Thom- 
massina (It) and intro. into 
Italian navy by Luigi Solari. 
1899. Self-acting coherer intro. 
Coherer also des. by Edouard 
Branley (Fr) (1 846-1 940). 
Coil, Induction (electrical 
transformer) 1 838. Grafton 
Page (U.S.) const, an induction 
coil and imp. it in 1851. 1850. 
Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff 
(Ger) (1803-77), of Paris const. 
induction coil. 1851. Michael 
Faraday (1791-1867) and 
Joseph Henry (1 797-1878) dev. 
transformer into induction coil. 
1 86 1. Induction coil used as 



ignition source on fitienne 
Lenoir's gas-engine. 
Coin 1 2 10. Silver farthing first 
coined in Ireland. 1257. First 
record of gold coin being struck 
in England. 1522. Silver farth- 
ing first coined in England. 
1553. Half-crown first coined 
in England. 1663. Guinea first 
coined in England. 1665. 
Copper farthing first struck in 
England. (Issued 1672). 1672 
(Aug. 16). Halfpenny first 
issued in England. 1690. Tin 
farthings struck in England. 
1843. Half-farthing first struck 
in England. 1861. Half-crown 
discontinued in England. (Circ- 
ulation resumed, 1874.) 
Coining Press (mill) 1553-61. 
Coining press superseded ham- 
mering for minting. Inv. Eloye 
Mestrell (Fr). 161 7. Coining 
press intro. England. 1790. 
Coining press imp. by Paris 
engraver, Chipart. 
Coin-in-slot Machine Used 
in Ancient Greece for dispens- 
ing libation of holy water. 
Coke-oven See Retort, Gas. 
Colloids 1 86 1. Science of col- 
loids founded and named by 
Thomas Graham (1805-69). 
Colon (:) 773 b.g. Colon and 
full-stop adopted in Greece by 
Thrasymachus. 16th cent. 
Colon and semi-colon first used 
in English literature. 
Colour See Light and Optics. 
Colour-blindness 1774. Disc. 
by John Dalton ( 1 766-1 844) . 
Combing Machine (textiles) 
1832. Inv. Joshua Heilmann, of 
Mulhouse, Alsace. 
Comet, Halley's 1861. Disc. 
by Edmund Halley (1656- 
1742), who predicted its return 
in 1759. 



COMPASS, MARINER'S 



42 



COMPUTERS 



Compass, Mariner's 2634 
B.C. (64th year of Chinese 
Emperor Ho-ang-ti.) Chinese 
chariot guided by piece of 
magnetite suspended by silk 
thread. 11 15 and 1195. Mar- 
iner's compass also mentioned 
in Chinese literature. a.d. 121. 
Mariner's compass again men- 
tioned in Chinese dictionary, 
nth cent. First mentioned in 
Europe by Ara Frode (Nor). 
c. 1 100. Mariner's compass 
mentioned by Richard Cceur- 
de-Lion's foster-brother Alex- 
ander Neckham. 1242. Com- 
pass-bowl desc. by Bailak. 1260 
(?) Intro, into Europe by 
Marco Polo. 1269. First tech- 
nical desc. of mariner's compass 
by Peter the Stranger. 1302. 
Compass needle fixed to pivoted 
card by Flavio Gioja, of Amalfi, 
Italy. 1492. Variation of 
mariner's compass disc. Christo- 
pher Columbus. 1576. "Dip" 
of compass needle estab. Robert 
Norman. 1608. Box compass 
and hanging compass inv. Rev. 
William Barlow. 1876. Lord 
Kelvin (William Thomson) 
( 1 824-1 907) pat. imp. mariner's 
compass. 

Compasses (drawing) a.d. 
79. Bronze compasses found 
at Pompeii. (Compasses inv. 
Jost Bing, of Hesse, Germany.) 
Compounding See Engine, 
Steam. 

Compressed Air c. 125 B.C. 
Suggested as a power for cata- 
pults by Ctesibus of Alex- 
andria. 1 799. George Medhurst 
( 1 759-1 829) compressed air to 
210 p.s.i. and transmitted it 
to a motor in a mine. 1802. 
William Murdock (1 754-1839) 
used compressed air from blow- 



ing machines for driving lathes, 
working a lift and ringing alarm 
bells at Soho Works, Birming- 
ham. (The largest compressed 
air engine had a 12 in. cylinder 
and remained in use for 35 
years.) 1830. Compressed air 
first used for tunnelling by 
Thomas Cochrane (1775- 
1860). 1839. Compressed air 
used to ring signal bell between 
Euston Station and Camden 
Town, on the London and Bir- 
mingham Railway. 1845. Con- 
veyed for 750 ft. in a French 
coal-mine. 1861. Compressed 
air first used on large scale by 
Sommeiller (Fr)., who inv. a 
compressed air rock-drill (q.v). 
1869. Used by Lord Cochrane 
for tunnelling under River 
Thames. See Drill, Compressed 
air; Power Transmission, 
(Compressed air). 
Compton Effect (X-rays) 
1 923. Disc. Arthur Holly Comp- 
ton, of Wooster, Ohio, U.S. 
Computers (including Calcu- 
lating Machines) 1641. First 
adding machine inv. Blaise 
Pascal (Fr) (1623-62). c. 1666. 
Sir Samuel Morland (1625-95) 
inv. adding and subtracting 
machine and presented it to 
Charles II. 1694. Gottfried 
W. F. Leibnitz (1646-17 16) inv. 
pin-and-camwheel calculating 
machine. 1 709. Polonius imp. on 
Leibnitz's machine. 1709. 
Pascal's machine imp. by 
Lepine (Fr) to carry from one 
column to the next. 1 727. Jacob 
Lerpold (Ger) inv. calculating 
machine. 1729. Hillerin de 
Boistissandeau inv. three adding 
machines. 1774. Matthew 
Hahn, of Stuttgart, made cal- 
culating machine in England. 



CONCERTINA 



1 75 1. Jacob Pereire, of Bor- 
deaux, inv. adding machines for 
teaching deaf mutes. 1775-76. 
Viscount Mahon (Earl of Stan- 
hope) built two calculating 
machines. 1784. J. H. Muller 
(Ger) des. calculating machine. 
1820 Calculating machine re- 
inv. by Charles Xavier de 
Colmar (Fr). 181 2. Charles 
Babbage (1791-1871) inv. his 
"Difference Engine," which he 
started building 1833 but never 
completed. (His son, H. P. 
Babbage completed a section of 
the machine.) C. Babbage dis- 
cussed in other terms modern 
"programming" and "taping." 
1887. "Comptometer" inv. by 
Dorr E. Felt, of Chicago, U.S. 
1887. Calculating machine inv. 
by Leon Boll6e (Fr). 1892. Pin- 
and-camwheel calculating 
machine re-inv. by W. T. 
Odhner (Rus). 1946. First all- 
electric digital computer built 
at Pennsylvania University. 
1948. Harvard Mark II com- 
puter completed, incorporating 
many of Babbage's ideas. 1937. 
Howard Aitkin (U.S.) des. 
Harvard Mark I computer — 
completed, 1944. 1949. Dr. 
M. V. Wilkes des. first all- 
electric computer in England 
(18,000 valves). 

Concertina 1825. Inv. Sir 
Charles Wheatstone (1802-75). 
See also Accordion. 
Concordance (Bible) 1247. 
First compiled by 500 monks. 
1737. English concordance 
compiled by Alexander Cruden 
(Scot) (1701-70). 
Concrete First appearance in 
Roman times. Made from vol- 
canic earth (pozzolana) found 



43 CONDENSER, WATER 

in Alban Hills, near Naples. 
Would set under water. 
Concrete Mixer 1857. Inv. 
and used by civil engineer 
C6zanne (Fr) on const, of 
bridge over River Tisza at 
Szeged. 

Concrete Reinforced 1849. 
First used by Joseph Monier 
(Fr) ( 1 823-1 906) for making 
tubs for orange trees. 1854. 
W. B. Wilkinson, of Newcastle 
upon Tyne embedded iron 
rods and second-hand mine- 
winding cables in concrete. 
1877. Monier pat. reinforced 
concrete beams. 1892. Fran coise 
Hennebique (Fr) pat. reinforced 
concrete beams; intro. into Eng- 
land, 1897. 

CONDAMINE, Charles- 
Marie de la (Fr) (1701-74) 
1 735. With Pierre Bouguer (Fr) 
measured degree of earth's 
meridian in Peru. 
Condensed Milk 1856. Bor- 
den pat. method of manufac- 
turing condensed milk. 
Condenser, Electric 1 745. 
Inv. by Ewald Georg von Kleist, 
of Kamin, Pomerania; and 
independently the following 
year by Petrus van Musschen- 
broek, of Leyden ( 1692- 1 761). 
(See Leyden Jar.) 1750. Ben- 
jamin Franklin (1706-90) dev. 
"Fulminating plate." 1759. 
Franz Alpinus const, electric 
condenser with air and glass 
dielectric. 1833. Bridge elec- 
troscope inv. by Samuel Chris- 
tie. 1900. G. F. Mansbridge 
dev. paper and tinfoil electric 
condenser. 

Condenser, Water Inv. by 
J. F. Baron von Liebig (Ger) 
(1803-73). l8l 3- Rectifying 
column condenser inv. Gelier 



CONDUCTOR, ELECTRIC 



44 



CARIOLIS EFFECT 



Blumenthal. Further dev. by 
Pistorius (Ger). 1834. Surface 
condensers intro. by Samuel Hall 
to provide fresh water for 
ship's engine boiler feed. (See 
also Cooling.) 

Conductor, Electric 1 733. Du 
Fay (Fr) first drew distinction 
between Conductors and In- 
sulators. 

Conic Sections 330 B.C. Aris- 
totle (384-322 B.C.) wrote first 
treatise on conic sections. 
Connecting-rod c. 1430. Ap- 
plied to crank as substitute for 
human arm by a German mill- 
wright. (See also Crank.) 
CONTI, Abbe Anthony 
Schenella (It) (1 677-1 749) 
Prop, principle of aneroid baro- 
meter. 

Contour Lines (map) 1791. 
Inv. and first used by French 
surveyor Jean Louis Dupont- 
Triel. 

Contra-bassoon Inv. Wilhelm 
Heckel (Ger). 

Controls, Flexible (engineer- 
ing) 1896. Twisted steel wire 
cable running in spiral spring 
"tube" inv. E. M. Bowden. 
Conveyor 1794. William 
Staden inv. conveyor claiming 
to "work upon a plane, an 
ascent, or perpendicular." 
x 795- Oliver Evans (U.S.) 
( 1 755-1819) desc. canvas belt 
conveyor in his book The 
Miller's Guide. 1903. Canvas 
sling conveyor const, for use 
at Mobile, Ala., U.S. 1910. 
Drew and Clydesdale built first 
conveyor belt in Britain for 
bananas; des. by Percy Donald. 
Conveyor, Coal-face 1902. 
First satisfactory coal-face con- 
veyor inv. W. C. Blackett; with 
steel trough and scraper-chain. 



COOKSWORTHY, William 

1760. Disc, kaolin in Cornwall 
and made first hard porcelain 
in England. 

COOPER, E. A. 1878. Inv. 
Teleautograph or writing tele- 
graph. 

COOPER-HEWITT, Peter 
(U.S.) 1902. Inv. Mercury arc 
rectifier and mercury vapour 
lamp. 

COPERNICUS, Nicolaus 
(1473-1543) r 543- Explained 
his theory of the universe with 
the sun in the central position, 
instead of the earth, as in the 
Ptolemaic system. 
Copper c. 4200 B.C. First used. 
1 56 1. First disc, (modern) in 
Cornwall. 1869. Electrolytic 
refining commenced at Pem- 
bray, South Wales, using 
Elkington's process. 1878. Hol- 
loway's refining process first 
used. See also Electrotyping. 
Copper Arsenate (Scheele's 
Green) 1778 Disc, by Carl 
Wilhelm Scheele (Ger) (1742- 
86). 

Copper-plate Printing See 
Printing. 

Copper-plating of ships' 
bottoms c. i860. Intro, during 
American War of Indepen- 
dence. 

Copying Machine 1 778. Copy- 
ing machine for writing inv. by 
James Watt (1736-18 1 9). 1845. 
Panel copying machine for 
wood and stone used on British 
Houses of Parliament. Also 
pats, by Brunei and Wedgwood. 
Cordite Inv. F. A. Abel and 
J. Dewar. 

Coriolis Effect (geophysics) 
i860. First suggested and ana- 
lysed by Gustave-Gaspard 
Coriolis (Fr) (1 792-1843). 



GORIOLIS 

CORIOLIS, Gustave-Gas- 
pard de (Fr) Mathematician. 
See previous entry. 
CORLISS, George Henry 

(U.S.) (1817-88) 1849. Inv. 
steam-engine valve-gear bear- 
ing his name. 

CORNELISZ, Cornells (of 
Uitgeest) 1593. Inv. wind- 
driven saw-null and seed-crush- 
ing, edge-runner mill. 
CORRENS, Karl Erich (Ger) 
(1864- 1 933) Imp. the electrical 
accumulator inv. by Plant6 in 
1859, and with Faure, dev. the 
storage battery used in modern 
motor-car. 

Corrosion Fatigue (metal- 
lurgy) 191 7. Phenomenon first 
identified (in brass) by Haigh. 
Corrugated Iron 1832. Inv. 
John Walker, of Rotherhithe, 
London and used for roofing. 
(Cost £5 1 os. per 100 sq. ft.) 
CORT, Henry (1 740-1 800) 
1783. With Peter Onions inv. 
the puddling process for con- 
version of pig-iron into 
wrought-iron. 

Cortisone 1935. Isol. by Dr. 
Edward C. Kendall (U.S.). 
1948 (Sept.). First used on 
human patient (a woman). 
1 95 1. Synthesized by R. B. 
Woodward, of Boston, U.S. 
Cosmic Rays and Radiation 
1900. Elster, Geitel and C.T. R. 
Wilson realized that even the 
cleanest and driest air has a 
slight ionisation and conduc- 
tion, suggesting extra-terres- 
trial radiation as the cause. 
1909. Gockel (Swit.) sent up 
electroscope to 12,000 ft. to 
check cosmic rays. 191 1. Kol- 
horster and Hess check cosmic 
rays up to 15,000 ft. 19 14. 
Kolhorster checks cosmic rays 



45 GOWPER 

to 27,000 ft. c. 1920. R. A. 
Millikan and Bowen check 
cosmic rays to 45,000 ft. with 
self-registering machines. 1927. 
Disc, that cosmic radiation is 
greater at high latitudes than 
at equator. 1930. Compton 
organized world-wide observa- 
tion of "mystery radiations." 
1932. Clay showed them to be 
radiation coming to earth from 
outer space. 1932. Cosmic rays 
analysed by Anderson and 
Millikan, in California. 
Cotton Gin (textiles) 1793. 
Inv. Eli Whitney (U.S.) (1765- 
1825). 1796. Imp. by Holmes. 
Cotton-picking Machine 
1889. Angus Campbell (Scot) 
inv. spindle-type cotton-picking 
machine. 1925. Hiram M. Berry 
(U.S.) inv. barbed-spindle 
cotton-picking machine. 1933. 
John and Mack Rust (U.S.) 
tested their first spindle-type 
cotton-picking machine. 
COULOMB, Charles Augus- 
tin de (Fr) (1 736-1 806) 1785. 
Formulated the law of forces 
between electrical charges 
which is named after him. 
Coumarin (chemistry) 1868. 
First produced by Sir William 
Henry Perkin ( 1 838- 1 907) . 
Counterbalance Weight 
c. 1480. Ref. to ball of metal on 
one crank to counterbalance 
the other, found in German 
literature. 1845. First applied 
to locomotive steam-engine by 
William Fernihough. 
COURTOIS, Bernard (Fr) 
(1777-1838) 181 1. Disc, iodine. 
Cowl, Chimney 1714. Revolv- 
ing cowl inv. in France. 1850. 
Downdraught, non-smoking 
cowl inv. by William Pilbeam. 
COWPER, Edward {c. 1857) 



GRAFTS 



46 



CRAWFORD 



1857. With John M'Naught 

intro. modern rotative form of 

steam-engine. 

GRAFTS, James Mason 

(1839-1917) 1877. With 
Charles Friedel paved the way 
for large-scale chemical syn- 
thesis by devising methods 
which made possible the sub- 
stitution or introduction of 
certain groupings of atoms into 
organic compounds. 
Crane (mechanics) c. 1550 
B.C. Lifting crane in use in 
Egypt, c. 50-26 B.C. Sheerlegs 
type crane in use in Rome. 1 520 
(a.d.). Cranes illus. by Georg 
Bauer (Georgius Agricola) 
(1494-1555). 1714. Balanced, 
mast-mounted ship's cargo der- 
rick crane inv. Pere Ressin (Fr). 
1785. Jean Tremel (Fr) imp. 
ship-loading crane. 1790. 
Ambrose Poux-Landry (Fr) 
imp. on Tremel's inv. 1792. 
Pierre Desvallons (Fr) inv. two 
types of ship-loading cranes, 
one of which enabled one man 
to handle i\ tons. 1 790. Joseph 
Bramah (1 748-1814) des. wall- 
type warehouse crane. 1790. 
Joseph Bramah ( 1 748- 1 8 1 4) des. 
wall type warehouse crane. 
1790. Weighing crane inv. 
by Andrews. 1 795. Crane with 
travelling carriage des. by Gott- 
leib. 1846. First hydraulically 
operated crane erected at New- 
castle upon Tyne. 1850. 50-ton 
crane erected at Glasgow. 1858. 
Steam-operated overhead 
travelling crane in use in Whit- 
worth's London works. (In use 
as lately as 1930.) 
Crane, Weighing 1800. Inv. 
by Andrews. 

Crank (mechanics) 37-41 
(a.d.) Cranks and flywheels 



disc, on Roman Emperor's cere- 
monial barge recovered from 
Lake Nemi, Italy. 816-834. 
The Utrecht Psalter (at 
Rheims) depicts earliest Euro- 
pean crank and earliest rotary 
grindstone. 942. Abbot Odo de 
Gluny (d. 942) desc. crank- 
operated organistrum or hurdy- 
gurdy. 1206. Al Jazari (Arab) 
mentions application of crank. 
1335. Italian physician Guido 
da Vigevano desc. combination 
of two Luttrell Psalter-type 
cranks to form one crank in 
centre of axle. 1340. Double- 
cranked grindstone mentioned 
in Luttrell Psalter. 14th cent. 
Large two-man, cranked cross- 
bow in use. 1405. Konrad 
Keyser pictures five cranked 
devices for cross-bows. 1420. 
Practical compound crank intro. 
in form of carpenter's brace. 
c. 1430. MS. shows mill operated 
with crank, connecting-rod and 
treadles, with a flywheel. 1556. 
Georg Bauer (Georgius Agri- 
cola) ( 1 494- 1555) mentions 
crank as means of working 
windlasses and pumps. 1780. 
Crank re-inv. by Birmingham 
button-maker James Pickard. 
(Pat. expired, 1794.) 1769. 
James Watt ( 1 736- 1 8 1 9) men- 
tions his use of crank. 1865. 
Ernest Michaux, of Paris, first 
applied cranks to cycle propul- 
sion. (Karl Kech, of Munich, 
is said to have made this 
application independently the 
same year.) 

CRAWFORD, Adair (1748- 
95) With chemists and physi- 
cists Gadolin, Kraft, Rich- 
mann, Wilcke and Robinson 
continued research work in 
calorimetry along the lines laid 



CRAYON 



47 



CUNEIFORM WRITING 



down by pioneer Joseph Black 
(1728-99). 

Crayon 1748. First made by 
L'Oriot (Fr). 

Creatine (chemistry) 1835. 
Disc, by E. Chevreul (Fr). 
Creosote 1833. Due. by Reich- 
enbach (Ger). 

Creosoting (wood preserva- 
tion) 1838. Process inv. by 
Bethell. See also Kyanizing. 
Crepe (textile) a.d. 680. 
First made at Bologna, Italy. 
Crime Detection, Anthro- 
pometric method of inv. by 
M. Alphonse Bertillon (Fr) 
(1853-1914). 

CROMPTON, R. E. B. (1848- 
1940) c. 1870. Des. steam road 
vehicle used in India. 
CROMPTON, Samuel 
( I 733 _I 827) 1 774. Inv. spinning 
"mule." 

CROOKES, Sir William 
(1832-1919) 1873. ihfl.theradio- 
meter. 

Crops, Rotation of a.d. 763. 
Three-field system of agricul- 
ture first mentioned. 
CROSS, Charles Frederick 
(1855-1935) c. 1915. Inv. petrol- 
eum cracking process. 1882. 
Inv. (with Bevan) a good sub- 
stitute for cotton by making a 
regenerated cellulose yarn from 
a solution of cellulose-xanthate 
(formed from cellulose, lye, and 
carbon disulphide, to be spun 
into viscose-rayon fibre. 
Gross-bow 200 B.C. The "scor- 
pion," a dev. of the cross-bow 
widely in use. See also crank. 
Cryogenics Science pioneered 
by Z. F. von Wroblewaky in 
1883. See Gases, Liquefication 
of; Refrigeration; Refrigera- 
tors. 



Gryophorus (latent heat) Inv. 
Dr. William Hyde Woolaston 
( 1 766-1 828). 

Crystallography 1669. Nicola 
Steno first noted regularity and 
constancy of facial angles of 
crystals. (Constant form 
in metals had been disc. 
by Andrew Caesalpinus (It) 
(1519-1603).) 1771. Science of 
crystallography founded by 
Rom6 de Lisle, who, in 1783 
made instruments to measure 
angles of crystals. 1 801. Modern 
school of crystallography 
founded by Rene-Just Haiiy 
(Fr). 

Crystal Field Theory 1930. 
Dev. by Berths and Van Vleck. 
Crystal Rectifiers See Tran- 
sistors. 

CTESJBUS Alexandrian philo- 
sopher (c. 300 b.c.) inv. water- 
blown hydraulos, or musical 
organ. 

Cudbear (archil, orchil; dye) 
Type of dye obtained from 
certain litchens pat. by Dr. 
Cuthbert Gordon, who con- 
nected it with his name, c. 
1840. 

CUGNOT, Nicholas Joseph 
(Fr) of Void, Lorraine (1725- 
1804) 1769. Des. and const. 
first steam vehicle to run under 
its own power on a common 
road. 

Cuirass (armour) 12 16. First 
worn by English cavalry. 
Cultivator, Rotary 1853. Pat. 
by Chandon Wren Haskyns. 
Cuneiform Writing 1800. 
Grotefend fortuitously trans- 
lated the name "Darius" and 
"Xerxes" = "Kschersche," his 
son. 1844. Lassen completed a 
cuneiform alphabet. (Bernouff 



CUPELLATION 



4 8 



CYTOLOGY 



(1775-1844) and Sir Henry 
Rawlinson (1810-95) also de- 
ciphered cuneiform writing.) 
Gupellation 2500 B.C. Process 
in use to refine gold. Also used 
by ancient Romans. 
CURIE, Pierre (Fr) (1859- 
1906) 1898-1902. Disc, and 
studied many radioactive ele- 
ments. (See also Becquerel.) 
1898. Isol. polonium, and in 
1 91 2, radium as a pure salt. 
CURIE, Mane (Fr) (1867- 
1934). 1898. Jointly with her 
husband, Pierre, disc, radium. 
Curing (salting) 1260. William 
Beukelszoon, of Biervleit, Hol- 
land, first cured herrings by 
gutting and salting. 1359. First 
applied in England. 1397. Used 
for herrings. 

Curium (element) 1945. Disc. 
by Glen T. Seaborg (U.S.), 
R. A. James (U.S.) and A. G. 
Liorso (U.S.). 

Curtal (musical instrument) 
See Bassoon. 

CURTIS, Charles G. (U.S.) 
( 1 860-1 953) 1896. Inv. velocity 
compounding in steam turbine 
design. 

Cutting-out Machine (tex- 
tiles) 1853. Frederick Osbourn 
inv. first cutting-out machine 
for clothes. 

CUVIER, Georges (Fr) 
( 1 769-1832) Virtually founded 
the science of palaeontology 
and enunciated the principle of 
correlation. 

Cyanamide (chemical) 1851. 
Disc, by Cloez and Stanislao 
Cannizaro (It) (1826-1910). 
Cyanogen (chemical) 181 5. 
First obtained in free state by 
Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac (Fr) 
( 1 778-1850). 



Cyanogen sulphide (chem- 
ical) 1829. Disc. Baron von 
Liebig (Ger) (1803-73). 
Cycle (bicycle) 1790. First 
hobby-horse inv. Chevalier de 
Sivrae (Fr); according to "Le 
Cyclisme Theoretique et Pra- 
tique." 1 8 16. Baron Karl Drais 
von Sauerbronn of Karlshrue 
inv. hobby-horse, or "Draisene" 
("Cel6rifere"). (See also 
Niepce.) 181 9. London coach- 
maker George Birch const, a 
hand-lever-propelled cycle on 
which he "rowed" 67 miles in 
one day. 1835-38. Kirkpatrick 
Macmillan, of Pierpoint, Dum- 
fries-shire, built and rode a 
cycle of his own des. 1868. Word 
"bicycle," (spelt "bysicle" (used 
first in the London Times. 1885. 
Safety cycle dev. James Starley. 
See also Crank, Michaux, Star- 
ley. 

Cycloidal Curve. 1451. First 
mathematical analysis of cycloi- 
dal curve published. 
Cyclone (meteorology) 1848. 
Word coined by Piddington in 
his Sailors' Horn-book. 1861. 
Term anti-cyclone first used by 
Sir Francis Galton in his Meteor- 
ographica. 

Cyclotron (magnetic reson- 
ance accelerator) 1936. Inv. 
Ernest O. Lawrence (U.S.) 
(1901-). 

Cymbal 1580 B.C. Inv. ascribed 
to Cybele. 

Cypher Writing 400 B.C. Used 
by the Spartans. 
Cystoscope (medical) 1877. 
Inv. by Max Nitz (1848- 1906), 
of Berlin. 

Cytology 1882. Initiated by 
Walther Flemming (1843- 
191 5), of Prague. 



DAGUERRE 



49 



DECLINATION MAGNETIC 



D 



DAGUERRE, Louis Jacques 

Mand€(Fr) (1789-1851) 1839. 
Perfected production of silver 
photographic image on a 
copper plate. 

Daguerretype (photography) 
See previous entry. 
Dahlia (botany) 1784. Disc. 
Dr. Dahl (Swed) in Mexico. 
Intro. England 18 14. 
DAIMLER, Gottleib (Ger) 
(1834-1900) 1885. Made his 
first motor-cycle of \ h.p. 1885. 
Made second single-cylinder 
internal combustion engine. 
1886. Made first four-wheeled 
motor vehicle; — 1\ h.p. single- 
cylinder engine. 1889. P at - Vee- 
twin engine, and licences Pan- 
hard-Levassor (Fr) to make 
and use it. 1891. Builds first 
motor lorry. See also Motor-car 
and Engine, internal combus- 
tion. 

D ALTON, John ( 1 776— 1 844) 
1802-03. Prop, atomical theory. 
Dam (hydraulics) 1300 B.C. 
1 J mile long stone dam built 
in the Orontes Valley, Syria. 
Damask (linen) 1571. First 
made in England. 
DANIELL, John Frederick 
( 1 790-1 845) 1836. Inv. electric 
battery bearing his name. 
DARBY, Abraham Senior 
(1677-1717) 1709. First made 
"coak" from "cole" and in 
1 71 7, first used it for iron 
smelting, (q.v.) 
DARWIN, Charles (1809- 



1882) 1842. Prop, theory of 

evolution. 

DAVENPORT, Thomas 

(Scot) 1839. Inv. small electric 
motor and drove workshop 
tools with it. 

DAVY, Sir Humphry (1778- 
1829) Disc, elements strontium, 
calcium, magnesium and 
barium, and inv. the miners' 
safety-lamp. 

DAWES, William Ratter 
( 1 799-1 868) 1 850. With Lassell 
and Bond disc, "crepe" ring of 
planet Saturn. 

"D.D.T." (insecticide) 1874. 
First prep, by Othman Zeidler 
(Aus) with no idea of its insecti- 
cidal properties. 1939. Paul 
Muller (Swit) disc, its insect- 
killing power. 

Deaf Aids 1705. Horn type 
inv. by Du Guet (Fr). Carmelite 
monk Pere Sebastien (Jean 
Truchet) (165 7-1 729) also inv. 
a trumpet type deaf aid. 
Decimal System c. 1450 Puer- 
bach inv. a decimal system. 
1530. G. Rudolff, of Augsburg, 
used decimals to extend whole- 
number rules to fractions. 
1585. Simon Stevin (Stev- 
inius), of Bruges, inv. a decimal 
system. Wrote book : La Dkimale 
advising use of decimal weights 
and measures. 1795. Decimal 
system adopted in France. 
1968. Decimal coinage par- 
tially intra, into England. 
Declination, Magnetic 1702. 



DE FOREST 



50 



DEW 



Edmund Halley pub. first world 
chart of magnetic declination. 
DE FOREST, Dr. Lee (U.S.) 
Inv. three-electrode radio valve. 
DEIMAN, Joan Rudolf (Hoi) 
(1743- 1 808) Analytical chem- 
ist, who, in 1 789 (with Adriaan 
Paetz van Troostwijk) disc, that 
water was decomposed when a 
battery was discharged through 
it. 

DE LA CAILLE, Nicholas- 
Louis (Fr) (1713-62) 1763. 
pub. a catalogue of 2,000 stars 
from the 10,000 he obs. during 
his stay at the Gape of Good 
Hope. 

DE LA RUE, Warren (1815- 
89). First to demonstrate that 
electric current passing through 
a coil of (platinum) wire, 
caused it to glow to give light. 
DELUG, Jean-Andr6 (Fr) 
(1727-1817) 1751. Inv. a type 
of hygroscope. 

Dentures 1585. First men- 
tioned in England. 1609. In 
more general use. (1399. Lon- 
don barbers awarded 6d. per 
day by Henry IV to draw teeth 
of the poor at no charge.) 
DE RIVAZ (Fr) of Sion, Valais 
1807 (Jan. 30). Pat. "Machines 
dont le principle moteur est 
l'explosion de gaz et autre 
substances." 

DEROSNE, Charles (1780- 
1846) Perfected modern recti- 
fying column for alcohol pro- 
duction. 

Derrick, Drilling 1830. First 
intro. 1850. Steam-drive intro. 
1857. Derrick-drilling used in 
Hanover, i860. Diamond drill- 
head intro. 1895. Galician A. 
Raky intro. first fast drilling-rig. 
DESAGULIERS, J. Theo- 
phile (Fr) (1685- 1744) Experi- 



mental physicist, particularly 
in static electricity. 
DESCARTES, Ren€ du (Fr) 
(1596- 1 650) of Tours Prop. 
Cartesianism system of philo- 
sophy. Founder of modern 
philosophy. 

DESLANDRES, Henri Alex- 
andre (Fr) ( 1 853-1 948) 1890. 
Inv. spectro-heliograph. 
DESORMES (1777-1842) 
With Lavoisier, Laplace, 
Clement, Delaroche, Berard 
and Renault made early accur- 
ate measurements of the specific 
heat of gases at constant pres- 
sure and volume. 
Detector, Radio 1906. Gar- 
burundum/steel detector inv. 
Gen. Dunwoody (U.S.). This 
was the first crystal radio 
detector. Jigger, or oscillation 
transformers inv. Marconi, 
Slaby and Sir Oliver Lodge. 
Plumbago/galena detector inv. 
in Ger, also galena/tellurium 
and silicon/steel, by Otto von 
Bronk and Pickard, respec- 
tively. Walter and Ewing also 
inv. magnetic detectors. Self- 
restoring detector with greasy 
steel wheel inv. Lodge-Muir- 
head. Electrolytic detectors inv. 
Ferrie, Fessenden and Schloe- 
milch. Thermo-electric detec- 
tors inv. Fessenden, Diddell, 
Fleming and Austin. Hessite 
(silver telluride) and anastase 
(native titanium oxide) inv. 
Prof. Pierce. 

Deuterium (heavy hydrogen) 
1932 (Jan. 1). Disc. H. C. Urey. 
1932 (later). Deuterium of 
great purity separated from 
hydrogen by multiple diffusion 
by G. Hertz. 
Dew 1814. First theory of the 



DEWAR 51 

formation of dew prop, by Dr. 
Charles Wells. 

DEWAR, Sir James (1842- 
1923) Inv. of the vacuum flask, 
and, with Sir Frederick Abel, 
cordite. 

Dewatering (Water purifica- 
tion) 1906. Inv. J. V. N. Dorr. 
Diabetes c. 2nd cent. a.d. 
Disc, and named by Aretaeus 
of Gappadocia, who lived at 
Alexandria. 

Diagnosis, Medical Evolved 
by Alpinus ( 1 553-1 617). 
Dialysis 1862. First studied by 
Thomas Graham. 
Diamagnetism Disc. Michael 
Faraday (1791-1867), and 
further studied by Alexandre 
Edmond Becquerel (Fr) (1820- 

9i). 

Diamond 1491 B.C. Earliest 
mention of diamond, Exodus 
xxvii, 18. a.d. 1456. Diamond 
polishing art disc. Louis Ber- 
quen, or Berghen, of Bruges. 
1 6th cent. Engraving on dia- 
monds first attempted. 1694. 
Averami and Targioni (It) 
fused a diamond at the focus of 
a burning-glass. 1 7th cent, (end 
of). First brilliants cut by 
Peruggi, of Venice. 1727. Dia- 
monds disc, in Brazil, c. 1771. 
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier and 
Macquer (Fr) proved diamond 
to be carbon by burning one in 
oxygen and collecting the GO 2 
thus formed. 1867 (Mar.). Dia- 
monds disc, at the Gape of Good 
Hope. 

Diamond, Artificial 1880. 
Diamond synthesized Hannay. 
1897. First made by Henri 
Moissan (Fr) (1 852-1 907). 
1908. Synthetic diamonds made 
by Vicompte E. de Bois-menu, 
of Paris. 



DIRIGIBLE 



Diatoms 1773. First desc. by 
Otto Friedrik Muller (Dan) 
(1730-84). 49 types desc. by 
Carl Adolf Agardh (Swed) 
(1 785-1859). 

Diazo Compounds 1858-64. 
Disc. Griers (Ger) working at 
English brewery. 
Dichlorethylene (chemistry) 
1840. Henry Victor Regnault 
(Fr) (1810-78) announced a 
strange new fluid he had disc, 
which was dichlorethylene. 
1922. Regnault's fluid iden- 
tified as Dichlorethylene. 1940. 
Dichlorethylene first used as 
commercial plastic and re- 
named "Vinylidene" chloride. 
Dichroiscope i860. Inv. Prof. 
Dove, of Berlin. 
Dictionary 11 00 B.C. Earliest 
by Pa-out-tse (China), c. 60 b.c. 
Earliest Latin dictionary com- 
piled by Marcus Terentius 
Varro (A.R.) (117-27 b.c). 
1 755 Dr. Johnson compiled his 
Great English dictionary. 1791. 
Walker's English Dictionary 
published. 

Diorama 1824. Principle inv. 
and named by John Arrow- 
smith, of Piccadilly, London. 
DIRAC, Adrien Maurice (Fr) 
1925. Disc, significance of "Pois- 
son's Brackets" (maths.). 
Dirigible (aircraft) 1 784. Bris- 
son (Fr) advocated cylindrical 
balloon with conical ends. 1 784. 
Due de Ghartres (Fr) const. 
Brisson-type balloon and as- 
cendedatSt. Cloud withRoberts 
Brothers and Golin-Hulin. 
1785. Prof. Kramp, of Stras- 
bourg (Fr) , des. egg-shaped dirig- 
ible with balloonets. 1850. First 
model dirigible to fly under 
power const, by Pierre Jullien 
(Fr) (23 ft. long). 1852. Jullien 



DISPLACEMENT, LAW OF 



5« 



DIVING DRESS 



const, full-size dirigible "Le 
Precurseur," 164 ft. long. 1852. 
Henri Giffard (Fr) (1825-82) 
const. 143 ft. long dirigible with 
rudder and 3 h.p. steam-engine ; 
and made 17 mile flight from 
Hippodrome, Paris to Trappes. 
1872. Paul Haenlin, of Vienna 
const, dirigible powered by a 
Lenoir gas-engine and pro- 
peller. 1872. Depuy de Lome 
(Fr) const, egg-shaped dirigible 
for French Government. 1900. 
Count Zeppelin (Ger) built his 
first dirigible and flew it over 
Lake Constance. 1921. British 
dirigible "R38" broke up over 
River Humber. 1924. U.S. 
dirigible "Shenandoah" broke 
up over Ohio. 1930. British 
dirigible "R-100" wrecked and 
burnt out at Beauvais, France. 
1933 U.S. dirigible "Akron" 
lost off New Jersey coast. 1936. 
German dirigible "Hinden- 
burg" burnt out on landing at 
Lakehurst, U.S. (See also Air- 
craft, Balloon.) 

Displacement, Law of 
(optics) 1893. Prop, by Wilhelm 
Wien (Ger). 

Dissection (surgical) c. 1300. 
Earliest known illus. of opera- 
tion. 

Dissolving Pictures 1884. 
J. A. R. Rudge pat. dissolving- 
view lantern. 

Distillation 350 b.c. Aristode 
records experiments for remov- 
ing salt from sea-water by dis- 
tillation. 49 B.C. Julius Caesar 
used distillation to supply 
legions with drinking water. 
a.d. 1. Distillation first used in 
Spain to obtain mercury from 
mercury sulphide. (See also 
Cupellation and Amalgams.) 
1 150. Water distillation intro. 



into Europe by the Moors. 
1 80 1. Edouard Adam (Fr) inv. 
apparatus for distilling brandy 
from wine. 1808 Blumenthal inv. 
continuous still, simplified by 
Langier (Fr). 1813. Blumenthal 
Cellier des. and const, first recti- 
fying column for separating 
alcohol from wine. (Column per- 
fected by Charles Derosne and 
Savalle (Fr).) 1832. Analysers 
and rectifiers inv. ^Eneaus Dib- 
lin and Coffley. See also Con- 
denser, Water; and Radiator 
Motor car. 

Distribution, Law of Prop. 
(disc.) by Clerk Maxwell (Scot) 
(1831-79). 

Dividers (Draughtsman's) 
79 (a.d.). Bronze dividers in use 
in Pompeii. 

Diving Bell 325 b.c. Men- 
tioned by Aristotle (384-322 
b.c). 320 b.c Used in Phoeni- 
cia. 1509. Mentioned by John 
Taisnier of Hainault as being 
used at Toledo (Cadiz) before 
Emperor Charles V of Spain. 
1 716. Edmund Halley (1656- 
1742) first used diving bell for 
deep-sea diving. 1779. John 
Smeaton (1724-92) first used 
diving bell for engineering 
works at Ramsgate Harbour 
(1788). 

Diving Dress 1668. Suggested 
by Giovanni Alphonse Bonelli 
(1608-79) (It). Goat-skin and 
2-ft. diameter copper head- 
piece used, with pipes to stop 
condensation. 1772. Idea of 
diving dress (helmet) suggested 
to Perier (Fr) by a barber. 
Perier dived successfully with 
it into 50 ft. of water. 1831. 
Diving dress inv. by Dean for 
salvaging wreck of Royal 
George. 1836. Diving dress pat. 



D.N.A. 



53 



DRILL, ROCK 



by Siebe. 1838. Siebe's diving 
dress first used in England. 
1880. Fleuss greatly imp. diving 
dress and brought it into prac- 
tical use in Severn Tunnel and 
Killingsworth Colliery dis- 
asters. 

D.N.A. (Deoxyribonucleic 
acid) 1869. Friedrich Muller 
(Swit) disc, nucleic acid, which 
was later renamed D.N.A. 
1953. Re-disc, by Dr. Maurice 
Wilkins, of Bang's College Hos- 
pital, London. 1959. Dr. Arthur 
Kornberg synthesized D.N.A. 
(SeealsoR.N.A.) 
DOLLOND, John (1706-61) 
1755. Inv. achromatic lens. 
D6PPLER, Christian 
Johann (Aus) (1803-53) 1842. 
Disc, that sound waves increase 
or decrease in pitch as their 
source moves towards or away 
from observers — known as the 
"Doppler Effect." 
Doppler Effect 1845. Effect 
verified by Dutch meteorologist 
Christopher Buys Ballot. {See 
previous entry.) 
* i Dracone" See Barge. 
DRAPER, John William 
(181 1-82) 1847. Disc, infra-red 
rays. 

DREBBEL, Cornelius (Hoi) 
(1572-1634) 1598. Pat. a sub- 
marine and a thermostatically 
controlled egg incubator. 
Dredge, Naturalist's 1 773. 
Inv. Otto Frederick Midler 
(Dan) (1730-84). 
Dredger 1561. Bucket dredger 
pat. by Vehturino, of Venice. 
1 56 1. Bucket dredger const, by 
Pieter Breughel for use on 
Rupel-Scheldt canal, for 
Brussels Municipality. 1640- 
1700. "Amsterdam" power 
5— IAD 



dredger operated by horses. 
1796. Boulton and Watt 4 h.p. 
ladle dredger in use at Sunder- 
land. 1804. Steam dredger with 
bucket chain dev. by Oliver 
Evans (U.S.). 1805. George 
Rennie (1791-1866) des. dred- 
gers used on River Clyde 
(1824), and River Ribble 
(1838). 1863. Trough dredger 
inv. by Lavelley (Fr) for Suez 
Canal. 187 1. Centrifugal pump 
dredger in use in U.S. 
Drift, Continental (geology) 
1 915. Theory prop, by Wegener 
(Ger). 

Drift Net 1416. Intro, by Dutch 
(360 ft. long). 

Drill 2750 b.g. (Neolithic 
period). Fire drill in use. 2500 
b.c. Bow-drill in use in Egypt. 
1450. Triple bow-drill used by 
bead-makers of Ancient Egypt. 
c. 70 (a.d.). Ancient Roman 
drill-bits found in Pompeii. 
James Nasmyth (1808-90) inv. 
portable hand-drill, c. 1844 Sir 
Joseph Whitworth des. pillar 
sensitive drilling-machine. 

1850. Pillar drill in general use. 

1 85 1. Radial drill shown at 
Great Exhibition, London. 
1750. Crude pillar-drill in use. 
1850. Flat, arrow-headed drills 
in use in U.S. i860. Morse type 
twist drills inv. i860. Hydraulic- 
feed drilling-machine inv. John 
Cochrane. 1887. F. J. Rowan 
inv. electric drill for ship- 
building. 1892. J. H. Griffith 
inv. double-channel Archime- 
dean drill. 

Drill, Rock 181 3. First inv. 
Richard Trevithick. 1857. 
Compressed-air rock-drill inv. 
French engineer Germaine 
Sommeiler (1815-71). 1871. 
Ingersoll drill inv. 1880. Hy- 



DRILL, SLOTTING 



54 



DYES, SYNTHETIC 



draulic rock-drill inv. Brandt. 
Drill, Slotting 1817. Inv. 
Roberts. 

Drill, Twist Manhattan Fire- 
arms Co., of Newark, N.J., 
intro. tapered-shank twist-drill 
and inv. machine for making 
twist-drills. 

Drip, Saline (medicine) Inv. 
John Murphy (1857-1916), of 
Appleton, Wise, U.S. 
Drugs See individual drugs by 
name: e.g. Adrenaline, Salvar- 
san, etc. 

Dram 713. Intro, into Spain by 
the Moors. 

Dram Tuning 181 2. Thumb- 
screw method of drum tuning 
inv. by Gerard Cramer, of 
Munich. 

Drydock 1641. "Ship's 
Camels" appeared. 1688. 
Bakker (Hoi), of Amsterdam, 
des. more efficient drydock. 
Dualistic Theory (chemistry) 
181 1. Prop, by Jons Jacob 
Berzelius (Swed) (1 779-1 848). 
Duct, Thoraic 1563. Disc, in 
horse by Eustacius. 1664. In 
human being by Ol Rudbec 
(Swed) (also by Thomas Barth- 
oline (Dan) and Dr. Joliffe 
(Eng)). 

DUFAY, Charles-Francois 
de Gisternay (Fr) ( 1 698- 1 739) 
c. 1703. With Jean-Jacques 
d'Ortous, and Ren6-Antoine 
Ferchault and Reaumur pion- 
eered the study of the phenom- 
enon of electroluminescence. 
DULONG, Pierre Louis (Fr) 
(1785-1838) 1819. With A. T. 
Petit pub. a paper inter- 
linking the atomic theory with 
the theory of heat. 
DUMAS, Jean Baptiste 
Andre* (Fr) (1800-84) l8 3°- 
Perfected methods of inciner- 



ating small amounts of organic 
compounds and absorbing the 
combustion gases in chemicals 
to determine the percentage of 
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, 
etc., of the original substance. 
Duplicator (transfer printing) 
1 780. Glutinous ink type inv. by 
James Watt ( 1 736-1 819). 
Duralumin (alloy) 1906. Acci- 
dentially disc. and. pat. by Alfred 
Wilm (Ger) and originally pro- 
duced at Duren, at Durence 
Metal Works; hence its name. 
DURER, Albrecht (Ger) 
(1471-1523) Pioneer of trans- 
lation of Latin science books 
into national languages. 
Dusting Machines See Bolting 
machines. 

Dyeing 3000 b.c. Indigo dyed 
garments disc, in Thebes tombs. 
2000 b.c. Art of mordanting 
disc. 1 49 1 b.c. Dyeing men- 
tioned in the Bible (Exodus 
xxxv. 23). 1429. First book on 
dyeing published in Venice. 
1557. Dyeing with indigo pro- 
hibited by decree of German 
Diet. c. 1560. Use of indigo 
prohibited by Queen Elizabeth. 
1608. Dyeing intro. into Eng- 
land from Holland. 1685. Fugi- 
tive dyers settle in England. 
1628. Two Exeter dyers flogged 
for teaching the art in the north 
of England. 1765. Dyeing 
Turkey red intro. into Scotland 
by Papillon (Fr). 1848. Mauve 
dyeing (from lichens) intro. by 
Marnas (Fr). 

Dyes, Synthetic 1856. Mag- 
enta (first aniline dye) disc. Sir 
William Henry Perkins (1838- 
1907). 1773. First synthetic dye 
(yellow) for cotton inv. Dr. R. 
Williams. 1876. Methylene 
blue disc. Heinrich Caro (Ger). 



DYNAMITE 



55 



EASTMAN 



1878. Methylene green disc. 
Emil Fischer (Ger). 1880. Syn- 
thetic dye (indigo) disc. Adolf 
von Bayer (Ger). 1884. Syn- 
thetic dye (Congo red) disc. 
Bottger (Ger). 1887. Synthetic 
dye (primuline) disc, by 
Greene. 

Dynamite 1867. Inv. by Alfred 
Nobel (Swed) (1833-96) by 
combining nitro-glycerine with 
kieselguhr or infusorial earth. 
1868 (July 14). First tried for 
blasting at Greystone Quarries, 
Merstham, Surrey. 
Dynamo 1831. First dynamo 
inv. by Hippolite Pixii (Fr), 
with rotating magnet and two 
fixed coils; producing alter- 
nating current. 1876. G. F. 
Brush (U.S.) built his first 
dynamo. {See also Motor, Elec- 
tric.) 

Dynamometer 1821. Absorp- 
tion type (friction-brake) dyna- 
mometer const, by Piobert and 
Hardy. Known as the prony 



dynamometer inv. by Gaston 
Francois de Prony (1 755-1839) 
(Fr). 1833. Prony dynamo- 
meter first commercially used 
for testing output of a small 
Fourneyron turbine (q.v.) in 
France, i860. Dynamometer 
inv. by Col. Morin (Fr). c. i860. 
Dynamometer inv. by Gen. 
Poncelet (Fr). (See Turbine, 
Water.) 1865. Hirn used centri- 
fugal pump (q.v.) as dynamo- 
meter. 1877. William Froude 
inv. hydraulic friction-brake 
dynamometer. 

Dynasphere (vehicle) 1937. 
Mono-car with 10 ft. wheel inv. 
Dr. J. A. Purves. It could travel 
at 30 m.p.h. 

Dysprosium (element) 1886. 
Existence proved by Lecoq de 
Boisbaudran (Fr). 1906. Ob- 
tained pure by G. Urbain by 
fractional crystallization pro- 
cess. (Ion exchange process 
now used.) 



E 



Ear 1 77 1. Auditory organs of 
fishes disc, by Pieter Camper 
(Hoi) (1772-89). See also Eus- 
tacian tube. 

Earth, Electrical conduc- 
tivity of the Fact disc. Carl 
Augustus Steinheil (Ger) 
(1801-70). 
Earth, Density of the 1774. 



Specific Gravity determined by 
Nevil Maskelyne (1732-18 11). 
(Later confirmed by Caven- 
dish, Baily, Sir Heney James, 
Sir Edward Sabine and others.) 
EASTMAN, George (U.S.) 
(1854-1932) 1885. Inv. machine 
for manufacturing photo- 
graphic paper in long rolls. 



EAU DE COLOGNE 



56 



ELECTRO-GARDIAGRAPH 



Eau de Cologne c. 1850. Inv. 
by Jean Marie Farina, of 
Cologne. 

Eccentric c. 1810. Pat. by 
William Murdock ( 1 7 72- 1 847) . 
Echo Sounder Intro, c. 1925. 
Ecliptic, Obliquity of the 
Disc. Eratosthenes (276-196 
B.C.) by use of armillary spheres. 
Ecology 1886. Word intro. by 
Haekel. 

Economiser, Steam-engine 
1843. Feed-water heating inv. 
by Edward Green. 
EDGEWORTH, Richard 
Lovell ( 1 744-181 7) With J. L. 
Macadam and John Metcalf 
pioneered new methods of road 
const. 

EDISON, Thomas Alva 
(U.S.) ( 1 847-1 931) Inv. phono- 
graph, carbon microphone, 
mimeograph, electric pen, alka- 
line accumulator and many 
other invs. (all of which q.v.). 
Edison Effect (electrical) 
1883. Disc. Thomas Alva 
Edison. Edison effect explained 
by Sir Alexander Fleming 
( 1 881-1955), who therefrom 
dev. the thermionic valve (q.v.). 
EINSTEIN, Albert (Swit) 
(1879-1955) 1905. First prop. 
the theory of relativity. 
Einsteinium (element) 1952- 
53. Disc, by Glen T. Seaborg 
andA.G.Liorso(U.S.). 
Ejector Pump (water) 1852. 
Inv. James Thomson. 
Elasticity 1705. James Ber- 
nouilli invest, elasticity. 1759. 
Leonhard Euler invest, elas- 
ticity. 1798. Dr. Thomas 
Young ( 1 773-1 829) gave name 
to modulus of elasticity. 1829. 
Simeon-Denis Poisson (Fr) 
(1 781-1840) disc, ratio bearing 



his name. See also Tensile-test 
machine. 

Electricity c. 1600. Made a 
science by Dr. William Gilbert 
( 1 544-1 603). See individual 
applications. 

Electricity, Animal 1756. 
Marc. Leopoldo A. Caldini (It) 
obs. frog's leg contract under 
influence of electricity. 1760. 
Sensation of taste produced by 
silver and lead touching in the 
mouth noted by Johann Georg 
Sulzer (Swit). 1791. Luigi 
Aloisio Galvani (It) (1727-98) 
noted effect of electricity on 
muscular motion. 
Electricity, Atmospheric 
1747. Dr. Benjamin Franklin 
(U.S.) (1706-90) pub. his discs. 
on atmospheric electricity in- 
cluding his experiences with 
kite. 1752. First obs. by Louis- 
Guillaime Le Monnier (Fr) 

(I7I7-99)- 

Electricity, Static Machinery 
for production of pioneered by 
John Canton. 

Electricity, Velocity of 
Measured by Sir Charles 
Wheatstone (1802-75) an d de- 
termined to be 288,000 miles 
per second. 

Electric Generating Station 
1882 (Jan. 12). First public 
supply electric generating sta- 
tion in world des. by T. A. 
Edison at 57, Holborn, 
London. 

Electric Meter First inv. by 
Lord Kelvin 1872. Mechanical 
electric meter inv. by Samuel 
Gardiner. 

Electro-cardiagraph Intro. 
after method of recording elec- 
trical impulses of heart had 
been disc, in 1879 by Dr. 
Augustus Waller (1816-80), 



ELECTRO-DEPOSITION 



57 



ELECTROSCOPE 



of Kensington, London. 1856. 
Electrical currents of heart 
disc, and demonstrated by Koel- 
liker and Muller. 
Electro-deposition of 
metals See Electro-plating. 
Electro-luminescence c. 1 703. 
Study of pioneered by G. F. 
Dufay, J. J. d'Orlons, R. A. 
Ferchault, and R. A. F. Reau- 
mur. 1936. Demonstrated by 
Destrain. 

Electrolysis 1789. Johan 
Rudolf Deiman and Adriaan 
Paetz (Hoi) disc, water decom- 
posed by passage of electric 
current. 1800. Carlisle and 
Nicholson decomposed water by 
electricity from a voltaic pile. 
1890. Garuti electrolytic system 
tried at Brera Palace, Milan. 
Art of obtaining metals from 
solutions by galvanic action disc. 
M. H. Jacobi (1801-). See also 
Electro-plating. 

Electrolytic Dissociation 
(chemistry) 1886. Theory prop. 
by Svante Arrhenius (Swed) 
(1859-1927). 

Electrometer, Torsion Inv. 
by Charles Augustin de Cou- 
lomb (Fr) ( 1 738-1806). 
Electro-magnet 1820. 
Electro-magnet disc. Hans 
Christian (Ersted(Dan) (1777— 
185 1). 1820. A. M. Ampere 
disc, magnetic effect of electric 
current passing through a coil 
of wire. 1832. Michael Faraday 
( 1 791-1867) inv. copper disc 
and magnet electric generator. 
(See also Generator, Electric.) 
Electro-magnetic Waves See 
Waves, Electro-magnetic. 
Electrometer Inv. Count Ales- 
sandro Volta (It) (1 745-1827). 
Electronic Charge 1897. First 
measured by Townsend. 



Electron Word first used by 
Johnstone Stoney to designate 
an electric charge of atoms. 
(Now used to describe an alpha 
particle.) 1906. Electron disc. 
J.J. Thomson (1 856-1 940). 
Electron Charge. Determined 
by Robert Andrews Millikan 
(U.S.) (1868-1953). 
Electron, Intrinsic angular 
momentum of 1924-25. Con- 
ception prop, by Goldsmit and 
Ulenbeck. 

Electron Diffraction Pattern 
1925. Disc. C. J. Davidson and 
Gerner, whilst experimenting 
with crystallized nickel. 
Electrophonoscope 1890. 
First shown at South Kensing- 
ton, London. 

Electrophorus Inv. Count 
Alessandro Volta (It) (1745- 
1827). 

Electro-plating 1800. Johann 
Wilhelm Ritter (Ger) (1776- 
18 10) disc, electro-plating of 
copper. 1836. Electro-plating 
intro. and pat. by G. R. and H. 
Elkington, who plated copper 
and brass with silver and gold. 
1842. Ruolz electro-plating 
process pat. in England by 
Pilkington Brothers and 
Christofle, of Paris. 1843. 
Bottger inv. electro-platinizing 
process. 1875. Bottger proposed 
use of double sulphate of nickel 
and ammonia for nickel-plat- 
ing. 1878. Planzan added citric 
acid to Bottger's process. 1879. 
Weston inv. the boric acid pro- 
cess of nickel-plating. 1897. 
Forster dev. process of depositing 
nickel from hot solution of 
nickel sulphate. (See also names 
of metals.) 

Electroscope Simple form of 
inv. William Gilbert (1544- 



ELECTROTYPING 



58 



ELECTRIC RECIPROCATING 



1603). Linen thread electro- 
scope made by Benjamin Frank- 
lin (U.S.) (1706-90). Pith ball 
electroscope used by C. F. de C. 
Fay, Canton and Henley. 1 787. 
Gold leaf electroscope dev. by 
Abraham Bennet. 
Electrotyping 1799. Disc, by 
Count Alessandro Volta (It) 
( 1 745-1827). 1800. Electro- 
typing intro. into England. 
1805. Brugnatelli (It) gilded 
silver coins. (See Electro-plat- 
ing.) 1 84 1. Electrotyping print- 
ing intro. into England. 1841. 
De la Rive (Fr) gilded brass 
articles. 1873. Carl Gustav 
Jacob Jacobi (Rus) (1804-51) 
electrotyped medals. 
Elements, Periodic Tables 
of 1 8 15. William Prout suggests 
that all elements are composed 
of one simple element — hydro- 
gen. 1865. William Odling 
proposed a Periodic Table, as 
did Sir John Alexander New- 
lands, in his "Law Octaves." 
1869. Dimitri Mendeleev pub. 
his Periodic Table. i87o.Lothar 
Meyer proposed a system. 
Elevator c. 200 b.c. Man- 
powered drum-type elevator 
desc. by Archimedes. 1573. 
Rocking elevator ("Ladder of 
Volturius," "Lazy-tongs," or 
"Nuremberg Scissors") used by 
Juanelo Tuviano (Sp) for 
supply of water to Alcazar 
Palace, Toledo (250 ft. lift and 
2,000 ft. run). 1655 "Lazy- 
tongs" elevator desc. Marquis 
of Worcester for tobacco tongs: 
No. 49 in his Century of Inven- 
tions. 1850. Drum-type elevator 
inv. 1854. Elisha Otis inv. safety 
elevator. See also Conveyors 
and Lifts. 
Elevator, "Sack" 1850. Inv. 



by Thomas Moore Sack, of 

Belfast. 

ELSHOLTZ, Johann Sigis- 

mund (Ger) (1623-88) 1676. 
Obs. thermo-luminescence of 
heated fluorspar. 
Embroidering Machine 
1834. 20-needle embroidering 
machine inv. Joshua Heilmann, 
of Mulhouse, Alsace. 
Embriology 1828. Von Baer 
(Ger) ( 1 792-1876) founded 
science of embriology and 
traced all development stages 
of an animal from its first 
appearance in the egg to its 
final birth. 

Emery, Artificial 1842. Inv. 
Henry Barclay. 

Emery-paper 1843. Inv. R. 
Edwards. 

Enamelling 1200 B.C. Earliest 
record of fused enamel ware. 
1545. Bernard Palissy made his 
first enamelled ware. 1 799. Dr. 
Hinkling inv. enamelling pro- 
cess for saucepans. 1839. Clarke 
pat. new method for enamelling 
kitchenware. 

ENCKE, Johann Franz (Ger) 
(1791-1865) 1822. Determined 
parallax of sun to be 8.57 
seconds. 

Energy 1854. Term intro. by 
William Thompson, Lord Kel- 
vin (1824-1907). 
Energy, Conservation of 
1842. Law of disc, by Julius 
Robert von Mayer (Ger) 
(1814-78). 1847. First referred 
to by Hermann von Helm- 
holtz (Ger) (1821-94). 
Energy, Dissipation of 1824. 
Axiom enunciated by Sadi 
Carnot (Fr) (1 796-1832). 
Engine, Electric reciproca- 
ting c. i860. Inv. by Froment. 



ENGINE, EXTERNAL 



59 



ENGINE, GAS 



Worked with a solenoid-driven 
beam. 

Engine, External Combus- 
tion (Gas) 1820. Rev. E. 
Cecil des. external combustion 
engine. 1823-26. Samuel Brown 
pat . external combustion pump- 
ing engine. 1827. External com- 
bustion engine-driven boat used 
on River Thames. 1832. Brown 
external combustion pumping 
engines in use at Croydon, 
Brompton (London), and 
Soham, Cambs. 

Engine, Free-piston Inv. Pes- 
cara (Fr). 

Engine, Gas 1799. Phillipe 
Lebon (1 769-1804) (Fr), of 
Brachay, pat. coal-gas-engine 
which was improved, but un- 
perfected by 1804, when he 
was assassinated. 1807. De 
Rivaz (Fr) pat. "gas-driven 
machines." 1823-26. Samuel 
Brown pats, external combus- 
tion gas engine pump. 1827. 
Brown made boat fitted with 
gas engine which was tried on 
River Thames, and in 1835 
fitted a road carriage. (See also 
Engine, internal-combustion.) 
1838. William Barnett (U.S.) 
made twin-cylinder gas engine 
pump with separate combus- 
tion chamber. 1839. Wright 
(U.S.) inv. gas engine with 
double-acting cylinder, gas-jet 
fired. 1839. Johnston (U.S.) inv. 
gas engine using hydrogen and 
oxygen. 1844. John Reynolds 
proposed using hot-wire igni- 
tion with a primary battery. 
1850. St6phard (Fr) suggested 
use of magneto-electric machine 
for gas engine ignition. 1855. 
Dr. Alfred Drake, of Philadel- 
phia, U.S., des. a gas engine 
with hot-point ignition, which 



worked successfully at the 
Crystal Palace Exhibition, New 
York. 1855. 1857-58. Degrand 
(Fr) pat. gas engine in which gas 
mixture was compressed in the 
working cylinder. An important 
step in gas engine history. 1 86 1 . 
Pierre Hugon (Fr) pat. gas 
engine with flame ignition and 
water-cooling, which proved 
better than Etienne Lenoir's of 
i860. 1862. Beau de Rochas 
(Fr) pat. four-cycle system for 
internal-combustion engines, 
but never made a machine. 
1864 (Dec). 143 Lenoir engines 
working in Paris and one in 
London at Messrs. G. B. Kent, 
Great Marlborough Street. 
1867. Dr. Nicholas Otto (Ger) 
(1832-91) and Eug6ne Langen 
(Ger) produced a very noisy 
vertical gas engine exhibited at 
the International Exhibition. 
It was based on Abbe de 
Hautfeuilie's "gunpowder" en- 
gine of 1678. 1873. Brayton 
(U.S.) des. a gas engine which 
was later dev. into a petrol 
engine. 1881. Two-stroke gas 
engine inv. Sir Dugald Clerk. 
1883. Gottleib Daimler (Ger) 
(1834-90) intro. light oil engine. 
(See Internal combustion en- 
gine, Motor car, etc.) 1886. 
Daimler and Karl Benz (Ger) 
( 1 844-1 929) produced gas 
engine-powered road vehicles. 
1883. Griffin intro. gas engine 
with cycle involving two scav- 
enging strokes. 1885. Atkinson 
intro. gas engine working on 
differential principle, with two 
pistons. 1906. H. A. Humphrey, 
collaborating with W. J. Ran- 
dall inv. a gas engine pump in 
which the piston was replaced 
by an oscillating water-column. 



ENGINE, HOT-AIR 



60 



ENGINE, I.C. 



See also Engine, Internal Com- 
bustion. 

Engine, Hot-air 1807. First 
inv. by Sir George Caylcy 
(1774-1857). Used hot furnace 
gases. 1 81 6. Rev. Dr. Stirling 
pat. closed cycle hot-air engine 
with extra compression cylin- 
der. 1 830. John Ericsson (Swed) 
inv. hot-air engine cycle — his 
"caloric engine." 1837. Caley's 
hot-air engine pat. 5 h.p. ob- 
tained from 20 lb. of coke. 1843. 
Stirling hot-air engine of 45 h.p. 
installed at a Dundee foundry. 
1872. Ericsson made unsuc- 
cessful solar-driven hot-air en- 
gine. (See Solar energy.) 1875. 
Robinson made hot-air engines 
of one and two manpower. 

1875. Heinrici popularized hot- 
air engines on the Continent. 

1876. Rider (U.S.) inv. hot-air 
engine. 1880. Lehmann dev. 
very large hot-air engines. 
Engine, Internal combus- 
tion 1678. Abb6 Jean de 
HautfeuiUe (1 647-1 724) pro- 
posed an engine with gunpow- 
der as motive-power. 1680. 
Christiaan Huygens (Dan) desc. 
engine with gunpowder as 
power-source. 1791. John Bar- 
ber pat. gas-turbine engine 
(q.v.). 1794. Robert Street pat. 
internal combustion engine. 
1 799. Philip Lebon, of Brachay, 
France, pat. engine. 1826. Capt. 
Samuel Morey (U.S.) pat. 
internal combustion engine 
with electric ignition, carbu- 
retter, poppet-valves, and 
water-cooling. 1838. William 
Barnett pat. first internal com- 
bustion engine in which igni- 
tion was effected from out- 
side the cylinder. 1844. John 
Reynolds inv. platinum-wire 



ignition with a battery. 1850. 
St6phard used a magneto- 
machine for ignition instead of 
a battery. 1855. Dr. Drake inv. 
"hot-spot" ignition. 1857. Bar- 
santi and Matteucci desc. a 
gas engine the des. of which was 
materially the same as that of 
Otto and Langen ( 1 867) . 1 858- 
59. Degrand pat. gas engine in 
which compression took place 
in the cylinder itself, i860, 
fitienne Lenoir pat. his gas 
engine. 1858. Hugon (Fr) pat. 
2\ h.p. gas engine with gas-jet 
ignition, i860. J. H. Johnson, 
of Lincoln's Inn Fields, London 
inv. gas engine with electric 
ignition. 1861. Lenoir's engine 
modified by Kinsey and 
Kinder. 1862. Beau de Rochas 
(Fr) evolves the "four-cycle" 
principle — later known as the 
"Otto Cycle." 1865. Macken- 
zie secured pat. for I.C. engine. 
1867. Otto and Langen pro- 
duce a rough and noisy gas 
motor. 1867. Savalle (Fr) pat. 
I.C. engine. 1878. Dr. Otto 
intro. his famous gas engine. 
c. 1880. Bisschop, Simon and 
Ravel gas engines intro. 1881. 
Dugald Clerk inv. two-stroke 
gas engine. 1883. Griffin intro. 
engine with a six-stroke, scav- 
enging cycle. 1885. Atkinson 
intro. twin-piston, single-cylin- 
der, "differential" gas engine. 
c. 1875. Brayton (U.S.) gas 
engine of 1873 converted by 
its designer to run on petroleum 
fuel. 1879. G. B. Selden (U.S.) 
took out key patents for motor- 
car engines. 1883. Gottleib 
Daimler originated a small, 
high-speed engine consuming 
the light oil now known as 
petrol. 1886. Priestman intro. 



ENGINE, 1.0. ROTARY 



61 



ENGINE, STEAM 



first practical oil engine, which 
embodied Edouard Etev6's pat. 
of 1884. 1890. H. Stuart 
Ackroyd inv. the Hornsby- 
Ackroyd oil engine, the first 
to operate on the compression- 
ignition principle. 1895. Dr. 
Rudolf Diesel intro. his four- 
cycle oil engine. (See Diesel 
rail-car and Diesel ships.) 
1884. Karl Benz (Ger) (1844- 
1929) prod, his first internal 
combustion engine indepen- 
dently of Daimler. (See Motor- 
car.) 1906. First two-cycle, 
double-acting, reversible Diesel 
engine pat. (A 40 h.p. engine 
built in 1907.) 1927. Diesel- 
steam locomotive engine inv. 
by W. J. Still and Lt. Col. E. 
Kitson-Clark. 1930. Automatic 
diesel engine evolved by Cum- 
mins (U.S.). See also Engine, 
Gas. 

Engine, Internal combus- 
tion rotary See Pats, of Andr6 
Beetz, Chaudun, Dodement, 
Gardner-Sanderson and Ver- 
net. 

Engine, Naptha 1888. Inv. 
Escher Wyss (Swit). 
Engine, Steam 1663. Marquis 
of Worcester des. atmospheric 
engine. 1678. Robert Hooke 
pat. steam engine. 1682. Sir 
Samuel Morland inv. pumping 
steam engine. 1685. Denis 
Papin exhibits model pumping 
steam engine. 1698. Capt. 
Thomas Savery (1650-1715) 
pat. steam engine. 1705. Dart- 
mouth, Devon plumber 
Thomas Newcomen and glazier 
John Cawley pat. first practical 
model atmospheric steam en- 
gine. 1707. Papin produced 
full-sized steam engine. 1712. 
Newcomen erects his first full- 



sized steam engine near Dudley 
Castie. 1 718. Henry Beighton, 
of Newcastle upon Tyne inv. 
self-working valve-gear. 1723. 
Leupold des. two-cylinder, ex- 
pansively operated steam 
engine. 1 765. James Watt builds 
his first steam engine. 1766. 
Blakey pat. improvements to 
Savery's engine. 1769. Watt 
perfects his steam condenser. 
1 774. John Smeaton builds 74I 
h.p. Newcomen engine at 
Wheal Busy, Chacewater, 
Cornwall. Watt's first two en- 
gines installed to drain a colliery 
and blow a blast-furnace. 1 781 . 
Jabez Carter Hornblower 
(1744-18 1 5) inv. two-cylinder 
compound steam engine. 1781. 
Watt pat . rotary steam jengine 
and used it (1785) to drive a 
cotton-mill. 1782. Watt pat. 
double-acting cylinder and use 
of steam expansively. 1785. 
William Murdock (1 754-1834) 
inv. oscillating-cylinder engine. 
1802. Murdock des. rotary en- 
gine of £ h.p. 1803. Richard 
Trevithick, of Penponds, Corn- 
wall inv. High-pressure steam- 
engine. (See also Locomotive, 
Steam.) 1804. Arthur Woolfe 
intro. compound engine as 
a modification of a Watt 
engine. 1823. Perkins inv. engine 
working at 500 p.s.i. 1824. 
J. P. Allaire (U.S.) inv. com- 
pound engine. 1827. Perkins 
increases pressure to 800 p.s.i., 
expanding steam eight times. 
1 830, James Dakyn ; 1 833, John 
Ericsson; 1834, Earl of Dun- 
donald; 1835, Reynolds and 
Avery; 1836, Yule; 1842, 
Lamb; and 1847, Behrens; inv. 
various forms of rotary steam 
engines. 1849. George Henry 



ENGINE, TWO-FLUID-CYCLE 62 



ERGOT 



Corliss (U.S.) (1817-88) inv. 
the valve-gear bearing his 
name. 1856. Compound steam 
engine intro. on ships by John 
Elder. 1857. Modern rotative 
form of steam engine inv. by 
John McNaught and Edward 
Cowper. 1863. First triple- 
expansion ship engine des. by 
A. C. Kirk. 1866. Superheated 
steam engine intro. by E. Dan- 
ford (U.S.). 1 87 1. Three-cylin- 
der steam engine intro. by Peter 
Brotherhood (1 838-1902) and 
J. Krig. 1874. P. W. Willans 
inv. high-speed steam engine. 
1880. Willans produced high- 
speed, central-valve engines up 
to 2,400 h.p. 1890. Bellis and 
Morcom^af. high-speed engine 
running up to 800 r.p.m. 1905. 
"Pioneer" steam bus driven by 
a rotary engine appears in 
London. 1910. Five-cylinder 
rotary engine des. by Leslie 
Walker. 191 1. A. G. M. Mit- 
chell (Australia) des. eight- 
cylinder swash-plate steam en- 
gine for the Australia Gas Light 
Company, of Sydney. {See also 
Locomotive, Steam Railway, 
Road Vehicle, Steam, and 
Engine, Steam Traction.) 
Engine, Two-fluid-cycle 
1 91 3. Two-fluid-cycle engine, 
using mercury and water, inv. 
W.L.R.Emmett(U.S.). 
Engraving 149 1 b.c. Men- 
tioned Exodus xxviii. 11. 1 120. 
b.c. Practised by Chinese. 1346 
(a.d.). Earliest known line en- 
graving. 1423. Earliest known 
line engraving in England. 
1 46 1. Earliest known copper 
engraving in England, i486. 
Art of cross-hatching inv. 
Michael Wohlgemuth (Ger). 
1493. Wood-block engraving 



used in Nuremberg Chronicle 
news-sheet. 1476. Wood-block 
printing blocks intro. by William 
Caxton. 15 1 3. Engraved wood 
printing-block used in England 
in news pamphlet re Battle of 
Flodden Field. 1773. Wood- 
block engraving revived and 
perfected by Berwick. {See also 
Mezzotint, Aquatint, Litho- 
graphy, etc.) 

Envelope (postal) c. 1726. 
Intro, in France. 1840 (May 1). 
Intro, in England with embossed 
stamp and design by Irish 
artist William Mulready ( 1 786- 
1863). 1844. envelope-making 
machine inv. George Wilson. 
c. 1845. Envelopes superceded 
folded paper sheet and sealing- 
wax for postal packets in Eng- 
land. 

Enzymes 1878. Term first 
used by Willy Kuhne (Ger) 
(1837-1900). 

Epicycloid 1525. Geometrical 
form disc. 

Epidermis Disc, by Dr. Mar- 
cellus Malpighi (It) (1628-94). 
Epsom Salts 1618. Mineral 
spring at Epsom, Surrey disc. 
1695. Epsom salts first prepared 
from Epsom springs by Nehe- 
miah Grew and called by him 
"sal Anglicum" and "bitter 
salt." 

Equinoxes, Precession of 
the Disc, by Hipparchus (160- 
145 B.C.) as being 25,869 
years. 

ERATOSTHENES (276-196 
b.c.) Disc, obliquity of the 
ecliptic and inv. Armillary 
spheres. 

Erbium (element) 1839. Disc. 
by Mosander. 

Ergot 1954. Active principle of 
lysergic acid synthesized by 



ESCAPEMENT, WATCH 



63 



EXCAVATORS 



B. B. Woodward, of Boston, 
U.S. 

Escapement, Watch and 
Clock 1 67 1. William Clement 
(or Robert Hooke) inv. anchor 
escapement. 1675. Christiaan 
Huygens (Robert Hooke, or 
Abb? Jean de Hautefeuille) 
des. spring balance wheel. 1 7 1 5. 
Graham inv. dead-beat 
escapement. 1720. Cylinder 
escapement inv. George 
Graham (1673-1751). 1852. 
Sir Edward Beckett (later Lord 
Grimthorpe) inv. gravity 
escapement in clock "Big Ben," 
Westminster, London. (See also 
Watch and Clock.) 
Esperanto Inv. Dr. Zamenhof 
(1859-1917). 

Ester Gum 1884. First pro- 
duced from rosin by E. Schaal. 
Ether (sulphuric ether) 1540. 
Valerius Cordus disc, method 
of making ether, naming it 
sweet oil of vitriol. 1729. 
Frobinius disc, various prop- 
erties of ether. 1818. Michael 
Faraday (1791-1867) disc. 
pain-dulling effect of in- 
haling ether. 1822. Effect again 
obs. by U.S. surgeon Godman 
and in 1832 by Dr. Mitchell, of 
New York; who both experi- 
mented with it as an anaesthe- 
tic. 1842. Ether first used on a 
patient by U.S. surgeon Jeffer- 
son, of Georgia. 1846 (Sept. 30). 
Ether first administered as a 
dental anaesthetic by W. T. G. 
Martin, of Boston, Mass. 1846. 
Edinburgh surgeon Lis ton 
performed interned operation 
with ether at University College 
Hospital, London (Dec. 21); 
when ether administered by 
Dr. Squire. 1847. Ether adopted 



as anaesthetic by Dr. Nikolai 
Pirogoff (Rus) (1810-81). 
"Etherphone," or "Therem- 

invox" 1924. Radio-electric 

musical instrument inv. Leo 

Theremin. 

EUCLID of Alexandria (c. 

300 B.C.) First gave a definite 
form to systematic exposition of 
mathematics. 

Eudiometer Various types inv. 
by Joseph Priestley, Alessandro 
Volta, fidouard Seguin and 
Claude-Louis Berthollet. 
EULER, Leonhard (Ger) 
(1707-83) 1736. Wrote Mech- 
anics, or the Science of Motion 
created Analytically. The first 
textbook on mathematics. 1 760. 
Devised early gearing tech- 
niques (q.v.). 

Europium (element) 1889. 
Disc, by Sir William Crookes 
(1832-1919). 

Eustacian Tubes Desc. c. 500 
B.C. by Alemdeon (Gr), of 
Croton, South Italy. Re-disc. 
by Bartolomeo Eustacio (1520- 
74). (Disc, not pub. until 1714.) 
Evacuator (surgical) Inv. 
Henry Jacob Bigelow (1810- 
90), of Boston, Mass. 
EVANS, Oliver (U.S.) (1755- 
181 9) 1794. Des. continuous 
flour-mill (q.v.). 1805. Inv. first 
self-propelled road vehicle to 
run in U.S. 

Evolution Theory 1842. Prop. 
by Charles Darwin (1809-82). 
1859. Theory of natural selec- 
tion enunciated by him. 
Excavators 1655. ^ ne sug- 
gested by Marquis of Worcester 
in his Century of Inventions, No. 
92. 1726. Francois Joseph 
Camus (Fr) inv. mechanical 
shovel with all the essential 



EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE 



6 4 



FATIGUE TESTING MACHINE 



features of modern machine. 
c. 1830. Steam engine brought 
into use in U.S. during const, of 
first Pacific Railway. 1865. 
Excavator machine inv. by 
Frey Freres et Sayn (Fr) with 
horizontal area of 36 ft. and 
lift of 11 ft. 6 in. 1884. Mm. 
Weyher and Richmond, of 
Pantin, France, des. machines 
for use on Panama Canal. 
Exclusion Principle (nuclear 
physics) Disc, by Pauli. 



Extensiometer 1856. Electric 
extensiometer (strain-gauge) 
inv. Lord Kelvin (William 
Thomson) (1 824-1 907). See 
Tensil strain. 

EYDE, Samuel (1866-1940) 
1903. With K. Birkeland pion- 
eered electrolytic nitrogen fixa- 
tion process. 

Eye Effect of ciliary muscle on 
the lense of the eye disc. Thomas 
Young ( 1 773-1829), of Taun- 
ton, England. 



F 



Fabrics, Crease-resistant 

1929. Pat. granted to Messrs. 
Boffey, Foulds, Marsh and 
Tankard, of Tootal, Broadhurst 
Lee, Co. 

FABRIZZI, Hieronymo (It) 
(1537-16 1 9) Applied mech- 
anical principles to anatomy 
of muscular movement. 
Facsimile Transmission 
1847. Record of first Pat. rela- 
ting to. 

Factor Theorem ' 1 63 1 . Disc. 
Bonaventura Cavalieri (It) 
(1598-1647). 

FAHRENHEIT, Daniel 
Gabriell (Ger) (1 686-1 736) 
Made thermometers in Hol- 
land. 1 72 1. Disc, phenomenon 
of super-cooling water. 
FAIRB AIRN, William ( 1 789- 
1874) 1844. Inv. Lancashire 
qoiler. 



Fallopian Tubes (anatomy) 
Disc, by Gabriele Fallopio, of 
Padua (1523-62). 
Fan 40 B.C. Crank-handled 
winnowing fan used in China. 
180 (a.d.). Rotary ventilating 
fan used in China. 1572 Hand 
fan intro. England from France. 
1837. William Fourness, of 
Leeds inv. exhaust fan and 
inaugurated modern method 
of mine ventilation. 1848. 
George Lloyd pat. centrifugal 
mine fan. Guibal inv. rotary fan 
and produced one 17 ft. in 
diameter. 

FARADAY, Michael (1791- 
1867) Responsible for many 
electrical and chemical disc. — 
electro-magnetic induction, 
butylene, etc. (See individual 
entries.) 
Fatigue-testing Machine 



FATS, ANIMALS 



«5 



FILTER 



Pre- 1 858. First inv. A. Wohler 
(Ger) of Hanover. See also Ex- 
tensiometer, Tensile strength. 
Fats, Animal 1823. Michael 
Eugene Chevreul (Fr) (1786- 
1889) disc, animal fats to be 
compounds of glycerine and 
aliphatic or organic acids. 
Fats, Hydronization of 1901 . 
Inv. Dr. W. Normann (Ger) (b. 
1870) — a process of solidifica- 
tion. 

FAURE, C. A. (Fr) 1881. Inv. 
electrical accumulator. 
FAVRE, Louis (Fr) of Geneva 
1 780. Inv. cylinder musical-box. 
Felt (textile) 18 13. First made 
from shoddy at Botley, Yorks. 
FERMI, Enrico (It) 
(190 1 -51) Transmuted uran- 
ium into another element by 
neutron bombardment. 
Fermium (element) 1952. 
Disc. Glen T. Seaborg and A. G. 
Liorso (U.S.). 

Ferns, Asexuality of 1628. 
Disc, by an Italian author in 
Lincei Academy. 
Ferro-electricity 1921. Disc. 
Valasek. 

Fertilizers (horticultural) 
1602. Peruvian guano used as 
fertihzer in Portugal. 1804. 
Theo de Saussaur (Fr) disc. 
saltpetre promoted growth of 
cereals. 1830. Nitrates first 
shipped from Peru and Chile. 
1843. John Bennet Lawes and 
J. H. Gilbert disc, nitrate of 
potassium and potash were 
most needed in agriculture. 
c. 1840. Peruvian guano first 
used in England. 1852. Potash 
found by drilling at Strassfurt. 
1 86 1. Basic slag first used as 
source of phosphorus, c. 1868. 
Lawes proved superphosphate 
was a good fertilizer. 1880. 



Bones first used as fertihzer. See 
also Fumigants and Insecticides. 
Feynman Theory (nuclear 
physics) 1948. Prop, by Richard 
P. Feynman (U.S.). See also 
Neutrino particle. 
File 1093 b.c. Mentioned 1 
Samuel xiii. 20-1. c. 1000 B.C. 
Mentioned by Homer. 1495. 
Leonardo da Vinci sketched 
machine for making files, with 
cam, gearing and cutting tools. 
1697. Earliest inv. for cutting 
files. 1859. File-making com- 
menced at Leeds. 
Filter c. 1300 Chinese using 
sandstone and unglazed por- 
celain filters. 1790. Mrs. 
Johanna Hempel took out 
first Eng. filter pat. 1791. 
Sand, rising-water filter inv. 
James Peacock. Early 18th 
cent. First mention of woollen 
cloth filter for sugar refining. 
1802. Vegetable-charcoal filter 
first intro. 181 2. Cylinder 
filter inv. Paul, of Geneva. 
1 8 14. Multiple sand filter inv. 
Ducommon (Fr). 1815. 
Pressure filter inv. Count Real 
(Fr). 18 18. Animal-charcoal 
filter first applied. 18 19. Com- 
pressed-air filter inv. Hoffman, 
of Leipzig. 1824. Bag, or 
stocking filter inv. Cleland. 
1827. First slow sand drinking- 
water filter inv. James Simpson. 
1 83 1. Earthenware ascending 
filter inv. Leloge (Fr). 1834. 
Solid carbon-block filter inv. 
1839. James Simpson intro. 
filtration into water supply of 
London. 1845. Howard inv. 
linen filter. 1853. Dr. Stone- 
house inv. charcoal-air filter. 
1868. Filter-pump inv. Robert 
Wilhelm Bunsen ( 1 8 1 1 -99) . 
1886. Kieselguhr filter pat. 



FIRE 



66 



FIRE PISTON 



Heddle and Stewart (also by 
Weischmann (U.S.). 1904. 
Gottlieb Daimler (Ger) (1834- 
1900) fitted gauze petrol-filter 
to Phoenix-Daimler motor car 
engine. 19 19. Stack-type filter 
inv. Bunsen (Ger). 
Fire c. 500,000 B.C. Pekin man 
used fire in Asia. 500,000— 
235,000 b.c. Chellean (Stone 
Age) men in Europe used fire 
for heating, lighting and pro- 
tection. 50,000-10,000 b.c. Late 
Stone Age man in Europe made 
fire by striking flint with iron 
pyrites. nth-i2th cent. (a.d.). 
Marcus Graecus wrote about 
incendiary compositions in his 
Book of Fires. See also Fireworks. 
Firearms, Hand 1331. Hand 
firearms used by Germans at 
battle of Vicidale, Italy. 1381. 
Earliest mention of hand fire- 
arms (fire-sticks, or batons a 
feu). 1398 (post). Earliest hand 
firearms to have separate 
chambers for powder and 
bullet, c 1425. First "firelock" 
or "matchlock" intro. with 
standing aim. 1435. Hand- 
grenades first used. 1515. 
Wheel-lock mo. 1522. Spaniards 
used matchlock hand-gun 
(arquebus) at Bicocca, Italy. 
1540. Spaniards intro. large 
musket on stand. 1540. First 
flindock pistol made at Pistoia, 
Italy. 1635. Form of flintlock 
musket inv. 1704. Breech-load- 
ing musket inv. De la Chau- 
mette (Fr). Breech-loading car- 
bine inv. Maurice de Saxe (Fr). 
1785. N. le Blanc (1 742-1 806) 
made muskets with inter- 
changeable parts. (See also Rifle 
and Rifling.) 

Fire-blower, Steam (suffla- 
tor) 1405. Pictured by Konrad 



Kyeser with bronze nozzle, as 
used by soldiers at camp-fires. 
1495. Leonardo da Vinci 
sketched bronze-nozzled bel- 
lows. See also Bellows. 
Fire-engine 250 b.c. Men- 
tioned by Pliny. 1663. "Mod- 
ern" fire-engine inv. Van der 
Heyden (Hoi). 1682. Hydraulic 
fire-engine inv. 1720. Air pres- 
sure chamber for fire-engines 
inv.. 1 72 1. R. Newsham pat. 
fire-engine. 1792. Charles 
Simpson imp. Newsham's fire- 
engine. 1793. Joseph Bramah 
inv. reciprocating fire-engine 
fitted with Barton's pistons 
(q.v.). 1830-39. Steam fire- 
engine inv. Braithwaite and 
Ericsson, London. 1840. Steam 
fire-engine inv. Paul Rapsey 
Hodge, of New York. 1895. 
First motor fire-engine dem. 
at Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 
Fire Escape 1766 and 1773. 
Pat. in France. 1809. First 
British pat. Davis, of London. 
Fire Extinguisher 1734. M. 
Fuches (Ger) inv. fire extin- 
guisher with filled glass balls to 
throw into fire. 1761. Zachary 
Grey used balls filled with sal 
ammoniac. 1761. Dr. Godfrey, 
of London used sal ammoniac 
filled balls burst by gunpowder. 
1 79 1. Von Ahen (Swed) and 
Nils Moshein (Swed) indepen- 
dently inv. fire extinguishers 
using chemicals and water. 
1865. Sprinkler system inv. by 
Stewart Harrison, c. 19 10. 
Carbon tetrachloride extin- 
guishers used by Interborough 
Rapid Transit Co., New York, 
on their trains. 

Fire Piston (ignition device) 
1807. Fire piston contained in 
walking-stick pat. in England 



FIREWORKS 



67 



FLUORINE 



by Richard Lorenz. See also 
Diesel engine. 

Fireworks 7th cent, (early). 
Chinese books desc. use of 
fireworks. 1360. Ke-inv. in Flor- 
ence. 1588. First fireworks dis- 
play. 1697. First firework dis- 
play in England to celebrate 
Peace of Ryswick. 1871. First 
firework display at Crystal 
Palace, Sydenham, London, by 
Brock. 

FISCHER, Emil (Ger) (1852- 
191 9) 1887. Isol. isometric 
hexose sugars. 1897-99. Syn- 
thesized caffeine and theo- 
bromine. 

Fishplate, Railway 1843. Inv. 
in U.S. 1847. Imp- °y William 
Bridges Adams in England 
jointly with Robert Richard- 
son. 

Fishing-reel 13th cent. 
Appears in Armenian manu- 
scripts. 14th cent. In use in 
China. 1641. First mention of 
in Europe. 

FIZEAU, Hippolyte Ar- 
mand-Louis (Fr) (1819-96) 
1849. Performed many impor- 
tant experiments in light and 
optics. 

Flag Code, International 
1857. Dev. Sir Home Riggs- 
Popham. 

Flageolet 1803. Inv. William 
Bainbridge. 

Flail Early 5th cent. Jointed 
flail first mentioned by St. 
Jerome. 

Flame, Manometric Inv. 
Samuel Koenig (Ger) (1712 

57). 

Flame, Sensitive 1777. Disc. 
by Huggins. 1858 Re-disc, and 
obs. by Prof. Leconte (U.S.) and 
dev. into the pyrophone, or 
flame organ. 1869. "Lustre 



chantant" dev. by F. V. Kast- 
ner, of Paris. 

FLAMSTEED, John (1646- 
1719) Compiled earliest star 
catalogues. 

Flats (housing) 1830. System 
of living in flats (Fourierism) 
devised by Charles Fourier (Fr) 
(d. 1837). He planned flats, 
named phalansteries, for 400 
families in one building. The 
scheme failed. 

Flax 3000 b.c. Growing estab- 
lished in Near East. 1832. 
Heckling machine inv. Phillipe 
de Girard (Fr). 1850. Le Chev- 
alier P. Claussen (Fr) inv. 
method of making short-staple 
flax and mixed flax with cotton 
and woollen goods. 
FLEMING, Sir Alexander 
(1881-1955) I 904- Inv. thermi- 
onic valve. 

Flow-meter 1739. Inv. Henri 
Pitot (Fr) . See also Venturi tube. 
Fluid Flow 1 9 10. Ludvig 
Prandtl (Ger), of Hanover 
made paddle-wheel test tank to 
check fluid flow. 
Fluid Flywheel See Hydraulic 
coupling and Power trans- 
missions. 

Fluorescence Word intro. by 
Sir G. G. Stopes. {See also 
Luminescence. ) 

Fluorine (element) 1771. Carl 
Wilhelm Scheele (Ger) (1742- 
86) obtained free hydrufluoric 
acid gas. 181 8. Sir Humphry 
Davy ( 1 778-1829) attempted to 
produce free fluorine. 1841. 
Knox Brothers, attempted to 
isol. fluorine, as did Fremey (Fr) 
(1856), Kammerer (1865), and 
Finkener (1867) ; all were abor- 
tive. 1886. Fluorine finally isol. 
by Henri Moissan (Fr) (1852- 
I907)- 



FLUORSPAR 

Fluorspar 1838. Fluorescence 
of disc, by Sir David Brewster. 
Flute 1823. New system of 
keying inv. Theo Boehm. 
Fluxions 1665. Doctrine prop. 
by Sir Isaac Newton (1642- 
1727). See also Differential cal- 
culus. 

"Flying-bomb" See Aircraft. 
Fly-press 1651. One in use at 
British Royal Mint. 1 790. New 
type inv. by Matthew Boulton 
(1728-1809) for use at the 
Royal Mint. 

Fly-shuttle 1 738. Inv. by John 
Kay ( 1 704-64) . (See also Loom.) 
Flywheel Date of intro. un- 
known. 1430. Recorded applic- 
ation to crank and connecting- 
rod by German millwright. 
Early 16th cent. Books show 
flywheels or weights at end of 
rotating arms were in use, 
especially for crank-driven 
pumps. 

Focal-plane shutter (camera) 
1 86 1. Inv., together with roller- 
blind shutter, by William 
England. 

Fodder-cutting Machines 
(chaff-cutters) 1 73 1 . Earliest 
inv. by Thomas Ryley and John 
Beaumont. 1770. James Edgill 
inv. spiral-knifed machine, and 
James Sharp inv. bean-splitting 
mill and winnowing machine 
(q.v.). 1787. James Cooke des. 
modern type "chaff-cutter" 
with spiral knives mounted on 
spokes of operating wheel. 
Folic Acid 1941. Disc. 
Folinic Acid 1948. Prepared 
by Live and associates. 
FOND, Jean-Ren€ Sigaud 
de la (Fr) Assisted in the early 
dev. of static electricity pro- 
ducing machines. 
Food Preservation, Methods 



68 FORD 

of 1795. Nicholas Appert (Fr) 
of Paris, preserved food by 
boiling and sealing in glass 
bottles. 1810. Appert parboiled 
and Donkin boiled foodstuffs, 
sealing them in tinned-iron 
cans and sealing a soldered 
hole therein. (Canned storage 
in Britain by Peter Durand.) 
See also Tinned iron. 1824. 
Gamble preserved food in tins 
for the Arctic Expedition of 
that year. 1842. Bevan inv. the 
vacuum chamber, and Dirchoff 
(Rus) inv. milk powder. 1850. 
Dried meat biscuit inv. 1 85 1 . M. 
Mason (Fr) inv. method of 
dessicating vegetables. See also 
Canning, Curing, Bottling. 
Foot-and-Mouth Disease 
1897. Traced to a virus. 
Forceps (surgical) Obstetric 
forceps inv. by Hugenot refugee 
Peter Chamberlain the Elder 
( 1 560-1 63 1 ) and inv. kept secret 
for 150 years. Axis traction 
handles added to Chamber- 
lain's forceps by Etienne 
Stephane Tarnier (Fr) (1828- 
97). 1720. Spoon forceps inv. 
Jean Palfyn (Fr). 1733 French- 
lock forceps inv. by Dusee (Fr). 
1733. Groove-locked forceps 
inv. Edmund Chapman. 1745. 
Wooden forceps inv. William 
Smellie (English-lock type). 
1 75 1. Screw-handled forceps 
inv. by John Burton, of York. 
Bone-cutting forceps inv. by 
Robert Liston (1794 — 1847). 
"Spencer-Wells" (haemostatic) 
forceps inv. Sir Thomas S. Wells 
(1818-97). 

Forces, Parallelogram of 
1 725. Significance of first recog- 
nized by Pierre Varignon (Fr) . 
FORD, Henry (1 863-1 947) 
Evolved and dev. mass-pro- 



FORKS 



«9 



FRESNEL 



duction methods and applied 
them to making motor-cars. 
Forks (cutlery) 1608. Three- 
pronged fork intro. into England 
from Italy by Thomas Coryat. 
c. 1 6 1 o. Two-pronged steel forks 
first made at Sheffield. 
Formaldehyde 1856. Disc, by 
Debus. 

Formolite (resin) 1903. Disc. 
Nastyukov (Rus). 
Formulae (chemical) 181 1. 
Fundamental method ex- 
pounded by Amadeo Avogardo 
(It) ( 1 776-1856). 1858. Avo- 
gardo's method revived by 
chemist Stanislao Cannizarro 
(It) (1826-19 10). 
FORTIN, Jean (Fr) (1750- 
1831) Engineer responsible for 
early dev. of the lathe. 
FOUCAULT, Jean-Baptiste- 
Leon (Fr) (1819-68) Invs. and 
discs, relating to arc-lamps, 
velocity of light, gyroscope, and 
the proving of the earth's 
diurnal rotation by a free- 
swinging pendulum. (All of 
which q.v.) 

FOURIER, Jean Baptiste- 
Joseph(Fr) (1768-1830) 1822. 
Prop, theory of heat. 
FOURNEYRON, Benoit (Fr) 
(1802-67) Des. water-turbines. 
Was pupil of Prof. Claude 
Burdin, who des. original en- 
closed, submerged, horizontal 
water-wheel, which he named a 
turbine (q.v.). 

FOX-TALBOT, W. H. ( 1800- 
77) Born Melbury, Dorsetshire. 
Inv. callotype process by which 
any number of photographic 
prints could be made from one 
negative. 

FRAGASTORO, Hieronymo, 
of Verona (1484- 1553) First 

6— IAD 



isol. different types of fever and 
had earliest ideas of infection 
("seeds," or germs). 
FRANCIS, James B. (1815- 
92) Inventor of the inward- 
flow water-turbine design 
(q.v.). 

Frandum (element) 1939. 
Disc, by Mmle. Margaret Perey 
(Fr). 

FRANKLAND, Sir Edward 
(1825-99) 1849-53. Devised 
new principles of organic chem- 
ical analysis and synthesis. 
FRANKLIN, Benjamin 
(U.S.) (1706-90) 1752. Inv. the 
lightning conductor. Experi- 
mental chemist and physicist. 
FRAUNHOFER, Joseph von 
(Ger) ( 1 787-1 826) Physicist. 
1 8 14-17. Disc, the element- 
indicating lines named after 
him on the spectrum. 
Fraunhofer Lines See previ- 
ous item. 

Free Energy, Debye 1923. 
Disc, by Peter J. W. Debye 
(Hoi). 

Freezing, Physical Law of 
1788. Blagden formulated law 
relating to freezing-point of 
solutions (cryoscopy). 1861. 
Rudorff announced Blagden's 
law as his own new disc. 
Freon (Dichlorodifluoro- 
methane) (refrigerant) 1930- 
31. Disc, as a non-toxic refrig- 
erant by Thomas Midgley Jnr. 
(U.S.). See also Tetraethyl lead. 
See also Cryogenics, Refriger- 
ants, Refrigerators. 
FRESENIUS, Karl Remigius 
(Ger) (1818-97) Chemist. Dev. 
methods of chemical analysis. 
FRESNEL, Augustin-Jean 
(Fr) ( 1 788-1827) Prop, the un- 
dulatory theory of light and 
proved it by subtle experiments. 



FRICTION 



70 



FURNACE, IRON-SMELTING 



Friction, Knowledge of Ex- 
pressed by Leonardo da Vinci 
(1452-1519). 1699. Laws relat- 
ing to friction devised by G. 
Amontons (1 663-1 705). 
FRIEDEL, Charles (1832-99) 
Devised imp. methods of chem- 
ical analysis and synthesis. 
FRIESE-GREENE, William 
(1855-1921) 1889. Inv. the 
cinematograph {q.v.) in 
England. 

FRISIUS, Rainer Gemma 
(Hoi) 1544. Used camera ob- 
scura to obs. solar eclipse of 
Jan. 25. 1544. 

Front-wheel Drive (automo- 
bile engineering) 1 769. Nicholas 
Joseph Cugnot (Fr) (1725- 
1804) des. and const, the first 
full-sized mechanically oper- 
ated road vehicle, which had 
front-wheel drive. 1895. The 
"Electrobat" electric vehicle 
had front-wheel drive, as had 
the "Christie" motor-car of 
1904. See also Motor Car. 
FROUDE, William (1810-79) 
1877. Inv. the hydraulic dyna- 
mometer. 

FUGHS, Leonides (Ger) 
(1501-66) Pharmaceutical 
chemist who disc, the fuschia in 
Mexico, 1542. (The flower was 
intro. into England in 1830.) 
Fuel Cell 1952. F. T. Bacon/»af. 
oxy-hydrogen fuel cell which 
gave 650 milliamps of electric 
current at 0.79 volt per sq. cm. 
Fuel Injection 1904. Fitted on 
Pope motor-car. See also Diesel 
engine. 

Fuel, Pulverized 1807. Inv. in 
France for early internal com- 
bustion engine. 

FULBERT (c. 1460-152 7) 
Mathematician and scientist in 
the cathedral school of Chartres. 



Fulling c. 730 (a.d.). Process 
inv. by Nicias, Roman governor 
of Greece during the Roman 
occupation (Pliny). 17th cent, 
(turn of). Water-driven fulling 
mills in common use. 
FULTON, Robert (U.S.) 
(1765-1815) 1807. Des. and 
const, steam-driven paddle- 
wheel ship Fulton, which made 
150 mile trip up the Hudson 
River. 

Fumigants (agricultural) 
1920. First used. See also 
Insecticides. 

FUNK, Casimir (b. 1884) 
19 1 2. Obtained crystalline sub- 
stance from rice-polishings and 
named it "Vitamine." 
Furnace, Electric 1879. First 
electric furnace (arc) inv. by 
Clerc. 1882. Electric furnace 
inv. by Ernst Werner von 
Siemens (Ger) (1816-92). 1885. 
Heroult (Fr) and Brothers. 
Eugene and Alfred Cowles, of 
Cleveland, Ohio, inv. and const. 
first electric furnace (resist- 
ance type) . 1892. Henri Moissan 
(Fr) ( 1 852-1 907) further imp. 
electric furnace. 1898. Maj. 
Ernest Stassano, of the Italian 
army inv. arc electric steel 
furnace. 1 9 1 6. Induction electric 
furnace inv. by Northrup. 1920. 
Northrup electric furnace imp. 
by Ribault. 

Furnace, Iron-smelting 
Copula furnace inv. John Wil- 
kinson (1714-72). 1784. Reva- 
beratory furnace (puddling) 
inv. Henry Cort. See also Smelt- 
ing, Iron. 1873. Siemens- 
Martin open-hearth furnace 
intro. 1879. Pourcel and Val- 
rand variant of open-hearth 
furnace intro. 



FURNITURE, CLASSICAL 



7* 



GALVANOMETER 



Furniture, Classical English 

1 754. Thomas Chippendale des. 
furniture. 1 788. Hepplewhite 
des. furniture. 1791. Sheraton 
des. furniture. 

Fuschine (dye) 1859. First 
prepared by Verguin. 
Fuse (ballistics) 1378. First inv. 
1 42 1. Earliest known mention 
of fuse for hollow explosive and 
incendiary shells. Explosive fuse 
inv. 1 83 1 by William Bickford, 
of Tuckingmill, Redruth, Corn- 
wall. 



Fusible (Safety) Boiler Plug 
1802. Inv. Richard Trevithick 
(1771-1833). 

Fusee (horology) 1405. Ac- 
cording to some authorities 
fusee was known. 1430. Some 
evidence for use of fusee. 1477. 
Illus. and desc. by Paulus Ale- 
mannus of Rome as being 
well-known. 1490. Illus. and 
desc. by Leonardo da Vinci 
(1452-15 1 9). 1525. Inv. (?) by 
Jacob Zech (Jacob the Zech, or 
Lech), of Prague. 



G 



Gadolinium (element) 1880. 
Disc. Jean Charles Glissard de 
Marignac (Swit) in rare 
earths. 1886. Gadolinium 
named by Marignac in honour 
of Finnish Chemist J. Gadolin. 
1900. First pure gadolinium 
salts obtained by E. A. Demar- 
cay. 

GALEN of Pergamum (130- 
200) Early biological investi- 
gator. 

GALILEO, Galilei (It) (1564- 
1642) Disc, fundamental laws 
relating to the pendulum. First 
to see lunar mountains and 
satellites of planet Jupiter. Said 
to have inv. telescope (q.v.). 
GALL, Franz Joseph of 
Vienna (1758-1828) 181 1. 
Founded science of craniology 
or phrenology. 



Gallium (element) 1875. Due. 
by Paul fimile Lecoq de Bois- 
baudran (Fr). 

Gallic Acid 1786. Disc. Carl 
Wilhelm Scheele ( 1 742^86) . 
GALVANI, Luigi Aloisio (It) 
(1737-98) 1762. Disc, galvan- 
ism (q.v.). 

Galvanism 1762. Disc. Luigi 
A. Galvani (see above). 1791. 
Galvanism first effectively desc. 
(See also Electricity.) 
Galvanometer 1820. Original 
galvanometer inv. Johann 
Salomo Christoph Schweigger 
(Ger) (1779-1857). 1825. 
Schweigger galvanometer imp. 
by Leopoldo Nobile (It) (1784- 
1835), on the astatic needle 
principle. 1839. Tangent and 
sine galvanometers inv. by 
Claude-Servain-Mathias Pouil- 



GAMGEE TISSUE 



7* 



GAS-DISCHARGE LAMP 



let, watchmaker of Paris. 1867. 
Mirror galvanometer inv. 
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin 
(1824-1907). 1903. String gal- 
vanometer inv. Einthoven 
(Hoi). J. A. Arsonval also inv. a 
mirror galvanometer. 
Gamgee Tissue (surgery) Inv. 
Dr. Joseph Sampson Gamgee. 
Gangrene 1892. Baccilus disc. 
William Henry Welch (1850- 
1934) of Baltimore, U.S. 
Gas word created by J. B. van 
Helmont (Bel) (1 577-1 644). 
Gas, Goal 1727. First obtained 
by distillation of coal by Dr. 
Stephen Hales (1 677-1 761). 
1 760. George Dixon lit a room 
in his house by gas at Cockfield, 
Go. Durham. 1764. French 
academician M. Jars proposed 
to light Lyonnais collieries by 
gas. 1765. Spedding Carlisle, 
Lord Lonsdale's Whitehaven 
Colliery manager lit his office 
by gas. 1667. Gas lighting 
scheme for Wigan put to the 
Royal Society. 1 760. First fully 
authenticated attempt to light 
a room with gas made at 
Newcastle upon Tyne. 1784. 
J. P. Minkelers (Bel) proposed 
to use coal gas for filling bal- 
loons ; having the previous year 
originated gas lighting in 
Belgium with Prof. Philos, of 
Louvain. 1787. Culross Abbey 
lit by coal gas by Lord Dun- 
donald. 1792. William Mur- 
dock, reputed inv. of coal gas 
lighting, lit his Redruth, Corn- 
wall office by gas. 1807. Phillip 
Lebon lit Carlton House, Lon- 
don by gas. (Frederick Accum, 
of Westphalia; Samuel Clegg, 
of London; and Albert Winsor 
(Winzler), of Brunswick, often 
given credit for intro. of gas 



lighting), c. 1825. J. G. Appolt 
inv. modern type chamber gas- 
producing oven, or retort. 
Gas, Goal, Production of 

c. 1812. Samuel Clegg (1814- 
56) inv. floating gasometer, 
gas-holder, gas scrubber, and 
gas-meter. 1847. Leming inv. 
iron oxide gas purifier. 1855. 
Beals inv. fan gas exhauster for 
pressurizing mains. 1878. Bunte 
inv. method of analysing gas 
and established its calorific 
value. 

Gas Burners 1808. Inv. Aim6 
Argand (Swit) (i7557 l8o 3)- 
1 816. Fishtail, or batswing gas 
burner intro. to remain in use 
substantially unaltered in 
design until 1900. 1848. Plat- 
inum mantle burner intro. 1868. 
J. A. Hogg intro. atmospheric 
gas burner. 1853. R. W. B. 
Bunsen inv. the atmospheric 
burner bearing his name. 1884. 
Carl Auer von Welsbach (Ger) 
( 1 858-1 929) inv. incandescent 
gas-mantle burner; combining 
the mantle with Bunsen's gas 
burner in 1890. 1897. Inverted 
gas-mantle inv. by Kent. 
Gas-cooker 1802. Albert 
Winsor (Z. A. Winzler) (Ger) 
gave a dinner party with food 
cooked by gas. 1869. Com- 
mercial gas-cooker produced 
and rented to consumers at 6s. 
per annum. 1865. Methylated 
spirit gas-pressure stove inv. by 
B. Whangton. 

Gas-discharge Lamp, Elec- 
tric 1 710. Air in glass tube 
made to glow by passage of 
electric current by Francis 
Hauksbee (1 687-1 763). 1744. 
Electric gas-discharge lamp 
proposed for use in German 
mines. 1857. Becquerel experi- 



GAS-ENGINE 



73 



GAS, PRODUCER 



mentally coated an electric gas- 
discharge lamp with lumines- 
cent material. 1886. Presence of 
certain impurities in substances 
used for coating electric gas- 
discharge lamps known to be 
necessary. 1904. Lenard and 
Klatt investigated action of 
impurities in coating materials. 
1923. Rhodamine proposed to 
improve light from mercury 
vapour lamps. 1 935. Zinc ortho- 
silicate and calcium tungstate 
used by H. G. Jenkins to prod. 
yellow light under neon lamp 
illumination. 

Gas-engine See Engine, gas. 
Gas-fire 18 13. Suggested by 
John Marban. 1853. First 
domestic gas-fire prod., to re- 
main unaltered until 1930, 
when the thermostat was intro. 
in conjunction with it. 1880. 
Radiant heat gas-fire intro. 
1 860 . Gas-ring fire intro. 
Gas "Geyser" (water-heater) 
1865. Inv. by Benjamin Waddy 
Maughan. 

Gas-lighter i860. Inv. Archi- 
bald Wilson, of New York. 
(Platinum wire and induction 
coil.) 

Gas Lighting See Gas, Coal. 
Gases, Liquefication of 1 787. 
M. van Marum and A. P. 
Troostwijk (Hoi) liquefied air 
gas. 1823. Michael Faraday 
(1791-1867) first liquefied 
chlorine, carbon dioxide, sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, and sul- 
phur dioxide gas. 1835. Carbon 
dioxide soldified by Thilorier 
(Fr). 1877. Hydrogen, oxygen, 
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, air, 
methane and nitric oxide gases 
liquefied by Thomas Andrews 
(1813-85), Francois-Marie 



Raoult (Fr) (1830-1901), 
Marc-Auguste Pictet, of 
Geneva, and Louis-Paul Cail- 
letet (Fr) (1832-1913). 1897. 
Air liquefied in large quantities 
by Karl Paul Gottleib von 
Linde (Ger) (1 842-1 934). 
Gas-mantle 1885. Inv. Carl 
Auer von Welsbach (Ger) 
( 1 858-1 929). 

Gas-meter 181 5. Wet gas- 
meter inv. by Samuel Clegg 
(1814-56). 1820. Dry (bellows) 
gas-meter inv. John Malam. 
Gas, Natural 1000 B.C. First 
record of use of natural gas at 
the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, 
Greece. 1755. First record of 
use in U.S., in Virginia. 1821. 
30 street lamps lit by natural 
gas at Fredonia, New York. 
1875. Natural gas disc, at 
Netherfield, Sussex, England. 
1883. Disc, at Medicine Hat, 
Canada. 1900. Disc, at Roma, 
Queensland, Australia. 1898. 
Natural gas first used in G.B. 
for light and power by the 
London, Brighton and South 
Coast Railway Co., at their 
station at Heathfield, Sussex. 
Gas-poker 1854. Intro, in Eng- 
land. 

Gas, "Producer" 1839. First 
internally-fired gas producer 
inv. by Bischof (Aus). 1861. 
Ernst von Siemens inv. im- 
proved gas producer. 1862. 
Dr. Jacques Cerbos (Sp) devised 
gas-engine/producer suction- 
plant. 1 87 1. Tessier du Motay 
(Fr) intro. solid-hearth gas 
producer. 1874. Lowe (U.S.) 
produced "water-gas." 1881. 
Made by J. Emerson Dowson 
and later imp. by ( 1 889) Ludwig 
Mond (Ger) inv. process using 
cheap slack coal. 1891. Leon 



GAS-TURBINE 



74 



GEAR WHEELS AND TEETH 



Benier (Fr) intro. improved 
steam-air-producer-gas plant. 
1895. B. H. Thwaite used 
waste gases from blast furnaces 
to power gas-engines. 1903. 
J. E. Dowson's improved pro- 
ducer appeared. 
Gas-turbine 1791. First pat. 
for taken out by John Barber, 
of Nuneaton. 1941. First flight 
with Frank Whittle's gas-tur- 
bine. See also Aircraft. 
Gauges, Engineers' 1856 
Bing and plug gauges accurate 
to 1/1000 in. inv. Joseph Whit- 
worth. 1908. Block and slip 
gauge system inv. C. E. Johans- 
son (Swed). 

Gauge, Pressure 1847. Inv. by 
Schaffer, of Magdeburg. 1849. 
Expanding and contracting 
oval-tube type inv. by Edouard 
Bourdon (Fr) (1808-1884). 
1859. Steam cylinder and zig- 
zag, bent spring type inv. James 
Slack, of Nottingham. 1870. 
Bourdon tube (oval) used by 
G. Trouve (Fr) to power model 
ornithopter. 

Gauge, Petrol-tank 191 2. 
Magnetic type inv. Thomas 
Martin, c. 1929. Electric type 
intro. on U.S. motor-cars. 
GAY-LUSSAC,Joseph-Louis 
(Fr) ( 1 778-1850) Inv. an alco- 
holometer, a chronometer, and 
an alkalimeter. Const, many 
balloons and lighter-than-air 
craft. (All of which q.v.) 
Gear-wheels and teeth. 330 
B.C. Toothed wheels mentioned 
as being used in windlasses 
250 B.C. Gear-wheels used in 
hydraulic organs and cleps- 
hydrae. Two wooden discs with 
round pegs peripherally set at 
90 to each shaft. 200 b.c. 
Horizontal and vertical shafts 



coupled by gear-wheels on ox- 
driven water-lifting machines. 
16 B.C. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio 
{c. 50-26 B.C.) desc. and illus. a 
pair of gear-wheels for a water- 
mill. 1 1 70. "Hunting-tooth" 
mentioned by Lu Yu (China) as 
being used in "mill-boat" gear- 
ing. (No interest in gears from 
the fall of Rome until time of 
Crusaders, who in 13th cent, 
brought back designs for const. 
of windmills.) 1385. Peter 
Lightfoot made gear-wheels for 
clock at Glastonbury Abbey, 
Somerset. {See Clock.) 1660. 
Machinery near Paris fitted 
with gear-wheels with cycloidal 
teeth. 1674. Epicycloidal gear- 
wheel teeth inv. Danish astro- 
nomer Olaf Roemer (1644- 
17 10); also att. to Christiaan 
Huygens (Dan) (1629-95). 
1680. Tooth-shape for crown- 
wheels inv. Huygens. 1735. 
Crown-wheel tooth-shape 
imp. by Charles fitienne 
Louis Camus (Fr) ( 1 699-1 768) ; 
and again in 1741 by French 
mechanic Antoin Thiout. 1 750. 
De la Hire (Fr) and Camus 
established geometrical prin- 
ciples of design of gear-wheel 
teeth Clockmaker John 
Harrison (1 693-1 766) used 
lignum vitae wooden rollers on 
brass pins as teeth in gear-wheels 
of his famous chronometers. 
{See Clock.) 1 759. John Smeaton 
disc, that cycloidal gear-teeth 
prod, more uniform motion in 
windmill machinery. 1 760. 
Leonhard Euler ( 1 707-83) desc. 
best shapes for gear-teeth. 1 769. 
Smeaton used cast-iron for 
windmill and watermill gear- 
teeth. 1 78 1. Sun-and-planet 
gearing inv. by James Watt 



GEARS, CHANGE-SPEED 



75 



GEAR, VARIABLE-SPEED 



( 1 736-1 819). 1 790. Bevel gear- 
ing inv. 1 790s. Watt used gear- 
wheels of cast-iron with rec- 
tangular teeth. 1806-7. I ron 
spur gears first used in Ireland 
by Charles Wye Williams. 1813. 
William Hedley used gear- 
wheels with sloping-sided teeth 
in his "Puffing Billy" locomo- 
tive. 1890. Carl Gustaf Patrik 
de Laval (Swed) (1845-19 13) 
perfected high-speed helical 
gearing. (See also Gear-cutting 
machines.) 1923. Novikor- 
shape tooth prop. E. Wildhaber 
(U.S.). 1943. Novikor tooth re- 
prop. by M. L. Novikor (Rus). 
Gears, Change-speed 1890. 
R. Panhard (Fr) inv. motor-car 
change-speed gear with unen- 
closed gear-"box." 1898. De 
Dion (Fr) inv. motor-car change- 
speed gears with steering- 
column control lever. 1901. 
Louis Renault (Fr) inv. motor- 
car change-speed gear with 
"tumbler" meshing arrange- 
ment. 1902. Premier motor-car 
fitted with electrically con- 
trolled change-speed gears. 
1904. Wilson inv. his epicyclic 
pre-selector change-speed gear- 
box. 1904. Synchromesh 
change-speed gear pat. by 
Prentice and Shiels. 1904. 
De Dion inv. constant-mesh pre- 
selector change-speed gear-box. 
(See also Transmission, Vari- 
able.) 1905. Linley constant- 
mesh gear-box. 

Gear-cutting Machine 1741. 
Christopher Polheim Vintro 
Landop (Swed) des. gear- 
cutting machine. Landop's 
machine seen by Smeaton 
and desc. as having index-plate 
and hypoid gear-drive. 1783. 
Samuel R6h6 made gear-cutting 



machine with milling cutters. 
1 8 1 5. John Buck inv. bevel-gear- 
cutting machine, c. 1820. Swiss 
engineer J. G. Bodmer made 
gear-cutting machine at his 
Manchester works. 1835. 
Joseph Whitworth/>a/. machine 
for cutting spur and bevel gears. 
1837. Prof. Robert inv. odonto- 
graph for setting out involute 
teem. 1840. Josiah Saxton inv. 
gear-generating machine. 1 85 1 . 
First machine-moulded gear- 
wheels shown at Great Exhibi- 
tion. 1856. Christian Schiele, of 
Oldham, England, formulated 
the germ of the modern gear- 
hobbing machine. Not known 
whether one was ever made. 
1856. First U.S. gear-hobbing 
machine, pat. 1887. 1867. Clock- 
maker Potts pat. gear dividing 
and cutting machine and won 
gold medal at Paris Exhibition 
of 1867. 1877. Automatic gear- 
cutters in use in U.S. 1897. 
Frederick W. Lanchester inv. 
first British gear-hobbing 
machine. (See also Dividing 
machine, hob.) 

Gear, Differential 1828. Inv. 
Onesiphore Pecquer (Fr). 1830. 
John Hanson pat. similar gear, 
and Richard Roberts yet an- 
other arrangement in 1832; 
this being incorporated in a 
steam road vehicle he built. 
1896. Differential gear first 
applied to motor-cars. 
Gear, Variable-speed 1907- 
12. Hydraulic variable-speed 
gear inv. Harvey D. Williams 
and Reynold Janney (both 
U.S.). Included infinitely vari- 
able, reversible gear for direct 
coupling to an electric or other 
form of high-speed motor. 



GEIGER COUNTER 



76 



GETTERING PROCESS 



Geiger Counter c. 1908. inv. 
by Hans Geiger (Ger). 
Gelatine, Blasting 1875. Inv. 
Alfred Nobel (Swed). 
Generator, Electric (dyna- 
mos and alternators) 1831. 
Michael Faraday (1791-1867) 
prod, continuous electric current 
by rotating a copper disc be- 
tween magnetic poles. 1831. 
Hippolyte Pixii (Fr) prod. 
alternating current by rotating 
a permanent magnet near to 
two fixed coils; and also later 
the same year added a corn- 
mutating device to derive direct 
current from the machine. 1 832. 
William Sturgeon (1 783-1 850) 
prod, a crude, inefficient electric 
motor, and in 1835-36 brought 
the two-part commutator into 
common use. {See Motors, elec- 
tric.) 1844. J. S. Woolrich pat. 
multipolar, commutator 
dynamo for electro-plating. 
1838. Sturgeon inv. shuttle- 
wound armature; imp. by E. 
Werner von Siemens (1816-92) 
in 1856. 1858. F. H. Holmes 
made a magneto-electric dy- 
namo for lighting South Fore- 
land (Kent) lighthouse, i860. 
Antonio Pacinotti (It) (1841- 
191 2) prod, a ring- wound arma- 
ture. 1863. Henry Wild inv. his 
separately excited dynamo. 
1866-67. E. Werner von 
Siemens and S. A. Varley 
(1832-192 1 ) working with Sir 
Charles Wheatstone (1802-75) 
dev. a practical self-exciting 
dynamo which relied on its 
residual magnetic field. 1870. 
Zenobe Theophile Gramme 
intro. practical ring armature 
which was dev . by F. von Hefner- 
Alteneck and used by Siemens 
Brothers in 1873. 1887. Nikola 



Tesla (185 7-1943) pat. two- 
phase alternators and induction 
motors (q.v.) thus inaugurating 
polyphase electrical engineer- 
ing. See also Motors, electric, 
and Transmission, electric. 
Generator, Thermo-mag- 
netic Electric 1887. Thomas 
Alva Edison (U.S.) (1847- 
1931) pat. idea of thermo- 
magnetic electric generator, 
using magnetic effects of heat. 
1960. J. F. Elliot (U.S.) sug- 
gested use of gadolinium for 
thermo-magnetic electric gen- 
erators. 

Geography, Science of 443 
b.c. Established by Herodotus. 
240B.G. Systematized by Eratos- 
thenes. 150 b.c. Expounded by 
Ptolemy. 24 B.C. Further dev. by 
Strabo. 

Geology 1779. Word intro. by 
H. B. de Saussure, of Geneva. 
Geological Formations, 
Names of Devonian, Carboni- 
ferous, Pliocene, and Miocene 
named by Sir Charles Lyell 
( 1 797-1 875); Cambrian, Palae- 
zoic and Cainzoic by Sedgwick, 
of Cambridge; and the Meso- 
zoic by John Phillips, of Oxford. 
Geometry 600 b.c. Intro, into 
Greece by Phales. Geometry 
signs intro. by Chasles (1793- 
1880). Co-ordinate geometry 
prop, by Rene Descartes (Fr) 
(1596- 1 650) and Pierre Fermat 
(Fr) (1601-65). 1768. Descrip- 
tive geometry conceived by 
Gaspard Monge (Fr) (1746- 
1818). 

Germanium (element) 1886. 
Disc, by Clemens Winkler 
(1838-). 

Gettering Process 1882. 
Magnesium process inv. Fitz- 
gerald. 1894. Phosphorus pro- 



GHOST 



PEPPERS 



11 



GLASS 



cess inv. Arturo Malignani (It). 
Ghost", "Pepper's 1858. 
Optical illusion first prod, by 
John Taylor. 1863. Prof. Pepper 
exhibited illusion at Royal 
Polytechnic, London. 
GIABER (Geber, or Yeber) 
(Arab) (c. a.d. 800) Disc, nitric 
acid, nitro-hydrochloric acid, 
silver nitrate, gold chloride, 
sulphuric acid, mercuric chlor- 
ide (corrosive sublimate), and 
mercuric oxide (red oxide of 
mercury). 

GIFFARD, Henri (Fr) (1825- 
82) Inv. the injector for steam 
boilers; a 3 h.p. steam-driven 
dirigible airship in 1852; and 
des. and const, a 230 ft long air- 
ship in 1855. 

Gilding 149 b.c. Gilding em- 
ployed as an art by Moses 
(Exodus xxv. 11). 1273. Gilding 
with gold-leaf inv. in Italy. 
Gimbal Suspension 2nd cent. 
b.c. Desc. by Philon of Byzan- 
teum. 1st cent. b.c. Known to 
the Chinese, (a.d.). 12th cent, 
mentioned in Western Civiliza- 
tion. 1 50 1 Att. to Jerome Car- 
danus (It). 1546. First desc. by 
Martin Cortez. 
Gin, Cotton See Cotton-gin. 
Glacier-flow 1840-42. Speed 
of disc, by Louis Agassiz (Fr) 
and J. D. Forbes. 
Glanders Bacillus Disc, by 
Friedrich Loeffler (Ger) (1852- 

1925)- 

Glass 1st cent. b.c. Glazing of 
windows a general practice in 
Rome. (Bronze window-frames 
glazed with sheets of glass 28 in. 
by 21 in. found in ruins of 
Pompeii.) Blue glass cylinder of 
c. 2600 b.c. found at Tel Asmar, 
north-west of Baghdad, c. 15th- 
16th cent. b.c. Egyptian glass- 



works found by Dr. Flinders 
Petrie at Tel-el-Amarna in 
1894. Moulded and carved 
glass objects, 7th cent. b.c. 
found at Puzzuoli ; of 4th cent. 
b.c. at Ephesus and Arteme- 
sium; of 3rd cent. b.c. at 
Canosa; and of 2nd cent. b.c. 
at Aegina. 3rd-2nd cent. b.c. 
"Millifiore" glass in prod. 1st 
cent. b.c. Earliest blown glass 
objects made in Egypt by 
blowing glass into moulds. (By 
a.d. 4th cent, blown glass was 
prod, in Italy, Greece, Asia 
Minor, Kertch, South Russia, 
Melos, Tharros, Sardinia, 
Genoa, Smyrna, Crete, Cyprus 
and Palestine, a.d. 220. Tax 
imposed on glassworkers of 
Ancient Rome. 674. Venerable 
Bede mentions Gaulish glass- 
workers imported by Abbot 
Benedict to make glass for 
windows of Wearmouth, North- 
umberland, church. 5th-gth 
cent. Coloured glass used for 
decorating church windows. 
(Anastasius, librarian to Pope 
Leo III (c. 800), mentions 
painted glass windows as in use 
in his time; and Leo Ostiensis 
(c. 760) refers to glass windows 
fixed with lead and iron rods.) 
1023 Manuscript encyclo- 
paedia alludes to free-blown 
glass work with illus. of 
blowing and annealing. 
1 2 th cent. German monk 
Theophilus of Paderborn, 
Westphalia, desc. production 
and working of glass together 
with const, of glass furnace. 
1300. Tin-glazes for glass disc. 
1380. John Glasewrythe, of 
Kirdford, Sussex, made "brode- 
glass" (window-glass) and 
hollow-ware vessels. 1386. 



GLASS, BORON 



78 



GLAZING 



Charter of King Richard II 
mentions glass window manu- 
facture. 1540. Cobalt glass 
popular in Germany. 1567. 
Lorranian Jean Carr6 ob- 
tained licence to make glass 
at Alford, Surrey, and Crutched 
Friars, London. 1572. Vene- 
tian Jacomo Verzalini made 
Venice glass in London. 1610. 
Thomas Percivall pat. use of 
coal as fuel for glass-making. 
1633. Thomas Tilman prod. 
"crystal-lead" glass. 1664. Glass 
Sellers Company chartered 
by King Charles II. 1665. New 
casting method disc, by Nehou. 
1675. George Ravenscroft inv. 
flint glass to rival Venetian 
crystal glass. 1675. Crystal glass 
(the "chalk-glass" of Bohemia) 
appeared. 1688. Plate glass 
intro. in France. 1688. Nehou's 
casting method imp. by Louis 
Lucas (Fr). 1894. Michael J. 
Owens (U.S.) inv. semi-auto- 
matic paste-mould electric- 
lamp-bulb blowing machine. 
See also Bottle-making ma- 
chine, Automatic. 
Glass, Boron Originally inv. 
Michael Faraday (1 791-1867) 
and brought into commercial 
use after World War II. 
Glass Building-blocks. 1931. 
First, intro. 

Glass, Fibre 1841. Louis 
Schwabe demonstrated glass 
fibre spinning at Manchester. 
1930. Staple glass fibre first 
intro. 1944. Glass fibres first 
used to reinforce certain con- 
tact-pressure resins. 
Glass, Optical 1733. Chester 
Moor Hall used flint and crown 
glass lenses to counter chroma- 
tism. (Also John Dolland, in 
1758.) 1755. Flint and crown 



glass used for lenses by Samuel 
Klingenstierna (Swed). (Opti- 
cal glass industry founded by 
Pierre-Louis Guinand (Swit) 
(1774 — 1802). See also Lens, 
achromatic. 

Glass, Plate 1687, first mech- 
anized in U.S. 1688. Intro, into 
England. 1773. Intro, into 
France. 1900-12. Colburn dev. 
machine for making plate glass 
by continuous process. 19 10. 
Bernard Perrot's process, inv. 
1920. Perrot's mechanized pro- 
cess made continuous at Ford's 
Motor Works, U.S. 1952. Alas- 
tair Pilkington of St. Helens, 
Lancashire inv. "float" process 
for making plate glass. 
Glass, Safety 1905. Wood inv. 
laminated (celluloid) safety 
glass. 19 10. E. Benedictus prod. 
first commercial safety glass 
("Triplex"). 1929. Safety glass 
prod, by St. Gobian Glass 
Company, France. 
Glass, Toughened 1785. Inv. 
by Francois de la Bastie, of 
Paris. 1876. Use of toughened 
glass general in France. 
Glasses, Musical (har- 
monica) 1 64 1. Inv. by Kauff- 
mann, of Nuremberg. 1746. 
First played in public in Lon- 
don by musical composer Chris- 
topher Willibald von Gluck 
( 1 716-1787). (According to 
some authorities musical glasses 
inv. 1697 by Richard Pock- 
ridge.) 

Glauber Salts (sodium sul- 
phate) 1658. First made by Dr. 
Johann Rudolph GlauHef^bf 
Bavaria (1604-70). 
Glazing (ceramics) 1283. 
Lucca della Robbia inv. tin- 
glazing of pottery. 1671. Dr. 



G.L.E.E.P. 



79 



GRADUATION 



Dwight pat. white salt-glazed 
pottery and stoneware. 
G.L.E.E.P. (graphite low 
energy experimental (atomic 
pile)) 1947. Des. and built at 
Harwell, England. 
Globes, Terrestial and 
Celestial 4th cent. b.c. Globes 
6 ft. 6 in. in diameter made for 
astronomer Eudoxus (d. 386 
b.c). (Now in Naples Museum.) 
Archimedes and Heron of Alex- 
andria had glass celestial 
globes with solid terrestial 
globes inside them. 
Glockenspiel (Mustel organ) 
1886. Inv. by Auguste Mustel, 
of Paris. 

Gloves 1225. Gauntlets intro. 
into England. 1889. Rubber 
gloves first used in surgery by 
William Stewart Halstead, of 
Baltimore, U.S. 

Glue 1600 b.c. Glue of similar 
composition to that used today 
in use in Ancient Egypt. 
Glue, Marine 1868. Inv. 
Richard JefFery. 
Glycerine (glycerol) 1779. 
Disc, by Carl Wilhelm Scheele 
(1742-86) and termed by him 
"oelsiiss." 

Glycogen (chemistry) Disc. 
Claude Bernard (1813-78), of 
St. Julien, Lyons, France. 
Goitre, Eacopthalmic (sur- 
gery) First identified by Robert 
Graves (1 796-1 853). 
Gold Pre 5000 b.c. Disc. c. 1350. 
Gold wire first made in Italy. 
Disc, in South America by 
Spaniards, 1492; in Malacca, 
1 731; in Ceylon, 1800; in 
California, 1847; in Australia, 
1 851; in British Columbia, 
1858; in New Zealand and 
Nova Scotia, 1861. 1867. Miller 
inv. chlorine process of separa- 



ting gold from silver. 1889. 
McArthur-Forrest inv. cyanide 
extraction process. 
Golden Number (19-year 
cycle) 432 b.c Inv. by Meton of 
Athens. 

Goldschmidt enrichment 
principle [Botany] 16 16. Gold 
known to be present in rape- 
turnip {Brassica rapa-depressa) ; 
lead in mugwort (Artemesia 
vulgaris), chestnut, barley and 
wheat; and copper in Indian 
sorrel (Oxalis comiculata). 1935. 
V. M. Goldschmidt (Nor) obs. 
germanium in certain coal- 
ashes and later found twelve 
other metal-traces in certain 
plants. 

Golgi Bodies (cytology) 1909. 
Investigated and named by 
Cammilo Golgi (1884-1906), 
of Pavia, Italy. 

GOMPERTZ, Lewis Inv. 
three-point, self-centring lathe 
chuck. 

Goniometer, Reflecting Inv. 
fitienne-Louis Malus (Fr) 
(1775-1812). c. 1857. Simple 
goniometer inv. Woolaston. 
Governor, Centrifugal c. 
1490. Francesco di Giorgio 
depicted ball-and-chain centri- 
fugal governor as Tibetan hand 
prayer- wheel in conjunction 
with compound cranks and 
connecting-rods. 1507. Rota- 
tion of roasting-spit regularized 
by three weights turning on vert- 
ical axis. Centrifugal governor 
inv. by James Watt ( 1 736- 1 8 1 9) 
and applied to his steam-engine. 
Graafian Follicles (anatomy) 
First disc, by Regnier de Graaf 
(1641-73). 

Graduation (mechanical divi- 
sion 1 766. JesseRamsden ( 1 735- 
1800) completed his dividing 



GRAIN-GLEANING MACHINES 80 



GROSSETESTE 



engine. 1778. John Troughton 
made a dividing engine. 1830. 
Andrew Ross inv. a new divid- 
ing engine. 1843. Sims applied 
self-acting principle to Edward 
Troughton's circular dividing 
engine. (Robert Hooke (1635- 
1703) and Ole Romer (1644- 
1710) intro. earliest methods of 
mechanical division.) 
Grain-cleaning Machines 
1677. Edward Melthorpe and 
Charles Milson inv. machine 
for hulling barley and pepper. 
1 715. Thomas Martin inv. 
machine for cleaning maize. 
1725. George Woodroffe inv. 
water-driven machine for 
cleaning wheat; and Robert 
Burlow a similar machine in 
1 73 1. See also Winnowing 
Machine. 

GRAMME, Zenobe Theo- 
phile (Ger) (1826-1901) Res- 
ponsible for many invs. in the 
field of electrical power produc- 
tion and transmission. (See 
Electrical generators, alter- 
nators and motors.) 
Gramophone 1887. Emil Ber- 
liner (Ger) inv. disc record 
gramophone. The method of 
duplicating records by matrix 
was inv. by Bettini (It) at a later 
date. (See also Phonograph.) 
Graphotyping i860. Method 
of printing inv. Hitchcock, of 
New York. 

Grating, Diffraction (optics) 
First made by Joseph von 
Fraunhofer (1 787-1 826). 
Gravitation, Theory of 1665. 
Prop, by Sir Isaac Newton 
(1642-1727). 1679. Newton's 
theory completely proved. 
1743. Gravitational theory 
bearing his name put forward 



by Alexis-Claude Clairaut (Fr) 

(1713-65)- 

GRAY, Stephen (1 670-1 736) 
1729. First distinguished be- 
tween conductors and non- 
conductors of electricity. 
GREW, Nehemiah (1641- 
1712) Botanist who disc, flowers 
to be sex-organs of plants. 
Grimm's Law (grammar) 
Law of transmutation of con- 
sonents disc, by Wilhelm Carl 
Grimm (Ger) (1 786-1859). 
Grinder, Surface (Leonardo 
da Vinci (1452-15 19) sketched 
a disc grinder and internal and 
external grinders and polishers.) 
1831. J. W. Stone (U.S.) pat. 
horizontal table, with power- 
driven rack or screw traverser. 
1 845. James Nasmyth ( 1 808-90) 
inv. disc grinder with two 
annular wheels 7 in. diameter 
set with 12 stones in segments. 
1853. Samuel Darling inv. a 
surface grinder. 
Grinding, Gentreless 191 5. 
Intro, by L. R. Heim (U.S.). 
Grindstone 816-834. Earliest 
rotary grindstone depicted in 
Utrecht Psalter. 1340. Double- 
cranked grindstone illus. in 
Lutrell Psalter. 

Grooving and Tongueing 
Machines 1793. Inv. Sir 
Samuel Bentham. 1827. Inv. by 
an employee of Henry Mauds- 
lay (1711-1832). i860. Groov- 
and slot-drilling machine with 
flat, arrow-head, centreless bit 
inv. James Nasmyth. 
GROSSETESTE, Robert (c. 
1175-1253) First Chancellor of 
Oxford University. Prop. 
mathematical basis of science. 
Devised the hypothetico-deduc- 
tive method of scientific reason- 



GROVE 



81 



GYROSCOPE 



ing. Student of the metaphysics 
of light. 

GROVE, Sir William 
Robert (i 811-96) Inv. electric 
battery bearing his name, and 
a gas battery for decomposition 
of water and potassium iodide. 
GUERICKE, Otto von (Ger) 
(1602-86) Inv. hygroscope, 
valveless vacuum air-pump. 
Guillotine 1785. Inv. Joseph 
Ignace Guillotin (Fr) (1785- 
1814). i792.Guillotinefirstused. 
Gun See Gannon. 
Gun-carriage 1763. Inv. 
Claude Francois Berthollet 
(1718-1800). 

Guncotton 1846. Disc. Schon- 
bein, of Basle, and by Johann 
Friedrich Bottger ( 1 685- 1 7 1 9) , 
independently. Pat. 1847. 
Gunpowder 200 b.c. Used by 
Chinese in rockets. 673 Syrian 
refugee architect Kallinikos inv. 
"Greek fire." 690. Used by 
Arabs at siege of Mecca. 850. 
Used as an explosive in China, 
where recipe published in 1040. 
1 1 18. Used by Arabs in cannon 
— Moors against Saragossa. 
1 2 16. Earliest record of com- 
position of gunpowder in the 
west in Roger Bacon's Secrets of 
Art and Mature. 1231. Gun- 
powder grenades used by 
Chinese. 1306. Used by Moors 
during siege of Gibraltar. 1325. 
Used against the King of 
Granada at siege of Baza. 1 429. 
Gunpowder given qualities of 
more rapid burning and greater 
consistency of action by corn- 
ing. 161 3. First used for mine 
blasting. 

Gutter's Scale (land survey- 
ing) 1620. Inv. Edmund Gunter, 
London. In c. 1600 he had inv. 
the 100-link chain. 



GUTENBERG, Johann 
Gensfleisch (Ger) (c. 1397- 
1468) b. Mentz. Pioneered the 
art of printing (q.v.) in Germany. 
GuttaPerchaihfro. into Europe 
1822. 1849. First used as electric 
cable insulator by Michael 
Faraday (1 791-1867). (See also 
Rubber.) 

Guyot (underwater "island") 
c. 1940. First disc, by geologist 
Henry Hess, of Princeton, U.S., 
and named after Arnold Guyot, 
prof, of geology at Princeton 
University. 

Gyro Compass 1851 — 2. 
Leon Foucault (Fr) (1819-68) 
showed that a gyroscope (q.v.) 
would point north. 1865. 
Trouv6 (Fr) made an electric- 
ally driven gyroscope. 1878. 
G. M. Hopkins (U.S.) inv. 
electrically driven gyroscope. 
1903. Dr. Herman Anschiitz- 
Kaempfe (Ger) pat. the first 
gyro-compass. 1908. Elmer 
Ambrose Sperry (U.S.) pat. 
gyro-compass. 1914-18 S. G. 
Brown inv. gyro-compass, in 
collaboration with Prof. John 
Perry. See below. 
Gyroscope 1765. Gyroscope, 
or similar rotating apparatus 
inv. Bohnenberger, of Tubin- 
gen. 1816-17. Early type of 
gyroscope already in exist- 
ence. 1836. Edward Sang (Scot) 
suggested that gyroscope could 
prove rotation of the earth, 
but no one carried out the 
experiment until 1852, when 
Foucault did so and named 
the gyroscope. (The gyroscope 
said to have been used by 
Serson for steering a ship, 
which later foundered.) 1859. 
Gyroscope a popular toy. 



GYRO STABILIZER 



82 



HARMONICON 



Gyro Stabilizer 1868. Germ 
of gyro stabilizer idea ("to keep 
a craft on a fixed vertical and 
horizontal course") put forward 
by Matthew Piers Watt- 
Boulton. 1903. Schlick (Ger) 



first applied gyro stabilizer to 
ship. 19 13. Elmer Sperry (U.S.) 
began fitting gyro stabilizers to 
U.S. warships and merchant 
vessels. {See also Automatic 
pilot.) 



H 



Hackney Carriage 1625. Ori- 
ginated in London, where first 
stand was established in the 
Strand in 1634 by Capt. 
Baily. 

Hafnium (element) 1845. 
Found, but unidentified by 
Svenborg. 191 1. Re-disc. 1923. 
Finally isol. 

HAHN, O. Atom scientist who, 
in 1938, first gave chemical 
evidence that uranium, when 
bombarded by neutrons, pro- 
duced atoms of lower mass — 
notably barium. 
Hair, False 1572. First intro. 
into England from France. 
HALES, Stephen ( 1 677-1 761 ) 
First disc, that plants absorbed 
air. 

HALLEY, Edmund (1656- 
1742) 1682 Disc, periodic 
comet now bearing his name. 
Hammer, Explosion 1870. 
Inv. Phillip Sing Justice, of 
Pennsylvania, U.S. 
Hammer, Steam 1784. 
According to Thurston, steam 
hammer inv. by James Watt 
(1736-18 1 9). 1806. William 



Deverill pat. steam hammer. 
1838. Inv. by James Nasmyth 
(1808-90). 1850. Double- 
acting steam hammer inv. i860. 
Thomas Fearnley pat. method 
of governing length of stroke. 
Hammer, Trip 4th cent. B.C. 
In use in China. 
Handkerchief 1743. First one 
in G.B. made at Paisley. 
Hansom Gab 1833. Safety cab 
pat. and intro. by J. A. Hansom. 
Hardening, Metal 1906. 
Wilm accidentally disc, age- 
hardening property of alu- 
minium, which led to inv. of 
duralumin (q.v.). 
HARGREAVES, James 
( 1 720-1 778) 1767. Inv. the 
spinning "jenny." 
Harmonic Curve 1714. First 
demonstrated by Dr. Brook 
Taylor. Later perfected by 
D'Alembert, Euler, Bernouilli 
and Lagrange. 

Harmonichord (Keyed instru- 
ment) 1 8 10. Inv. by Kauffmann 
(Ger). 
Harmonicon ("Singing 



HARMONICS 



83 



HEATING OF BUILDINGS 



Flame") Inv. John Tyndall 
(1820-93). 

Harmonics 1754. Disc, by 
violinist Guiseppe Tartini (It) 
( 1 692-1 770). 

Harmonium 181 o. Inv. by 
Grenie, of Paris. 1840. Imp. by 
Alexandre Debain (Fr). 1841. 
Imp. by Evans, of Cheltenham, 
Glos. 

Harmony, Science of 1482. 
Equal interval scale devised 
by Bartolo Rames (Sp). 151.1 
Equalized scale prop, by organ- 
builder Arnolt Schlick (Ger). 
1577. Schlick's theory elabor- 
ated by Franciscus Salinus. 
Harness, Horse c. 1487 b.c. 
Said to have been inv. by 
Erichthonius of Athens, a.d. 
800. Horse harness with collar 
illus. in manuscript at Triers 
(France) city library. 
Harp 3875 b.c. Mentioned in 
the Bible — Genesis iv. 2 1 . c. a.d. 
1012. Brian Boromu's 'Irish 
harp' mentioned. 1720. 
Hochriicker, of Donauworth, 
Bavaria, prod, hand-operated 
harp. 1810. Hand and foot 
operated harp (double-action) 
inv. Sebastian Erard; with more 
imps. pat. 1895. 

Harpoon-gun 1731. Inv. 1772. 
Imp. by Abraham Staghold. 
1873. Shell harpoon inv. by 
Stend Fayn (Nor). 
Harpsichord 1409. First men- 
tioned, as "Grand harpsi- 
chord." 1512. First made in 
Germany. 1522. Intro, into 
Italy. 1667. Intro, into England. 
1708. New form inv. by Cur- 
sinie. 1716. Jack-and-quill 
action replaced by hammers by 
Marius. 1754. Ocular harpsi- 
chord inv. by Jesuit Father 
Louis Bertrand Castel, of Mont- 



pelier. See also Pianoforte. 
HARRISON, Dr. John (of 

Australia) In 1857 installed 
first refrigeration equipment 
(sulphuric ether). {See Refrig- 
erator.) 

HARRISON, John (1693- 
1 776) ofBarrow-upon-Humber. 
Famed for his accurate chron- 
ometers. Inv. gridiron tempera- 
ture-compensating clock pen- 
dulum. 

Harrow, Disc 1868. Inv. 
HARVEY, William (1578- 
1 657) In 1 6 1 5 disc, circulation of 
blood in the human body. {Disc. 
not announced until 1628.) 
HAUTFEUILLE, Abb£ de 
(Fr) 1678. Prop, engine working 
by gunpowder. {See Engine, 
internal-combustion.) 
Heart, Contraction of the 
(and Pulse) c. 300 B.C. First 
description of, together with 
speed and strength of beat. 
Heat 1 760. Latent heat disc, by 
Joseph Black (1728-89). 181 9. 
P. L. Dulong (Fr) and A. T. 
Petit pub. paper linking 
atomic theory with that of heat. 
1822. Theory of heat prop, by 
J. B. J. Fournier (Fr). 1824. 
Theory of heat propounded by 
Sadi Garnot (Fr) (1 796-1832). 
1843. Kinetic theory of heat 
prop, by James Prescott Joule 
(1818-89), of Manchester. 
Heating, Atomic 1951. First 
B.E.P.O. plant opened at Har- 
well, England. 

Heating of Buildings, etc. 
95 b.c. Central heating inv. by 
Sergius Orata for heating fish 
and oyster ponds at Baiae, on 
the shore of Lake Lucrine, 
Italy. 1 7 16. Hot-water pipes 
for greenhouses inv. by Sir 
William Triewald (Swed). 



HEAT CONTROL 



84 



HELIUM 



1800. Messrs. Todd and Steven- 
son's mills steam-heated. 18 14. 
William Murdock heated his 
conservatory by steam, and the 
following year heated Leaming- 
ton Spa baths by same method. 
1 830. Ernst Alban steam-heated 
his factory at Plau, Mecklen 
burg. 

Heat control 18th cent. 
Lhomond (Fr) inv. shutter-type 
heat control damper. See also 
Thermostat. 

Heat-pump (reversed refrig- 
eration cycle) 1852. Suggested 
by William Thomson (Lord 
Kelvin) (1824- 1907). *945- 
First building (municipal build- 
ing at Norwich, Norfolk) so 
heated. 

HECKEL, Wilhelm (Ger) 
Inv. modern contra-bassoon. 
Helicopter (see also Autogiro) 
a.d. 320. Used as toy top in 
China; and in Western Europe 
in 1200. 1505. Leonardo da 
Vinci (It) (1452-1419) desc. 
helicopter in book Sul volvo de 
gli Uccelli. Book not known to 
world until 1 797. 1 768. Paucton 
(Fr) inv. "Pterophore," with 
lifting and propelling air- 
screws. 1 784. Launoy and Bien- 
venu (Fr) made successful 
model with 21 ft. diameter 
feathered, contra-rotating 
screws. Driven by bow and 
twisted cord. First modern heli- 
copter. 1828. Florentine cob- 
bler Vittorio Sarti des. heli- 
copter with four-bladed, contra- 
rotational lifting screw. 1842. 
W. H. Phillips made steam 
model helicopter with steam 
fed through rotor-blades to jets 
at tips. First power-driven 
model helicopter to fly. 1861. 
Viscomte de Ponton d'Am6- 



court (Fr) pat. contra-rotational 
air-screw (steam-driven). 1863. 
Helicopter design a rage among 
European inventors. 1886. Jules 
Verne des. fictional helicopter, 
the "Albatross," 125 m.p.h., 
with a ceiling of 8,700 ft. (Not 
until 1962 was this fictional 
performance realized in prac- 
tice, when Igor Sikorsky's 
"S-62" reached no m.p.h. 
with a ceiling of 8,500 ft.) 1904. 
Charles Renard (Fr) inv. articu- 
lation of rotor-blades to their 
hub. 1906. G. A. Rocco (It) inv. 
cyclic pitch control. 1907. First 
man-carrying helicopter flights 
made by Brothers Louis and 
Cornu Breguet (Fr). 191 2. 
Cyclic pitch blade first used 
by Ellehammer (Dan). 1919- 
25 Marquis de Pescara 
(Argentine) first obtained 
horizontal propulsion from 
lifting rotor. 1922. Auto- 
giro inv. Juan de la Cierva (Sp). 
1934. Dr. Henrich Focke (Ger) 
const, helicopter, which first 
flew successfully 1938, with 
twin rotors (known as the 
Focke- Achgelis F.W.61. Igor 
Sikorsky (Rus) flew the 
machine). See also Aircraft. 
Heliometer 1748. Inv. by 
Pierre Bouger, of Brittany. 
1 754. Imp. by Joseph Jerome de 
Lalande (Fr) (1 732-1 807). 
Helioscope 1625. ^ m) - Chris- 
topher Schiener (Ger). 
Helium (gas) 1867. Disc, spec- 
troscopically in spectrum of 
sun by Sir Norman Lockyer. 
1882. Disc, on earth by Prof. 
Palmieri (It). 1905. Found in 
natural gas in U.S. by Messrs. 
Cady and McFarlane. 1909. 
Helium first liquefied by 
Kamerlingh Onnes, of Leyden, 



HELMONT 



85 



HONEY 



Holland. 1926. Helium solidi- 
fied. 1943. World's largest 
helium plant opened at Excel, 
Texas, U.S. 

HELMONT, Johann Bap- 
tiste van (Bel) (1 577-1 644) 
Studied pneumatic chemistry 
and gases, creating the term 
"gas." 

Hemisphere (scientific instru- 
ment) 330 b.c. Inv. by Baby- 
lonian astronomer-priest, of 
Cos. 

HENSON, William Samuel 
(1805-88) of Chard, Somerset. 
Pat. "aerial steam carriage," 
lace-making machinery, and 
the safety-razor. Also interested 
in the problem of flight. (See 
also John Stringfellow.) 
HERSCHEL, Sir John Fred- 
erick William (1 792-1 871) 
In 1845 disc, luminescence of 
quinine sulphate. Continued 
his father's astronomical in- 
vestigations. 

HERSCHEL, Wilhelm 
Friedrich (Ger) (1738- 
1822) In 1800 disc, infra-red 
rays. 

HERTZ, Rudolf Heinrich 
(Ger) (1857-94) First prod. 
radio waves experimentally. 
Hieroglyphics c. 1830. De- 
cyphered by Jean Francois 
Champollion (Fr) (1 790-1832), 
following a hint from Dr. 
Thomas Young (1 773-1 829). 
(See also Cuneiform.) 
HILL, Sir Rowland 1840 
(Jan. 10) . British penny postage 
instituted. Inv. by him. 
Hinge 1 780. Rising door-hinge 
inv. by Gascoigne. 
Histology Science founded by 
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 
(Hoi) (1632-1723). i8ig.Word 
intro. by A. F. J. K. Meyer. 
7— IAD 



1852. Histology first defined by 
Quackett. 

Hob, Gear-cutting 1856. Sug- 
gested by Christian Schiele. 
1887. G. B. Grant (U.S.) made 
first nobbing machine for spur 
gears. 1896. Frederic W. Lan- 
chester const, first hobbing 
machine for cutting worm 
gears. 1896. E. R. Fellows inv. 
entirely new gear-shaping 
machine. 1 897. Herman Pfanter 
(Ger) inv. machine for cutting 
spiral and spur gears. (See also 
Gears.) 

Hoe, Horse 17 14. Intro, from 
France by Jethro Tull. 
HOHENHEIM, Phillipus 
Aurelius Theophrastus 
Bombastus von (Paracelsus) 
(Swit) ( 1 493-1 541) Made first 
attempt to equate chemical 
action with bodily processes. 
(See also van Helmont.) 
Hoist, Steam 1830. First dev. 
Hollander (paper-making) 
Late 1 7th cent. Inv. by a Dutch- 
man, hence its name. 1712. 
First hollander installed in 
Germany. 

Holmium (element) 1878. 
Disc, by J. L. Soret (Swit). 1879. 
Independendy disc, by P. T. 
Cleve (Swed). 

Homeopathy 1796. Founded 
by C. F. S. Hahnemann (Ger) 
( 1 775-1843). 1827. Intro, into 
England. 1845. Homeopathy 
Association founded. 1859. 
Homeopathy Society founded. 
1876. London School of Home- 
opathy founded. 
Honey 5510 b.c. First record 
of bees found in tombs at 
Abydos, Egypt. 2000 b.c. 
Honey taken by King Kamose 
in expedition against the Shep- 
herd Kings (Hyksos). Wax also 



HOOKE 



86 



HYDRAMATIC 



mentioned, a.d. 3rd cent. First 
European mention of honey in 
Brehon Laws of Ireland. 
Domesday Book lists all bee- 
hives in Britain. 
HOOKE, Dr. Robert (1635- 
1703) "Hooke's Law" disc. 
1660. 1667. Inv. drawn-wire 
"otacousticon," or telephone. 
1680. Inv. screw propeller (q.v.). 
1684. Inv. first practical sema- 
phore telegraph. 
HOPPUS, Edward 1846. Inv. 
and pat. measuring tables show- 
ing solid content of timber, etc. 
Hops 1425. First mentioned in 
England. 

Horizon, Artificial 1929. Inv. 
A. H. Sperry. See also Gyro- 
scope. 

HORNBLOWER, Jabez 
Garter (1 753-1815) 1781. Des. 
and pat. first successful com- 
pound steam-engine, installed 
at Radstock, Somerset, in 
1782. 

Horse-power Unit intro. by 
James Watt ( 1 736-1 819). 
Horseshoe 4th~5th cents. 
Nailed horseshoes of this date 
found by Sir Mortimer Wheeler 
at Maiden Newton, Dorset- 
shire, gth-ioth cents. Horse- 
shoes found of this date in 
Yenesei Region of Siberia. 886- 
911. Mentioned by Leo VI of 
Byzantium. 973. Nailed horse- 
shoes mentioned by Gerard in 
Miracula Sancti Oudalrici. 1038. 
Silver-nailed horseshoes used 
by Boniface of Tuscany. 1066. 
Six blacksmiths worked at 
Hereford, i860. Goodenough 
(U.S.) intro. machine for 
making horseshoes. 
* 'Hot-spot" (automobile en- 
gine detail) 1904. First internal 
combustion engine to be fitted 



with hot-water gas inlet muffle 
— a De Dion. 

Hour-glass 1306-13. First 
mentioned (as "arlogio") by 
Francisco de Berberino. 1441. 
First pictured by Petrus 
Christos. 15th cent. (late). First 
represented as attribute of 
Father Time. 

Hovercraft (air-cushion 
vehicle) 1910. Inv. by Toivo 
Kaario (Fin). 1958. British 
boat-builder Christopher 
Cockerell demonstrated princi- 
ple. 1958. Dr. Andrew A. 
Kiicher proposed and built a 
36 ft. long "Levacar" (Ford). 
1959. Curtiss- Wright (U.S.) 
prod. "2500" «G.E.M." 
(ground effect machine) which 
had 45 h.p. engine and travelled 
at 75 m.p.h. 1959. Saunders- 
Roe prod., in Isle of Wight, 
SNR-I hovercraft, which later 
same year made the first 
open-sea voyage from Calais 
to Dover. See also Hydrofoil 
(Hydroplane). 

HUMBOLDT, Baron Alex- 
ander von ( 1 769-1 859) Dis- 
tinguished German savant. 
Studied composition of the 
atmosphere with Joseph Gay- 
Lussac ( 1 778-1850). 
HUYGENS, Christiaan 
(1629-95), °f Zulichem, Hol- 
land. Disc, planet Saturn's rings 
and largest satellite. Prop, undu- 
latory theory of light. Advanced 
first theory of motion of pendu- 
lum. Made first marine time- 
keeper (of which a replica still 
works in Amsterdam Museum) . 
1690. Recognized and ex- 
plained polarized light. 
"Hydramatic" transmis- 
sion Coupling (automobile) 
1930 (early). Semi-automatic 



HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSION 



»7 



HYPSOMETRE 



hydramatic transmission coupl- 
ing inv. Earl A. Thompson 
(U.S.). 1930s. A. W. Hallpike 
and A. A. Miller (G.B.) inv. 
auto-controlled epicyclic gear- 
boxes. (See Gear-box and Pre- 
selector gears.) 1939. Earl A. 
Thompson dev. fully automatic 
hydramatic transmission coupl- 
ing. 

Hydraulic Transmission 
Coupling (fluid flywheel) 1926. 
First applied to vehicle by 
Harold Sinclair (U.S.). 1930. 
Used by Daimler Motors in 
conjunction with Wilson 
(E.N.V.) pre-selector gear-box 
(q.v.). 1935 (by) Hydraulic 
transmission coupling const, to 
transmit up to 36,000 h.p. 
Hydrazine (chemical) 1875. 
Disc, by Emil Fischer (Ger) 
(1852-1919). 

Hydrochloric Acid 15th cent. 
Prod, from salt and alum. 
Hydrofluoric Acid 1780. 
Disc. Carl Wilhelm Scheele 
(Swed) (1742-86). 
Hydrofoil (Hydroplane) 
191 1. Roger Ravaud (Fr) des. 
hydroplane with 50 h.p. 
Gnome rotary engine. Ran in 
Solent. Built by Samuel Saun- 
ders, East Cowes. (See also 
Hovercraft.) 



Hydrogen 1766. Disc. Henry 
Cavendish (1731-1810). 1781. 
Cavendish, with James Watt 
proved water to be the sole 
product when hydrogen was 
burnt. 

Hydrokineter (boiler-water 
circulator) 1874. ^ m - James 
Weir, of Glasgow. 
Hydrometer 400. Inv. by 
Hypatia of Alexandria, c. 1830. 
Bead-type hydrometer inv. 
by Lovi. c. 1830. Sykes hydro- 
meter, inv 

Hydropathy 1826. Inv. by 
Vicenz Priessnitz. 
Hydrophobia See Virus. 
Hygrometer Inv. by Sir John 
Leslie ( 1 766-1832). 
Hygroscope Inv. Otto von 
Guericke (1602-86). 1665. ^ no - 
Robert Hooke (1635- 1703). 
1687. Another type inv. by 
Guillaume Amontons (Fr) 
( 1 663-1 705). 1 75 1. By Dulac 
(Fr) . 1 772. By Johann Heinrich 
Lambert (Ger) (1728-77). 
1783. Hair hygroscope inv. by 
Horace-Benedict De Saussure 
(Fr) (1740-99). 

Hypochlorites (and Chlor- 
ites) Disc. C. L. Berthollet (Fr) 
( 1 748-1 822). 

Hypsometer Inv. William 
Hyde Woollaston ( 1 766-1 828) . 



ICE 



88 



INJECTOR STEAM BOILER 



I 



Ice 1 786. First prod, by mech- 
anical means. 

Ice-cream 1924. First made by 
CO a process in New York. 
Ichnology (footprints) 1828. 
Science of founded by Dr. 
Duncan. 

Iconoscope See Cathode-ray 
tube. 

Icthyology 1553-58. Science 
of founded in France. 
Ignition, Motor-car Engine 
c. 1890. Robert Bosch des. and 
made low-tension magneto for 
gas-engines. 1897. Bosch low- 
tension magneto used on motor- 
cars — on first Daimler-Mer- 
cedes car in 1 90 1 . 1 902 . Gotdob 
Honold, of Bosch's firm inv. first 
high-tension magneto, and first 
Bosch sparking-plugs made at 
Bamberg, Bavaria. 1903. Capt. 
Longridge inv. automatic 
advance-retard mechanism for 
magnetos. See also Transformer, 
Electrical and Coil, induction. 
Immersion Heater 191 1. 
Intro. (Named the "Therol"). 
Impact Testing Machine c. 
1 919. Inv. Charpy. 
Incubator 1588 Giovanni Bat- 
tista della Porta (1535-16 15) 
des. an incubator after plan of 
those used in Ancient Egypt. 
1666. Cornelius Drebbel (Hoi), 
of Alkmaar inv. incubator 
("Athenor") fitted with a ther- 
mostat). 1 7 70. John Champion, 
of London, pat. incubator. 1846. 
Re-pat. 



Indicator, Internal-combus- 
tion Engine 1923. "Farn- 
borough" indicator intro. to 
check performance of aero 
engines in flight. 1940. Elec- 
tronically operated indicators 
first appeared. 

Indicator, Steam-engine 
1794. Inv. James Watt (1736- 
1819). 

Indigo 1 51 6. Plant first known 
in England. 1600. First known 
in Germany. 1 747. First planted 
in Carolina, U.S. 1840. First 
imported into England. 
Indigo, Synthetic 1856. Syn- 
thesized from benzol. 1880. 
Synthesized from nitro-cinam- 
mic acid by Adolf von Beyer 
and Emerling (Ger). 
Indium (element) Disc, by 
Jeremias Benjamin Richter in 
zincblende. 

Induction-coil See Trans- 
former, High-tension. 
Influenza Bacillus disc. 
Richard Pfeiffer (1909-26), of 
Breslau. 

Infra-red Rays 1800. Disc. 
W. F. Herschel (Ger). 1847. Re- 
disc. J. W. Draper (181 1-82). 
1850. Macedonio Melloni (It) 
proved infra-red rays had same 
relative differences in refrac- 
tion as visible rays. 
Inhaler, Ether (medical) Inv. 
John Snow (1813-58). 
Injector, Steam boiler 1 753. 
Capt. Savery pub. plan and desc. 
of conical jet steam nozzle for 



INK, INDIAN 



«9 



IRON 



lifting water. 1858. Inv. Henri 
Giffard (Fr) (1825-82). i860. 
Manufactured in U.S. and appl. 
to locomotive engines by Mat- 
thias Baldwin. Pre- 1 861. Imp. 
by August Nagel, of Hamburg. 
Ink, Indian 800. First made in 
China. 

Ink, Invisible 1653. Inv. Peter 
Borel. 1684. Another inv. by Le 
Mort. 1705. Yet another type 
by Waitz. 1 737. Cobalt type inv. 
Hellot (Fr). (Ovid suggested 
writing with fresh milk and 
warming writing to discover it.) 
Ink, Modern Writing 1836. 
Henry Stevens inv. writing fluid 
and a fountain-type ink-pot. 
1849. Inv. Runge. 
Inlaying, Metal 1600 B.C. 
Craft practised on ivory and 
wood in Ancient Egypt. (Bronze 
electrum daggers inlayed with 
silver and gold in lion-hunt 
scene.) 

Inoculation 1721. Intro, into 
England from Turkey, and 
tried on condemned criminals. 
1723. Intro, into Ireland. 1724. 
Into Hanover. 1 726. Into Scot- 
land. 1 796. Vaccine lymph disc. 
Dr. Edward Jenner (1749- 
1823). Inoculation against 
small-pox disc. Baron Dimsdale 
( 1 7 1 1 -1 800) . Immunization by 
inoculation disc. Robert Koch 
(Ger) (1843-1910). 
Insecticide 1924. First re- 
corded use of. (See also D.D.T.) 
Insulator, Electric 1733. 
Du Fay (Fr) first made distinc- 
tion between insulators and 
conductors. 

Insulin 1921. Disc, by Fred- 
erick Grant Banting (Canada) 
(1891-1942) and Charles 
Hubert Best ( 1 899-) . 1 922 (Jan. 
11). First human patients re- 



ceived insulin treatment at 
Toronto General Hospital. 
1926. Isol. by J. J. Abel. 1934. 
D. A. Scott prod, zinc salt of 
insulin. 

Integraph 1878. Inv. Abdank 
Abakanovicz. 1882. Inv. or imp. 
by C. Vernon Boys (1852- 
1900). 

Interferometer 1892. First 
interferometer inv. A. A. 
Michelson. Imp., 1905 by C. 
Faby and A. Perot (Fr). 
Invar (Nickel-iron alloy) 1896. 
Disc. Dr. Charles E. Guillaume, 
of International Bureau of 
Weights and Measures, Paris. 
Iodoform 1822. Disc, by 
Georges S. Serrulas (1744- 
1832). 1878. Iodoform first 
used as an antiseptic. 
Iodine 181 2. Iodine disc, by 
Parisian saltpetre manufacturer 
Bernard de Courtois. 18 13. 
Hydrogen Iodide joindy disc. 
by MM. Desormes and Cle- 
ment (Fr). 

Ionium 1906. Disc, by Bolt- 
wood (1870-192 7). 
Iridium (element) 1804. Disc. 
by Charles Smithson Tennant 
( 1 768-1 838). 

Iron c. 2250 b.c. Man-made 
iron in use as ornaments cere- 
monial weapons, c. 1400 B.C. 
The Chalybes, a subject tribe 
of the Hittites, inv. economic 
production of iron by the 
cementation process of steeling 
wrought-iron bars. Use of forge 
bellows implied. 4th cent. B.C. 
Cast iron in use in China. a.d. 
200. Date of oldest known 
complete iron casting — a fun- 
erary cooking stove. 1249. A 
"moulin de fer" (iron mill) 
recorded in use in France. (The 
tilt-hammer probably dev. from 



IRON LUNG 



9° 



IVORY 



the water-driven fulling-mill) 
(q.v.). 1320. Water-power 
applied to iron manufacture at 
Dobrilugk. 1709. Abraham 
Darby (1677-1717) inv. process 
of smelting iron by mineral fuel 
(coal). 1745. C. Polhem (Swed) 
(166 1 -1 751) inv. puddling pro- 
cess for wrought iron using 
grooved rollers. 1766. First 
definite progress in making 
wrought iron made by Brothers. 
T. and G. Cranage, of Cole- 
brookdale. 1 783. Puddling and 
rolling processes inv. by Welsh- 
man Peter Onions, of Cole- 
brookdale and also by Henry 
Cort (1740-800), of Fareham, 
Hants. 18 1 8. S. B. Rogers, of 
Nantyglow, Wales, intro. iron 
instead of sand for bottom of 
puddling furnaces. 1 830. Joseph 
Hall ( 1 789-1 862), of Tipton, 
Staffs, intro. iron oxides as 
bottom lining for puddling 
furnaces. (Inv. never pat.) 1833. 
Hot blast with anthracite pat. 
in U.S. 1837. Same process 
in use in Wales. 
Iron Lung See Respirator, arti- 
ficial. 

Iron, Structural 1851. James 
Bogardus began cast-iron frame 
building in New York. 1851. 
The Crystal Palace, built to 
house the Great Exhibition 
erected after prefabrication of 



12,000 iron girders, in Hyde 
Park, London, after designs of 
Joseph Paxman. 1889. Eiffel 
Tower des. and erected by 
Gustave Eiffel for Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1889. (In England 
churches built by John Cragg 
and Thomas Redman.) (See 
also Skyscraper.) 
Irrationals (mathematics) 6th 
cent. b.c. Disc, by Pythagorus 
(A.G.). 

Isomorphism, Law of 1 818. 
Disc, by Mitscherlich (1794- 
1863). 

Isoperimeters (mathematics) 
Problem of solved by Jacques 
Bernouilli ( 1 654- 1 705) . (See 
also Calculus of variations.) 
Isothermal Lines First de- 
lineated on map by Baron 
Alexander von Humboldt (Ger) 
( 1 769-1 859). 1848-64. Theory 
of isothermal lines enunciated 
by Dove. 

Isotopy (chemistry) Name 
coined by Frederick Soddy. 
191 3. First demonstrated that 
atoms of an element were not 
exactly identical made by 
Joseph John Thomson (1856- 
1940). 1923. Isotopy first used 
for investigating biological 
problems by Hevesy. 
Ivory 1000 B.C. Ivory combs 
and trinket-boxes were made 
in Syria. 



"J" 



9 1 



JOINT WIPING PROCESS 



J 



"J" (letter) 1550. Intro, into 
alphabet by Parisian printer 
Giles Beys. 

Jack (lifting tool) c. 1230. 
Screw-jack sketched by Villard 
de Honnecourt (Fr). c. 1245. 
Mentioned by monk Gervais 
(Fr). 1765. George Pickering 
(and George Staghold, ten 
years earlier) inv. screw-jack 
with gear-driven nut. 1839. 
Locomotive builder George 
England re-inv. screw-jack 
turned by a winch or capstan, 
with a ratchet-wheel and hand- 
operated pawl. 1840. Joseph 
Haley made a jack of flitch- 
plated wood with a worm and 
worm-wheel drive. 1855. 
Thomas Worsdell, of the North 
Eastern Railway, inv. a com- 
bined lever-and-screw jack, 
which improved upon Haley's 
inv. by having a safety-pawl. 
1856. John Young was first to 
cut teeth round the nut of a 
jack to engage with a worm or 
tangent operated by a winch- 
handle. 1857. H. C. Hill inv. 
"lazy-tongs" type jack. 1857. 
Brothers James and Joseph 
Tangye impr. jacks by inserting 
a screwed, splined spindle. 
1864. George Hodgson prov. 
pat. a jack he contrived by 
inserting the screwed, splined 
spindle of a drilling-machine 
and arranging the feed-wheel 
to raise a load. 1868. A. M. 



Clarke fitted epicyclic gear to 
mechanism of jack drive — an 
annulus. 

Jack, Hydraulic (lifting tool) 
1838. W. Curtis inv. first 
hydraulic jack for railway use. 
It had twin lift cylinders with 
a central ram between and 
a small water-supply cistern. 
1852. Richard Dudgeon made 
hydraulic jack with a force- 
pump inside a 3ms. diameter 
ram. An auto-release was pro- 
vided. 1858. Brothers Tangye 
des. a hydraulic jack. John 
Adamson and Robert Tweedle 
pat. hydraulic jacks. 1863. 
F. R. Hodge des. a hydraulic 
jack. 

"Jenny," Spinning 1745. 
Andre l'Aine, of St. Jean-en- 
Royans, Dauphine inv. spinning 
jenny for flax, cotton, wool 
and hemp; using three bob- 
bins simultaneously. 1755. 
Francois Nicholas Brizout de 
Bainville (d. 1772), a Rouen 
merchant inv. machine which 
did work of 150 persons, 
making thread twice as fine 
as Indian muslin. 1864. Spin- 
ning jenny inv. by James 
Hargr eaves. 

Jews' Harp 1591. First men- 
tioned. 

Joint-wiping Process First 
inv. John and George Alderson. 
1820. Process imp. by Thomas 
Dobbs, of Birmingham. 1837. 



JOULE 

Further imp. by John Wainer, 

Jnr. 

JOULE, James Prescott 

(1818-89), of Manchester. 
1843. Pub. results of experi- 
ments in mechanical equiva- 
lent of heat — the kinetic theory. 
(See also Calorimeter.) Unit of 
heat named after him. 



92 KITE 

Juno (planet) 1804. Disc, by 
Karl Ludwig Harding. 
Jupiter, Satellites of 1610. 
Disc, by Galileo Galilei (1564- 
1642). 1892. Fifth satellite disc 
by Prof. Barnard of Lick 
Observatory. 

Jute 1830. Intro, into England 
for sack-making. 



K 



Kaleidoscope 181 7. Inv. Sir 
David Brewster ( 1 78 1 - 1 868) . 
Kamptulicon (floor covering) 
1844. Pat. by Elijah Galloway 
(U.S.). 

Kaolin (china clay) 1760. 
First disc, in England, in Corn- 
wall, by William Cooksworthy. 
KAPLAN, H. C. V. 1913. Pat. 
water turbine with adjustable 
rotor blades. 

KAY, John (1704-64) 1733. 
Inv. the "flying shuttle." 
KEPLER, Johannes (1571- 
1630) 1609. Prop, the laws of 
planetary motion in his "Astro- 
nomia nova." 

Kerr Cell 1845. Michael Fara- 
day ( 1 791-1867) disc, that 
polarized light was diverted by 
a magnet. 1877. John Kerr 
showed that polarized light was 
rotated by reflection from the 
end of a magnet. 1905. Cotton 
and Monton assoc. Kerr pheno- 
menon with magnetic field (the 
"CM." effect). 



Kettle, Electric 191 1. Intro. 
and named the "Promethius." 
Keys See Locks. 
Key, Telegraph Transmit- 
ting c. 1836. Inv. Prof. Samuel 
Finley Breeze Morse (U.S.) 
(1791-1872). 

Kidney, Artificial Inv. Dr. 
W.J.Kolff. 

Kinematoscope i860. Inv. 
Colman Sellers (U.S.). 
Kinetic Theory 1841. Water- 
son made first important 
attempt to formulate the 
theory. 

Kinescope See Cathode ray 
tube. 

Kinetoscope 1888. Inv. 
Thomas Alva Edison (U.S.) 
(1847- 1 941). See also Cine- 
matograph. 

Kite 1000 B.C. Originated in 
China. 1405. Hot-air kite illus. 
in German MSS. 1450. Dragon- 
type kite illus. in Viennese MSS. 
1589. Diamond-shaped kite 
desc. by Delia Porta (1535- 



LACAILLE 

1 6 15). 1 752. Benjamin Franklin 
(U.S.) (1706-90) used kite to 
demonstrate electrical nature of 
lightning. 1804. Sir George 
Gayley used kite to form wing 
of his model glider — the first 
true aeroplane recorded. 1825. 
George Pocock recorded as 
making man-lifting kite. 1827. 
Pocock used kites for drawing 
his kite-carriage, or "char 
volant." 1859. Kite used by 
E. J. Cordner for ship-to- 
shore rescue work. 1893. Box 
kite inv. Lawrence Hargrave 
(Australia). 1894. Capt. B. F. S. 
Baden-Powell used a train of 
box-kites to lift a man. 1901. 
Col. S. F. Cody pat. man-lifting 
kite system. 1905. German kite 
carrying meteorological instru- 
ments reached height of 4 miles. 
1907. Tetrahedral kite inv. Dr. 
Alexander Graham Bell. This 
kite was tested in form of an 
aeroplane in 1909. (Athan- 
asius Kircher (1601-80), in his 
book Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae 
(1646) alleges contemporary 
man-lifting kites were used in 
Rome.) See also Aircraft. 



93 lace 

KLAPROTH, Martin Hein- 
rich (Ger) (1743-18 17) Disc. 
metals titanium, zirconium and 
uranium (q.v.). 

Knitting Machine 1589. Inv. 
by Lee. 1758. Imp. by Jebediah 
Strutt. 

Knives 1563. First made in 
England. 1600. Clasp-knife 
intro. from Flanders. 
Knife-cleaning Machine 
1844. I nv ' D Y George Kent. 
Knot (nautical measure) 1607. 
First mention in book on an 
East Indian voyage. 
KOCH, Robert (Ger) (1843- 
19 10) 1882 Disc, tubercule 
bacillus. 1883. disc, organisms 
of cholera. 

Krypton (elemental gas) 1898. 
Disc, by Prof. William Ramsay 
(1852-1916). 

KUNKEL, Johann (Baron 
Lowenstjern) (Ger) (1630- 
1703) Disc, phosphorus. 
Kymograph Inv. Karl Ludvig 
(1816-95) for mechanically re- 
cording on a revolving drum a 
permanent record of continuous 
movement (self-recording 
instruments). 



L 



LACAILLE, Nicholas-Louis Lace 1320. First made in 

(Fr) (1713-62) Astronomer. France and Flanders. 1626. 

Catalogued 2,000 fixed stars First made in England at Great 

and determined their proper Marlow, Bucks. 1829. First 

motions. made in Ireland at Limerick. 



LACE-MAKING MACHINE 



94 



LAMPS 



Lace-making Machine 1 758. 
Inv. by Strutt. 1809. Bobbin-net 
machine inv. 

Lacquer c. 1650. Inv. in imita- 
tion of much earlier Chinese 
and Japanese lacquers by 
D'Agly, of Liege. 1744. Process 
of lacquering imp. by S. E. 
Martin. 

Lacteal Vessels (anatomy) 
1627. Disc. Gasparo Aselli (It) 
(1581-1626). 

Lactic Add 1780. Isol. from 
sour milk by C. W. Scheele 
( 1 742-86) . 1 832 . Found in meat 
extract by Baron von Liebig 
(1803-73). 1850. Synthesized. 
1857. Formation in milk 
ascribed by Louis Pasteur 
(1828-95) to micro-organisms. 
1872. Two types of lactic acid 
disc, by J. Wislicenus one of 
which was optically active. 
Lactometer Pre-1835. Inv. by 
Dicas, of Liverpool. 
Ladder, Portable 1655. Forms 
subject of Marquise of Worces- 
ter's Century of Inventions, No. 50. 
c. 1830. Portable ladders had 
been pat. by William Hilton, 
Gregory, and Green, of Lon- 
don. 

LAGRANGE, Joseph-Louis, 
Comte de (Fr) (1736-18 13) 
Originator of the calculus of 
variations. Prop, general prin- 
ciples of dynamics and dy- 
namic analysis. Disc. "Lagran- 
gian Point" in orbit of planetary 
body. 

LALANDE, Joseph-Jerome 
de (Fr) (1 732-1807) 1760. 
Determined parallax and dis- 
tance of the moon at 57 15', 
corresponding to 384,000 km. 
LAMBERT, Johann Hein- 
rich (Ger) (1728-77) 1761. 



Prop, first theory of the Milky 
Way. 

Lamb-shift (nuclear physics) 
1947. Disc, by Willis E. Lamb 
(U.S.) in collaboration with 
R. C. Rutherford. (Subject 
later elucidated by Kramers 
(Hoi), H. A. Bethe (Alsace), 
and Julian Schwinger (U.S.) 
LAMONT, Johann von (Ger) 
(1805-79), of Munich. 1851. 
Disc, relationship between sun- 
spot activity and the earth's 
magnetic field. 

Lamps (all types) 890. Lamps 
with sides of scraped horn used 
by King Alfred. 141 5. London 
streets first lit by lanterns. 1 681 . 
London streets first lit by sus- 
pended oil lamps. 1683. Otto 
von Guericke (1602-86) ob- 
tained light from discharge of 
static electric machine. 1700. 
Isaac Newton (1642- 1727) and 
Francis Hauksbee (168 7- 1763) 
produced light from exhausted 
glass spheres with frictional 
electricity. 17 10. Air in glass 
tube made to glow by electricity 
by Hauksbee. 1744. Use of 
electric discharge lights pro- 
posed for German mines. 1 744. 
Reflecting oil-lamp inv. by 
Bourgeois de Ghateaublanc and 
used in streets of Paris. 1780. 
Aimee Argand (Swit) (1755- 
1803) inv. his wick oil-lamp. 
1800. Guillaume Garcel (Fr) 
( 1 750-1812) inv. pressurized 
oil-lamp. 1802. Electric arc 
light disc. Sir Humphry Davy 
( 1 778-1 829). 1806. Safety lamp 
conceived by Dr. Glauny. 18 14. 
London streets first lit by gas. 
1 81 5. Miners' safety lamp inv. 
Sir Humphry Davy, (some 
authorities, 1809). {see also 
Lamp, Safety.) 1820. W. de la 



LAMPS 



Rue disc, that electric current 
passing through platinum wire 
coil in partial vacuum pro- 
duced light. Pre-1825. Mod- 
erator oil-lamp inv. La Vavas- 
seur, Hadrot and Neuburger. 
1 84 1. F. De Moleyns took out 
first British pat. for incandescent 
electric lamp. (Powdered char- 
coal between platinum coils in 
a vacuum vessel.) 1845. J- W. 
Sturr, of Cincinnati, U.S., inv. 
first incandescent electric lamp ; 
stating that "when a carbon 
filament is used, it should be 
enclosed in a vacuum." 1849. 
Leon Foucault (Fr) (1819-68) 
inv. clockwork-magnetic control 
for electric arc-lamps. 1850. 
Submarine lamp inv. by Siebe 
and Gorman. 1856. German 
glassblower-artist Geissler ori- 
ginated electric discharge tube 
run on high-voltage alternating 
current in either air or gas-filled 
tubes. 1857. Becquerel experi- 
mented with electric gas-dis- 
charge lamps coated with 
luminescent materials. 1858. 
Carbon arc-lamp inv. i860. 
Following up Sturr's pat. of 
1845, Joseph Wilson Swan 
(1828-19 1 4) made electric 
vacuum lamps with "U"- 
shaped filaments of carbonized 
paper. (See also 1879.) i860. 
Mercury-vapour lamp inv. by 
Prof. Way and tried at Osborne 
House, Isle of Wight. (Pressur- 
ized mercury column in vacuo.) 
i860 (Sept.). Hungerford sus- 
pension bridge, London, also 
illuminated by Way's lamps. 
1862. Timothy Morris, Edward 
Moncton and Robert Weare 
jointly took out first British pat. 
for electric discharge-tube 
lamp. 1866. Adolphe Miroude 



95 LAMPS 

inv. battery-operated, nitrogen- 
filled tube for buoy lighting. 
1873. First permanent installa- 
tion of electric light at Paris 
workshops of Z. T. Gramme 
(1826-1901). 1877. C. W. 
Brush (U.S.) makes his first 
arc-lamp. Telegraph engineer 
Paul Jablochkoff (Rus) (1847- 
94) inv. "electric candle." 1879. 
T. A. Edison (U.S.) (1847- 
1931) made a platinum fila- 
ment vacuum lamp and others 
with Bristol-board and cotton 
(charred) filaments. 1880. 
Edison pat. electric lamp with 
bamboo filament. 1888. Pres- 
ence of certain impurities in 
luminescent substances used in 
gas-discharge lamps known to 
be necessary for their proper 
functioning. 1891. Philips com- 
menced mass-production of 
vacuum lamps in Holland. 
1897. Von Bolton and C. A. 
Welsbach succeeded in making 
vacuum lamp with malleable 
tantalum filament. 1901. Peter 
Cooper-Hewitt (U.S.) inv. first 
low-pressure, mercury-vapour 
gas-discharge lamp. 1903. 
Hanemann and Just dev. tung- 
sten filament vacuum lamp. 
1904. Inside frosting of vacuum 
lamps inv. 1904. Klatt and 
Lenard investigated impurities 
in gas-discharge lamps. 1905. 
Osmium filament first used in 
vacuum lamps. 1906. High- 
pressure, mercury-vapour 
quartz lamp inv. Kiich (Ger). 

1907. "Osram" (tungsten 
osmium) filament lamp intro. 

1908. Tantalum filament lamp 
intro. 1909. Tungsten filament 
vacuum lamp intro. 1 9 1 3. Coiled 
tungsten filament in argon gas- 
filled bulb inv. Dr. Irving 



LAMP, SAFETY 



96 



LATHE 



Langmuir (U.S.). 1923. Use of 
rhodamine proposed to improve 
light from mercury lamps. 
1926. Discharge-lamps with 
fluorescent materials within 
bulb inv. Edmund Germer, 
Friederich Mayer and Hans 
Spanner (all Ger). 1930. Foil- 
type electric photo-flash lamp 
inv. by Johannes Ostermayer 
(Ger). 1934. Argon gas-filled, 
"coiled-coil" tungsten filament 
lamps intro. 1935. "Photo-flash" 
type photographers' flash-lamp 
dev. by engineers of N. V. 
Philips, Holland. 1935. Bright 
yellow light under illumination 
from neon lamp prod, by H. G 
Jenkins by use of zinc ortho- 
silicate and calcium tungstate. 
(See also Gas lighting and 
Lighting systems, Motor-car.) 
Lamp, Safety 18 14. W. R. 
Clanny (1 776-1850) inv. his 
"blast lamp." (Idea first con- 
ceived in 1806.) 1 81 6. Sir 
Humphry Davy inv. his third 
safety lamp. 1840. Davy's lamp 
imp. by Meuseler (Bel), and 
L. Marsant (Fr). 191 1. 2-volt 
electric miner's lamp intro. by 
Hailwood. 

LAMPADIUS, Wilhelm Aug- 
ustus (Ger) (1772-1842) 181 1- 
16. Successfully experimented 
with gas-lighting (q.v.) at Frei- 
burg. 

LANGLEY, Samuel Pier- 
point ( 1 834-1 906) 1880. inv. 
the bolometer. 

Language, Universal 1661. 
Mentioned by the Marquis of 
Worcester in his Century of Inven- 
tions, No. 32. 1 66 1. Inv. by John 
J. Becher (1635-82). 
Lanitol (artificial wool fibre) 
1924. Prod, from casein by 
Antonio Ferretti (It). 



Lanthanum (element) 1839. 
Disc. Carl Gustav Mosander 
(Swed). 

Lapis Lazuli, Artificial 2000 
B.C. Made in Egypt from sand, 
chalk, soda and malachite. 
LAPLACE, Pierre Simon 
Marquis de (Fr) (1 749-1827) 
Instituted calorimetric experi- 
ments. Calculated irregularities 
in motions of planets Jupiter 
and Saturn. 

Laryngoscope 1855. Inv. by 
Manuel Garcia (1 805-1 906), a 
Parisian singing-master. 1857. 
Imp. by Dr. Czermak, of Pesth. 
Laser (Acronym = Light 
Amplification by Stimulated 
Emission and Radiation) (1878. 
Graham Bell and Sumner 
Tainter pat. 40 ways of trans- 
mitting telephony along a light- 
beam.) 1958. Maser (q.v.) 
techniques suggested to be 
extended to visible light by 
A. L. Schawlow and C. H. 
Townes. i960. Schawlow's 
and Townes 5 theories demon- 
strated by Theodore H. 
Maiman, using a pink, syn- 
thetic ruby crystal of sapphire 
doped with .05 per cent triva- 
lent chromium. 1961. Multi- 
level Laser with uranium or 
samarium in calcium fluoride 
announced. 1962. Semi-con- 
ductivity Laser using gallium 
arsenide disc, by R. N. Hall, of 
Schenectady, N.Y. The first 
continuously operating Laser 
operated by radio-frequency 
discharge in helium/neon gas 
inv. by A. Javan. (See also 
Maser.) 

Latex 1933. First foam latex 
sponge prod, by D. F. Twiss. 
Lathe 600 B.C. Inv. ascribed to 



LAURENT 97 

Talus, grandson of Daedalus; 
and by Pliny to Theodore of 
Samos. 400 B.C. Mentioned by 
Plato and Virgil. Pole lathe 
used since 13th cent. Treadle 
lathe with flywheel mentioned 
by Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 
15 19). 1568. Screw-cutting 
lathe inv. by Dauphinois mathe- 
matician Jacques Besson, of 
Besangon (Fr) (c. 1550). 1579. 
Oval-turning lathe first men- 
tioned by Besson. 1648. Maig- 
nan pub. in Rome engravings 
of two lathes for turning 
metallic optical mirrors to form 
hyperbolic, spherical, or plane 
surfaces. 17 10. Christopher Pol- 
hem built lathe of capacity to 
machine work of industrial 
sizes. Engineer J. Fortin (Fr) 
( 1 750-1831), also responsible 
for early dev. of lathe. 1772. 
First note of the slide-rest. 1 794. 
Joseph Bramah (1 748-1814) 
inv. (?) slide-rest. 1804. Medal- 
lion lathe suggested by James 
Watt ( 1 736-1 8 1 9) . 1 8 1 8. Copy- 
ing lathe inv. Thomas Blanchard 
(U.S.). 1820. Henry Maudslay 
(1711-1832) inv. (?) slide-rest 
lathe. 1820-30. Medallion lathe 
independently inv. by Benjamin 
Cheverton (U.S.). 1855. Turret 
lathe (screw milling machine) 
inv. by F. W. Howe, Richard 
Lawrence, and Henry D. Stone, 
of Robbins and Lawrence, 
small-arm makers, of Windsor, 
Vermont, U.S. 1857. Turret 
block first made automatic. 
1857. Taylor and White make 
machine lathe universal for 
mass-production. 1862. Turret 
lathe intro. into Britain. 1891. 
Flat turret lathe inv. by James 
Hartness. 
LAURENT, Augustin (1807- 



LE BELL 

53) 1836. Form, the so-called 
nucleus theory by which sub- 
stitution of atoms could yield a 
series of chemical compounds 
all connected by an unaltered 
"nucleus." 

LAVAL, Carl Gustaf Patrik 
de (Swed) (1845-1913) 1887. 
Pat. steam turbine. 1890. Inv. 
helical gears. 

LAVOISIER, Antoine-Lau- 
rent (Fr) (1734-94) 1774- Fin* 
to explain chemical composi- 
tion of air, and why things burn. 
Named the gas "oxygen," 
having disc. it. 

LA WES, Sir John Bennet 
(1814-1900) 1843. Established 
fact that nitrogen, potassium 
and phosphorus were the ele- 
ments most needed as fertilizers 
(q.v.). 

Lead (metal) Disc, pre- 1000 
B.C. a.d. 714. Mines at Wirks- 
worth, Derbyshire in produc- 
tion. 1790. Ironmaster John 
Wilkinson pat. process for lead 
pipe-casting. 1797. First lead 
pipes cast by extrusion. 1822. 
Continuous pipe-casting pro- 
cess pat. John Hague. 1827. 
Lead ore-washing process imp. 
by Harsleden. 1830. Imp. fur- 
naces for smelting lead inv. 
Joseph Wass, of Ashover, 
Derbyshire. 1919. Process for 
softening lead inv. by Harris. 
1920. Parkes's de-silvering pro- 
cess adapted to be continuous 
by G. K. Williams (Australia). 
LE BELL, Joseph Achill 
( 1 847-1 930) 1874. With van't 
Hoffprop. a consistent theory of 
molecular structure based on 
the spatial arrangement of the 
four valencies of the element 
carbon. 



LE CHATELIER 



98 



LENS, ACHROMATIC 



LE CHATELIER, Henry 

(1850- 1 936) Inv. a reverbera- 
tory gas furnace with air intake 
pre-heated by flue gases, to 
produce sufficient heat to make 
steel (q.v.). 

LE FEBVRE, Nicaise (Fr) 
(1620-74) Pioneer of the Para- 
celsan chemistry school who 
pioneered the modern textbook 
of chemistry by writing a 
chemico-pharmaceutical hand- 
book in 1670. 

LEMONNIER, Louis-Guil- 
laume (Fr) (1717-99) c. 1750. 
Made important researches into 
atmospheric electricity. 
LEBLANC, Nicholas (Fr) 
( 1 742-1806) 1787. Inv. process 
for making sulphate of sodium 
by decomposing sodium chlor- 
ide with sulphuric acid. 1825. 
Leblanc process first used in 
G.B. by Charles Tennant. (See 
also Bleaching power.) 
LEBON, Phillippe (Fr) 
(1769- 1 804) 1799. Inv. early 
engine to run on coal-gas. See 
Engine, gas. 

LECLANCH£, Georges (Fr) 
1839-82) 1867. Inv. the electric 
battery now bearing his name. 
LEEGHWATER, Jan Adri- 
anszoon (Hoi) (1575-1650) 
Civil engineer who first sub- 
mitted plan to drain the Haarle- 
mermere, using 100 windmills 
for the purpose. 

LEEUWENHOEK, Antonie 
van (Hoi) (1 632-1 723), of 
Delft. Naturalist and micro- 
scopist. Founded science of 
histology. 1683. First to see 
bacteria with a microscope of 
his own construction. Disc. 
compound eyes of insects. 
LEIBNITZ, Gottfried Wil- 
helm (Ger) (1646-1716) 1684. 



Created the differential and 
integral calculus, which was 
added to by Jacques Bernoulli 
( 1 654-1 705) and his brother 
Jean Bernoulli (1667-1748), 
and by Jean's son Daniel ( 1 700- 
82) (q.v.). 

LEIDENFROST, Johann 
Gottlieb (Ger) (1715-94) Disc. 
the spheroidal state which 
occurs when water is dropped 
on to a red-hot metal plate. 
LEMERY, Nikolaus (Fr) 
(1645-1715) 1677. Pioneered 
the modern chemical text-book. 
(See also Nicaise Le Febvre.) 
LENOIR, J. J. Etienne (Fr) 
(1822-1900) i860. Pat. gas- 
engine with electric coil igni- 
tion. Working on the two-stroke 
principle, this engine was the 
first commercially successful 
gas-engine (q.v.). 
LEONARDO da Vinci See 
Vinci, Leonardo da. 
Lens Originally of quartz or 
beryl (aquamarine). There is a 
lens from Ancient Assyria in 
the British Museum, a.d. 2-65. 
Seneca's writings show that 
he knew of the magnifying 
power of glass in convex form. 
1589. Battista della Porta men- 
tioned lens-grinding and polish- 
ing. 

Lens, Achromatic 1695. 
Combination of different re- 
fracting media to produce 
achromatism suggested by Sir 
Isaac Newton's pupil James 
Gregory (1638-75). 1733. First 
achromatic lens perfected of 
flint and crown glass by Chester 
Moor Hall (1703-71). (Lens 
made by optician George Best, 
of London.) 1667. Theodore 
Hook made microscope objec- 
tive and Antonie van Leeuwen- 



LENS, CONTACT 



99 



LIEBIG 



hoeks made his lens-grinding 
experiments. 1 755. Commercial 
production of achromatic 
lenses commenced by John 
Dollond ( 1 706-6 1 ) . 1 775. Pierre 
Guinand, of Soluthurn (Swit) 
built optical glass furnace at 
Benediktbeuern, Bavaria. 1870. 
Karl Zeiss, Otto Schott and a 
friend Abb6 founded Jena 
optical glass works — first world 
centre of optical glass. 
Lens, Contact 1887. First 
made by A. E. Fick. 1938. 
Plastic contact lenses of methyl- 
methacrilate used. 1950. 
Smaller contact lenses used, 
covering cornea only. 1958. 
Bifocal contact lenses intro. 
Leprosy Bacillus of leprosy 
disc. Armauer Hansen, of Ber- 
gen (1841-1912). 
LESLIE, Sir John (1766- 
1832) 1800. Inv. hygrometer. 
Also inv. differential thermo- 
meter, a photometer, and a 
method of freezing by rapid 
evaporation. 

LEUCIPPUS (A.R.) (6th cent. 
b.c.) Inaugurated the philo- 
sophy bearing his name. 
Leucin (inorganic chemistry) 
Disc, in urine by Friederich von 
Frerichs (Ger) (1819-85). 
Leucocythemia (medicine) 
1 845. First disc, by John Hughes 
Bennet (1812-75), of Edin- 
burgh. 

LEUPOLD, Jacob (Ger) 
(1674-1727) Wrote several 
books on hydraulics, fire- 
engines, and machines in gen- 
eral; as well as a description of 
a proposed high-pressure 
pumping engine with two 
single-acting cylinders. This 
type of machine not used until 
made by Cugnot in 1769 (q.v.). 



Lever, Laws Relating to the 

287-212 B.C. Disc, by Archi- 
medes. 

Level, Surveyors' 1737. Inv. 
Abbe Soumille (Fr). 1802. Imp. 
byHuette(Fr). 

LEVASSOR, Emile (Fr) 
(1814-97) Pioneered the com- 
mercial application of Gott- 
leib Daimler's internal com- 
bustion engine of 1883-85 to a 
road vehicle. (See also Engine, 
internal combustion.) 
LEVERRIER, Urbain, Jean- 
Joseph (Fr) (181 1-77) Ex- 
plained (with John Couch 
Adams, of Cambridge) the 
irregularities found in the 
motion of the planet Uranus as 
the result of a hypothetical 
planet; the presence of which 
was established on Sept. 23, 
1846 by John Gottfried Galle, 
of Berlin. New planet later 
named Neptune. 
Leyden Jar (condenser) 1 745. 
Independently disc. Ewald 
Georg von Kleist, at Kamin, 
Pomerania, and in 1746 by 
Petrus van Musschenbroeck, 
a German pastor and scientist 
living in Leyden. See also 
Condenser, Electrical. 
LIBAVIUS, Andreas (1540- 
1616) 1597. Gave an exact 
description of chemists' appara- 
tus and all operations such as 
calcination, sublimation. His 
classification of bitumens, nat- 
ural waxes and resins still 
stands, in principle, today. 
LIBBEY, Edward Drum- 
mond (U.S.) (1854-1925) 
1 899- 1 904. With M. J. Owens, 
of Toledo, dev. the first glass- 
bottle casting-machine. 
LIEBIG, Justus Freiherr, 
Baron von (Ger) (1803-73) 



LIFEBOAT 



IOO 



LIGHT, SPEED OF 



1823. Disc, that silver fulminate 
and silver cyanate have same 
percentage composition, but 
entirely different chemical pro- 
perties. Dev. gravimetric and 
volumetric techniques of chem- 
ical analysis. 1834. Proved the 
presence of the radical "ethyl" 
in ether and ordinary alcohol. 
1850. Inv. process for making 
meat extract by evaporation. 
Lifeboat 1 785. Lukin granted 
first English lifeboat pat. 1 789. 
Henry Greathead, carpenterof 
South Shields, inv. lifeboat, 
1853. H. F. Richardson inv. 
tubular lifeboat. G. F. Barrett 
inv. expanding tubular life- 
raft. 1890. Greathead's lifeboat 
awarded £12,000 by Parlia- 
ment. Pre-1789. Self-righting 
lifeboat inv. by William Would- 
have, of South Shields, and 
built by Henry Greathead. 
Life-saving Apparel 18th 
cent. (late). Le Conte (Fr) inv. 
air-filled life-saving vest. 181 5. 
Cork jacket inv. Henry 
Trengrouse, of Helston, Corn- 
wall. 

Lifts (elevators) 236 b.c. Archi- 
medes des. and const, a lift. 1850. 
Platform for hoisting barrels 
made and installed in New York 
by Henry Waterman. 1853. 
Elisha Graves Otis (U.S. des. 
and prod, his first lift with auto- 
matic safety devices. 1857. Otis 
erected lift with totally enclosed 
car at Haughwort's Store, New 
York. 1859. Fifth Avenue Hotel, 
New York, first hotel to be 
equipped with lift (operated by 
a steam-engine-driven screw 
up the lift shaft). 1866. Steam- 
driven lift installed at St. 
James's Hotel, New York. 1 867. 
Felix-Leon Edoux (Fr) inv. and 



installed hydraulic lift at Paris 
Exposition. 1868. Equitable 
Life Insurance Society the first 
office building to be equipped 
with a lift. 1889. Otis des. and 
pat. first electric lift. 
Light 1 100. Refraction of light 
disc. Alhazen (Arab). 1621. 
Laws of refraction of light 
formulated by Willebrord Snell. 
1664. Sir Isaac Newton disc. 
composition of white light by 
means of a prism and named the 
"spectrum." Diffraction of light 
disc. Grimaldi (1618-63). 1692. 
Polarized light disc, by Chris- 
tian Huygens. 1727. Abbera- 
tion of light of fixed stars disc. 
by James Bradley (1692-1762). 
Undulatory theory of light 
proved by Augustin-Jean 
Fresnel (Fr) engineer (c. 1820). 
(His hypothesis advanced by 
Huygens and further elabor- 
ated by Euler; being finally 
completed by Thomas Young 
and substituted for Newton's 
corpuscular theory.) 1808. 
Polarized light disc, by fitienne- 
Louis Malus (Fr) (1775-18 12). 
Light, Wave-lengths of Early 
19th cent. Thomas Young and 
Joseph Fraunhofer invented 
simple devices for measurement 
of. c. 1868. Angstrom measured 
wave-length of light. 1883. 
Rowland measured wave- 
length of light more accurately. 
Light, Law of Refraction of 
1 62 1. Disc, by Willebrord Snell 
(1591-1626) (Snell's Law). 
Light, Speed of 1676. Esti- 
mated by Roemer at 192,000 
miles per second. 1849. Deter- 
mined by Armand-Hippolyte- 
Louis Fizeau (Fr) at 190,000 
miles per second, using a rota- 
ting toothed wheel. 1850. Jean- 



LIGHT, INFRA-RED RAYS OF IOI 



LIPPERSHAY 



Baptiste-Leon Foucault (Fr) 
measures speed of Light with 
revolving mirror. 1880. Speed 
of light checked by Simon 
Newcombe (U.S.). 1882. Speed 
of light checked by Albert 
Michelson (U.S.) (both of 
Cleveland, Ohio). 
Light, Infra-red Rays of 
1 800. Disc, by William Herschel 
in the spectrum of the sun. 
Light, Lime- Dr. Robert Hare 
(U.S.) (early 19th cent.) sug- 
gested hydrogen burning in 
oxygen to produce a greater 
heat than any previously 
known. 1826. Inv. by Capt. 
Drummond. 1839. inv. Sir 
Goldsworthy Gurney, of Bude, 
Cornwall. {Pat. 1841 and 
known as the "Bude Light.") 
Lighthouse 1840. First cast- 
iron lighthouse erected at 
Morant Point, Jamaica. 1856. 
Henry Hale Holmes pat. elec- 
tric generator used to light 
South Foreland lighthouse 
(first electrically-lighted light- 
house). 

Lighting Systems and 
Lamps (carriage and auto- 
mobile) 1 785 and 1793. Joseph 
Lucas pat. oil lamps with convex 
mirrors and lenses. 1896. Louis 
Bleriot (Fr) ino. self-contained 
acetylene gas lamp. 1905. Lucas 
makes his first acetylene gas 
lamp. 1905. Bernard, H. Sals- 
bury, and T. Whitaker pat. anti- 
dazzle electric car lamp. 1924. 
W. T. G. Fenton and J. Rid- 
dington pat . dipping motor-car 
headlamp. 1924. Double-fila- 
ment electric lamp bulb for 
motor-car use inv. by A. Graves. 
c. 1910. C. A. Vandervell and 
W. H. Proctor perfect electric 



8— IAD 



motor-car lighting system with 
automatically controlled 
dynamo. 1937. E. A. Howard 
(U.S.) and K. D. Scott (U.S.) 
inv. "sealed-beam" motor-car 
headlamp. 

Lightning Conductor 1752. 
Inv. by Benjamin Franklin 
(U.S.) (1706-90), a Philadel- 
phia printer, and first demon- 
strated at Marly, France by 
D'Alibard. (Franklin had 
already established the rela- 
tionship between electricity and 
lightning in 1749.) 
Limbs, Artificial 1 5 70. Breton 
nobleman and Hugenot soldier 
Francois de la Nou6 used an 
iron arm. 1600s. Jean Truchet 
and Du Quet, of Paris, made 
movable artificial hands for a 
Swedish soldier. 
LINDE, Karl Paul Gottfried 
von (Ger) (1842-1934) 1895. 
One of the pioneers of low- 
temperature gas liquefication. 
(See also Cryogenics.) 
LINNAEUS, Karl (Swed) 
(1707-78) 1 735. Assigned class, 
order, genus, and species to 
every known animal and plant 
in his "Systema Naturae." 
Linotype Machine 1873. ^ m ' 
by 18-year-old watchmaker, 
Ottmar Mergenthaler, of 
Washington, D.C., U.S. 1886. 
First commercial linotype 
machine installed in New York. 
1892. Inv. pioneered in Europe 
by Sir Joseph Lawrence. 1892. 
A new model linotype machine 
appeared in Britain. 
LIORSO, A. G. (U.S.) See 
Seaborg, Glen T. 
Lipoid (chemistry) 1862. Term 
first used by E. Wagner 
(Ger). 
LIPPERSHAY, Johannes 



LIQUATION 



I02 



LOCK GATES 



(Hol) (d. 1619) Lens-grinder of 
Middelburg, credited with the 
inv. of spectacles and the tele- 
scope (q.v.). 

Liquation (metal recovery 
process) Used by Ancient 
Romans in production of gold 
and silver, which were melted 
in copper and lead; the metal 
in the copper being transferred 
to the lead, whence it was 
recovered by cupellation. (See 
also Amalgams.) 
LISTER, Dr. Joseph, Baron 
(1827-1912). i860. First used 
carbolic acid as a disinfectant — 
independently of Lemaire. 
1865. First used an antiseptic 
(carbolic acid) at an operation. 
LISTON, Dr. Robert (1794- 
1847) Inv. Surgical long splint 
and bone forceps. 
Lithium (Lithia) (element) 
181 7. Lithium disc, by Arfved- 
son, a pupil of Berzelius. Lith- 
ium finally isol. electrolytically 
by Sir Humphry Davy. 
Lithography 1 796. Process inv. 
by musician Aloysius Sene- 
felder (1 771 -1834), of Prague. 
1799. Process pat. 1801. Pro- 
cess intro. England by Andr6 
d'Offenbach. 1810. Hull- 
mandel erects first lithography 
press in London. 
Lithotrite (surgery) 1824. I** - 
by Jean Civiale (Fr) . 
Liver, Function of the Disc. 
by Claude Bernard (1813-78), 
who also disc, functions of the 
pancreas, salivary gland and 
spinal cord. 

LJUNGSTROM, B. (Swed) 
( 1 872-1 948) Made important 
invs. relating to the application 
of the steam turbine to the loco- 
motive. (See Turbo-locomotive 
and Turbine.) 



Locks (and Keys) c. 2000 b.g. 
Egyptian mummy-case locks 
with weighted tumblers in use. 
730 b.g. Earliest mention of 
locks by Homer in Odyssey, xxi, 
with "brass key." a.d. 800. 
Lock of this date found with 
key at Thebes. 1320. Lock on 
door of church at Gedney, 
Lincolnshire. 1540. Pad-locks 
(i inv." in Nuremburg. 1682. 
"Letter-lock" or combination 
padlock desc. in book printed at 
Amsterdam. 1 739. Cornthwaite 
inv. lock. 1774. Barron pat. lock 
with two or more tumblers. 
1784. Joseph Bramah inv. lock 
eventually picked by Alfred 
Hobbs in 51 hours, spread over 
16 days. 1790. Moses Bird inv. 
the lever lock. 1792. Watch- 
maker Santos le Gendre imp. 
safety lock. 18 16. Kemp, of 
Cork pat. "Union" lock, a 
combination of Barron's and 
Bramah's. 1818. Jeremiah 
Chubb inv. his first lever lock. 
1 83 1. William Rutherford, of 
Jedburgh inv. lock with stop- 
plate. 1834. Chubb lock simpli- 
fied. 1846. Cover-plate inv. De 
la Fons. 1850s. Andrews, of 
Perth, Amboy, U.S. and 
Newell, of New York, inv. per- 
muting locks. 1852. Hobbs inv. 
"Protector" lock. 1865. "Yale" 
pin-tumbler lock inv. Linus 
Yale, Jnr. (U.S.). (This was 
first time mass-production 
methods were used to produce 
unidentical articles.) 
LOCKE, John (1 632-1 704) 
One of the pioneers in the 
investigation of heat and its 
effects. 

Lock Gates 1495. Inv. in the 
West by Leonardo da Vinci, 



LOGKYER 



IO3 



LOCOMOTIVE, STEAM 



who, in 1497, used mitred lock 
gates on the Milan Canal. 1545. 
In use in France, which then 
had 2,2 15 miles of canals. 
1564-67. First used in England 
on the Exeter Canal. 
LOCKYER, Sir Joseph Nor- 
man ( 1 836-1 920) Inv. prism 
camera for astronomical spec- 
troscopy. 

Locomotive, Articulated 
John Cockerill, of Seraing, 
Belgium, des. articulated loco- 
motive "Seraing" for the loco- 
motive trials at Semmering. 
1863. Robert Francis Fairlie 
(Scot) pat. articulated loco- 
motive "Progess" for the Neath 
and Brecon Railway. 1869. 
William Mason (U.S.) modified 
Fairlie's design. 1887. Pechot- 
Bourdon (Fr) des. and built an 
articulatedlocomotive similar to 
Fairlie's. 1885. Johnstone (U.S.) 
built articulated locomotives 
in U.S. at his Rhode Island 
Works. 1887. Anatole Mallet 
(Bel) built his first articulated 
locomotive at Atliers Metal- 
lurgiques, Turbize. 
Locomotive, Diesel See En- 
gine, diesel. 

Locomotive, Diesel-Steam 
1920. Inv. by W. J. Still, of Still 
Engine Co., Chiswick, London, 
in conjunction with Lieut. Col. 
E. Kitson-Clarke, of Messrs. 
Kitson, of Leeds. Locomotive 
built in 1927. 

Locomotive, Electric 1842. 
Thomas Davenport, of Bran- 
don, Vermont, U.S., propelled 
a coach 16 ft. long by 6 ft. wide, 
weighing 5 tons on the Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow Railway at 
4 m.p.h. (See also Railway, 
electric.) 



Locomotive, Ice 1862. Ice 
locomotive "Rurik" des. by 
Nathaniel Grew for use on the 
River Neva between St. Peters- 
burg and Kronstadt, when 
frozen over. 

Locomotive, Petrol-driven 
c. 1899. Tried on Wurtemburg 
State Railways. 

Locomotive, Steam 1803. 
Richard Trevithick, of Illogan, 
Cornwall, inv. first high- 
pressure locomotive, which was 
tried successfully on the 9-mile 
Pen-y-Darren Tramroad in 
Wales. 1808. Trevithick's 
1 o-ton locomotive "Catch-me- 
who-can" achieved a speed 
of 12-15 m.p.h. on a cir- 
cular track in Euston Square, 
London. 181 1. John Blenkin- 
sop, of Leeds, des. rack-and- 
rack-rail locomotive. 181 2. 
Chapman inv. locomotive which 
hauled itself along a cable, also 
pat. four-wheeled bogie (for use 
on coal wagons). 181 3. Chris- 
topher Blackett and William 
Hedley, of Wylam Colliery, 
Newcastle upon Tyne, pirated 
and pat. Trevithick's inv. 181 3. 
William Bruntonj&af. a locomo- 
tive propelled by steam-oper- 
ated pusher-legs. 1814. 
George Stephenson des. and 
builds his first locomotive — 
"Blucher." 1815. Stephenson, 
in conjunction with Dodd and 
Losh, pat. outside connecting 
and coupling-rods. 1824. 
Stephenson's engine "Locomo- 
tion," with coupling-rods 
opened the Stockton and Dar- 
lington Railway. 1 82 7. Timothy 
Hackworth rebuilt the S. & 
D.R. engine "Royal George" 
with an exhaust blast-pipe. It 
could haul 130 tons on the level 



LOCOMOTIVE STEAM 



IO4 



LOCOMOTIVE STEAM 



at 5 m.p.h. 1827. Marc Seguin 
(Fr) ( 1 786-1875) pat. multi- 
tube locomotive boiler. 1828 
Stephenson des. "Lancashire 
Witch" for the Bolton and Leigh 
Railway, fitting each piston-rod 
with a crosshead and slide-bars. 

1828. Foster, Rastrick and 
Company build first locomotive 
for use in the New World — the 
"America." "Stourbridge 
Lion," however, was the first 
locomotive to be tried there. 

1829. Locomotives "Novelty," 
"Sanspareil," and Stephenson's 
"Rocket" compete in the Rain- 
hill locomotive trials, in which 
"Rocket" hauled 30 passengers 
at 30 m.p.h. 1829. Stephenson 
des. his "Planet" class locomo- 
tive. 1830. Hackworth des. the 
first locomotive with inside 
frames and inside cylinders — 
the "Globe." ("Planet" and 
"Globe" were the locomotives 
from which modern engines 
have been derived, containing 
horizontal cylinders enclosed 
within the smoke-box, cranked 
driving-axles, multi-tubular 
boilers, and axle-boxes running 
in horn-plates carrying the 
running-wheel axles, together 
with adequate springing. ) 1 830. 
Peter Cooper (U.S.) builds loco- 
motive "Tom Thumb." E. L. 
Miller des. and const, locomo- 
tive "Best Friend of Charles- 
ton." 1 83 1. Horatio Allen des. 
2-2-0 + 0-2-2 loco. "South 
Carolina." 1831. David Mat- 
thew (U.S.) builds "De Witt 
Clinton." 1832. Ex-watch- 
maker Matthias Baldwin (U.S.) 
builds his first locomotive — 
"Old Ironsides." 1832. First 
U.S. locomotive with four- 
wheeled leading bogie. Ste- 



phenson began building six 
coupled, inside-cylinder loco- 
motives. 1833. First 0-6-0 
and first bogie 4-2-0 shipped to 
U.S. 1834. John G. Bodmer inv. 
self-balanced, double-piston 
locomotive. 1835. Solid 
wrought-iron wheels inv. John 
Day. 1837. William Ferni- 
hough applied counterbalance 
weights to locomotive driving- 
wheels. 1839. Isaac Dodds inv. 
non-strain locomotive boiler- 
mounting method, and wedge- 
motion, valve-gear. Hack- 
worth's locomotive "Arrow" 
reached speed of 42.8 m.p.h. 
1840. Stephenson inv. steam 
dome. 1 84 1. Samuel Hall inv. 
smoke-consuming firebox. 
1842. Stephenson-Howe valve- 
gear pat. Baldwin (U.S.) inv. 
flexible-wheelbase locomotive. 
1846. Cast-iron wheels for loco- 
motives pat. by Brothers Sharp 
(previously fitted by Hack- 
worth to "Royal George." 1846. 
Stephenson intro. three-cylinder 
locomotive. 1847. Trevithick 
des. locomotive "Cornwall." 
1848. Ross Winans (U.S.) intro. 
"Camel" type locomotive. 
1848. T. R. Crampton's 
locomotive "Liverpool" ap- 
pears. 1850. The Great 
Western Railway locomotive 
"Lord of Isles" appeared. 
James Samuel des. continuous 
expansion compound locomo- 
tive. 1855. Daniel Gooch intro. 
4-4-0 type with 7 ft. driving- 
wheels. 1855. Matthew Kirtley 
and Charles Markham des. 
modern-type firebox. 1858. 
GifFard steam injector first 
fitted to English locomotive. 
i860. John Ramsbotton inv. 
water pick-up gear — first laid 



LOCOMOTIVE STEAM 



105 LOCOMOTIVE, SIDE-BEVEL 



on Chester and Holyhead Rail- 
way. Coal instead of coke began 
to be generally used for loco- 
motives. 1 86 1. John Haswell 
inv. balanced locomotive "Du- 
plex." 1870. Patrick Stirling 
des. Great Northern Railway 
single-driver locomotive "No. 
1." 1873. James Stirling inv. 
steam reversing-gear. 1877. 
Anatole Mallet (Bel) inv. satis- 
factory method of compound- 
ing. 1878. Francis Webb des. 
experimental locomotive on 
Mallet's system — tried in 1882. 
Egide Walschaerts (Bel) inv. 
outside valve-gear. 1888. Fla- 
man des. triple-boilered loco- 
motive for Belgian State Rail- 
ways. 1894. Flaman and Salo- 
mon (Fr) des. twin-boilered 
locomotive for French Est Rail- 
way. 1898. H. A. Ivatt des. 
4-4-2, "Atlantic" locomotive 
for Great Northern Railway. 
1906. Schmidt superheater first 
fitted to English locomotive. 
G. J. Churchward intro. top- 
feed to boiler. 1908. Ten- 
wheeled "Decapod" locomo- 
tive intro. on Great Eastern 
Railway. 4-6-2 "Pacific" type 
locomotive "Great Bear" intro. 
on Great Western Railway. 
1 92 1. Sir Nigel Gresley intro. 
"Pacific" type on Great North- 
ern Railway. 1923. G. B. Collett 
intro. "Castle" class on Great 
Western Railway. 1905. R. M. 
Deeley intro. famous "Com- 
pound" on Midland Railway. 
1926. R. E. L. Maunsell intro. 
"Lord Nelson" on Southern 
Railway. 1927 C. B. Collet 
intro. "King" class on Great 
Western Railway. 1930. R. E. L. 
Maunsell intro. "Schools" class 
on Southern Railway. 1933. 



Sir William Stanier intro. "Prin- 
cess" class on London, Midland 
and Scottish Railway. 1935. 
Stanier intro. "Jubilee" class. 
1938. Stanier intro. "Corona- 
tion" class. 1 941. O. V. Bulleid 
intro. "Merchant Navy" class 
on Southern Railway. 1951. 
British Railways locomotive 
"Britannia" appears. 1954. 
British Railways locomotive 
"Duke of Gloucester" (4-6-2) 
appears, i960. Last steam loco- 
motive to be built for British 
Railways — "Evening Star," 
No. 92220, left Swindon works 
on March 18, i960 and was 
scrapped in 1965. (See also 
Locomotive, steam-electric; 
Locomotive, diesel-steam; 
Locomotive, electric; Locomo- 
tive, turbine-driven, etc.) 
Locomotive, Steam-Electric 
1892. Prof. Heilmann (Ger) 
des. reciprocating steam-elec- 
tric locomotive with a Brown 
steam-engine and Gramme 
dynamo and motors (g.v.). 
1909. Reid-Ramsey steam-elec- 
tric locomotive built at North 
British Locomotive Works. 
1938. General Electric Co. 
(U.S.) des. and built 5,000 h.p. 
turbo-electric locomotive. 1947. 
Baldwin-Westinghouse steam- 
electric locomotive built. 
Locomotive, Steam Turbine 
1925. Kriipp-Zoelly turbine- 
driven locomotive built in 
Swit. B. Ljungstrom (Swed) 
also made important invs. rela- 
ting to turbine-driven loco- 
motive. 1935. Sir W. Stanier 
des. turbine-driven locomotive 
which ran on the L.M.S. Rail- 
way for 17 years. 
Locomotive, Side-bevel- 
drive 1880. System dev. 



LOG, SHIP S PERPETUAL 



106 



LULL (LULLY) 



Ephraim Shay, of Lima, Ohio, 
U.S. 1894. Heisler locomotive 
dev. at Erie, Pennsylvania, U.S. 
Log, Ship's Perpetual 1492. 
Leonardo da Vinci inv. Ship's 
Log. 1607. James Hookey 's 
spinning log first noted by 
Samuel Purchase. 17 19. Log 
inv. by Pourcheff (Fr). 1772. 
Log inv. by William Foxon, of 
Deptford. 1802. Log inv. by 
Edward Massey. 1878. Walker 
inv. "Cherub" log. 
Logarithms Steifel (1486- 
1567) prop, germ of idea, using 
letters for unknown numbers 
and signs + and — . 16 14. John 
Napier, Baron of Murcheston 
( 1 550-1 6 1 7) dev. and perfected 
logarithms and intro. word 
"Logarithm." 161 7. Napier 
pub. first table of common 
logarithms. 1619. John Speidel 
pub. tables of logarithms of 
sines, tangents, and secants for 
every minute from o° to 90 
to five places of decimals. 1624. 
Henry Briggs (1561-1631) com- 
puted logarithms of numbers 
from 1 to 20,000 and 20,000 to 
90,000 to 10 places of decimals. 
1628. Dutch bookseller Adrian 
Vlacq computed logarithms 
from 20,000 to 90,000. 
Logwood 1662. First disc, in 
Honduras by English. 
LOMONOSOV, Mikhail 
Vasilyevich (Rus) (171 1-65) 
Scientist who defended kinetic 
theory of pressure and heat 
experimentally established by 
Amontons. 

Loom 4400 b.g. Horizontal 
ground loom of this date disc. 
at Badari, Egypt. 2000B.c.Loom 
depicted on Theban tombs of 
this date. 1131. Intro, into 
England by the Flemings. 1600. 



Claude Dangon, of Lyons, imp. 
drawings of loom. 1604. Dutch 
"Engine-loom" inv. in Holland. 
1676. Dutch loom intro. 1738. 
Lewis Paul, Birmingham inv. 
rollery-spinning loom. 1 769. 
Richard Arkwright revived 
Lewis Paul's process. 1794. 
Cam-operated loom inv. by 
William Bell, of Milton, near 
Dumbarton. 1800. Joseph 
Marie Jacquard (Fr) (1752- 
1854) inv. pattern-weaving 
loom. 1807. First steam-driven 
loom in use. 1850. Jacquard 
loom first used in England. 
1850. Barlow imp. Jacquard 
loom. 

Loom, Power 1768. Power 
loom suggested by M. de 
Gennes (Fr). 1785. Inv. by Rev. 
Edmund Cartwright. 1789. 
Loom driven by steam-engine 
by Austin, of Glasgow. 1792. 
William Kelly, of Glasgow des. 
power loom for cotton weaving. 
1803. Crank-driven power loom 
inv. Charles Todd, of Bolton. 
Loom, Silk 171 7. Jurine, a 
lacemaker of Lyons inv. loom. 
1740. Vaucanson inv. loom. 
1767. Jaubert and Rocamus, of 
Provence inv. loom. 1 790. Claud 
Rivey (Fr) inv. loom. 1792. Jean 
Paulet (Fr) inv. loom. i860. G. 
Bounelli, of Milan inv. electrical 
setting of Jacquard loom need- 
les. 1864. Harrison inv. com- 
pressed-air loom. 
LORENTZ, Hendrik Antoon 
(Hoi) (1853-1928) 1875. Prop. 
mathematically based theory of 
reflection and refraction of light. 
LORENZ, Adolf (1854-1923) 
Dev. formula for molecular 
refractive power. 
LULL (LULLY), Raymond 
(c. 1 232-1 3 1 6) Made earliest 



LUBRICANTS 



I07 



LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 



attempts to symbolize chemi- 
cals and chemical reactions. 
Lubricants and Lubrication 

c. 1400 B.C. Fatty matter used to 
lubricate chariot wheels. 1787. 
Oil axle-box inv. John Collinge. 
1827. Ring-oiler fitted to a 
steam locomotive journal bear- 
ing. 1 83 1. Samuel Hall pat. 
pressurized oil lubricating sys- 
tem for steam-engines, by "the 
injection of a uniform stream of 
oil by a force-pump, using the 
same oil over and over again. 
1883. Pressurized lubricating 
system devised by B. Tower. 
1889. G. E. Bellis inv. forced 
feed lubrication system for the 
Bellis and Morcom high-speed 
steam-engine. 1890. Pressurized 
lubrication system inv. by Albert 
Pain. 1893. Mineral oils first 
used for high temperature lubri- 
cation. 1909. "Gastrol" oil 
intro. by Charles G. Wakefield. 
19 1 6. "Tecalemit" high-pres- 
sure grease-gun inv. by F. D. 
Stone and O. U. Zerk. 1922. 
"Enots" (Messrs. Stone, Ltd.) 
grease-gun inv. by Stone and 
Benton. 1935. Thio-ether disc. 
as an additive to lubricants for 
hypoid gears. (See also Nylon 
bearings.) 



LUMIERE, Louis (Fr) 1896. 
Inv. cinematograph (q.v.). 
Luminescence 1845. Lumin- 
escence of quinine sulphate 
disc. Sir J. F. W. Herschel. (See 
also Electro-luminescence.) 
1888. Eilhardt Wiedemann 
divided luminescence into six 
types : photo-luminescence, 
thermo-luminescence, electro- 
luminescence, crystello-lumin- 
escence, tribo-luminescenee, 
and chemo-luminescence. (See 
also Phosphorescence.) 
LUMMER, Otto (Ger) (1860- 
1925) 1889. With Eugen Brod- 
hulm imp. and marketed the 
simple photometers inv. by 
Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and 
Benjamin Thompson (Count 
Rumford). 

Lutecium (element) 1907. 
Disc, by Georges Urbain in 
original "element" ytterbium 
(q.v.). 

Lyddite 1888. Explosive first 
used at the artillery range at 
Lydd, Sussex. (See also Explos- 
ives and Picric acid.) 
Lyons Blue (dye) 1859. First 
prepared by Nicholson. 
Lymphatic System (anat- 
omy) 1653. Existence first 
demonstrated by Thomas Bar- 
tholin, of Copenhagen. 



MACADAM 



108 



MADDER 



M 



MACADAM, John Loudon 

( 1 756- 1 836) Pioneered con- 
struction of roads from gravel, 
stone chips and loam. From 
1 81 5 the water-bound "mac- 
adam" road reigned supreme 
and was adopted by Napoleon 
for most of the continental 
"national" roads he built. 
MACH, Ernst (Aus) (1838- 
1916) 1883. Prop, original con- 
cepts of mass, absolute space 
and absolute time, with par- 
ticular regard to the so-called 
principle of economy. Prop. 
axiom of action and reaction 
and a philosophy of science. 
Machine-gun 15th cent. 
"Organ," or "ribandequin" 
guns used. c. i860. Reyner gun 
("rifle-battery") used during 
American Civil War. 1876. 
Montigny inv. "mitrailleuse" 
firing 1 50-200 shots per minute. 
Dr. Gading (U.S.) inv. machine- 
gun with revolving barrels firing 
400 shots per minute. Hotchkiss 
and Nordenfelt machine-gun 
inv. firing 600 shots per minute. 
c. 1 88 1. Gardner machine-gun 
used in British Navy and in the 
Sudan, firing 300, 600, or 
1,200 shots per minute. Maxim 
automatic machine-gun inv. Sir 
Hiram Maxim (U.S.). See 
Cannon. 

Machine Tools See Gear-cut- 
ting, hobbing, milling and 
other machines; and the Lathe. 
McGORMIGK, Robert 



(U.S.) ( 1 780-1846) Pioneered 
the use of steel in the const, of 
binding, mowing and threshing 
machinery for agriculture {q.v.). 
Mackintosh (waterproof 
material) 1 791. Fabric rubber- 
ized by Samuel Peal. 1822. 
Fabric double-shell rubberized 
by Charles Mackintosh. 1837. 
Fabric single-sheet rubberized 
by Thomas Hancock. (Brother 
of Walter of steam road coach 
fame.) 

MACLEAR, Sir Thomas 
( 1 794-1879) c. 1840. With 
Bessel, Bradley, Struve and 
Henderson, pioneered work of 
determining the parallax of 
fixed stars. 

McMILLAN, Kirkpatrick, of 
Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. 1839. 
Const, crank-operated hobby- 
horse on which he rode the 70 
miles from his home to Glasgow 
in June, 1842. 

McNAUGHT, J. 1825-30. 
Imp. steam-engine indicator by 
lightening its parts and using 
a revolving recording cylinder. 
1 845. Pioneered the compound 
steam-engine by converting 
a simple-expansion engine to 
compound working and pat. 
the method used. 
MACQUER, Peter Joseph 
(1718-84) c. 1782. With 
Berthollet founded modern 
technique of dyeing by disc, true 
action of mordants and air. 
Madder 1666. Colbert estab- 



MADLER 



IO9 



MAPS 



lished crop for dyeing purposes 
at Avignon, France. 
MADLER, Johann Heinrich 

von (Ger) (1 794-1 874) 1834- 
36. Pub. with Wilhelm 
Beer (Ger) four-volume topo- 
graphical charts of the moon. 
Magenta (See Dyes, synthetic.) 
Magic Lantern (projector) 
Inv. by della Porta ( 1 545-1 6 1 5) . 
Imp. by Athanasius Kircher 
(Ger) (1602-80), who used 
lenses in a primitive magic 
lantern. 1660. Christian Huy- 
gens cast pictures from printed 
glass on to a screen. 1665. 
Magic lantern desc. in Pepys's 
Diary. 1665. Intro, by John 
Reeves into England. 
Magnesium (metal) 1808. 
First prepared by Sir Humphry 
Davy. 1830. First commercially 
prod, in Germany, and proper- 
ties first made known by Bussy. 
1855 (Feb.). First piece of 
magnesium burned by Bunsen 
in a spirit-lamp. 
Magnetism, Animal 1774. 
First intro. at Vienna by Jesuit 
Father Hehl. See also Mesmer- 
ism. 

Magneto See Ignition, motor- 
car engine. 

Magnetometer Inv. Gauss 
(1777-1855). 

Magnus Effect See Ship, rota- 
ting-cylinder. 

Malaria 1898. Sir Donald 
Ross disc, that mosquitoes trans- 
mitted the disease. 
Malic Acid 1785. Disc. Carl 
Wilhelm Scheele (Ger) (1742- 
86). 

MALIGRANI, Arturo (It) 
1894. Inv. phosphorus "getter- 
ing" process for assisting to 
create vacuum in electric lamp 
bulbs. 



Mallet, Mason's Tool des. 
originated in Ancient Egypt. 
MS. dated at 1370 B.C. and of 
precisely similar form to the 
modern tool have been found 
in Egypt. 

MALPIGHI, Marcello (It) 
(1628-94), of Bologna. Biolo- 
gist and embryologist. First to 
see and sketch leaf stomata and 
to write first monograph on an 
invertebrate animal — the silk- 
worm. 1673. First to obs. dev. of 
embryo chick. 

MALUS, Etienne-Louis (Fr) 
( 1 775-1812) 1808. Disc, the 
practical application of polar- 
ized light. 

"Man-engine" (Passenger 
mine-lift) 1830s. Originated in 
Hartz Mountains mines. 1841. 
Intro, into Cornish tin and 
copper mines. 1920. Last man- 
engine closed at Laxey, Isle of 
Man. 

Manganese (element) 1774. 
Disc, by C. W. Scheele (Ger) 
(1742-86). (According to some 
authorities it was disc, by Berg- 
mann and isol. by Gahn in 

1 774-) 

Manganese Steel 1888. Inv. by 
Robert Hadfield. 
Manometer See Pressure- 
gauge. 

MANSFIELD, Charles 
Blackford (1819-55) 1849. 
Disc, way of preparing benzene 
commercially from coal tar. 
Maps c. 2400 B.C. First evidence 
of map-making for land taxa- 
tion purposes by Sargon of 
Akkad, Babylon. Inscription on 
baked clay was used. 568 b.c. 
Maps "inv." by Anaximander 
of Miletus. a.d. 1568. Gerard 
Kremer (Mercator) intro. the 



MARALDI 



IIO 



MASS-PRODUCTION 



projection method known by 
his name today. 1815. William 
Smith ( 1 769-1839) prod, first 
coloured geological map. 
MARALDI, Giacomo Filippo 
(It) (1665-1729) One of the 
first astronomers to measure 
the period of rotation of the 
planet Mars. 

MARCONI, Guglielmo (It) 
(1874-193 7) Disc, how to trans- 
mit and receive wireless (radio) 
waves. See also Radiotele- 
graphy. 

MARCUS, Antonius de 
Dominis ( 1 566- 1624) First 
physicist who tried to explain 
the optics of the rainbow. 
Margarine 1869. Mege- 
Mouries (Fr) pat. in England 
process for making. 19 10. Pro- 
cess of hardening margarine by 
addition of oleine disc. 
MARGRAAF, Andreas Sig- 
ismund(Ger) (1709-82) 1747. 
Disc, sugar in beetroot. 1758- 
59. Disc, method of preparing a 
fixed alkali from common salt. 
MARIOTTE, Edm6 (Fr) 
(1620-84) 1679. Independendy 
of Boyle, disc, the law of relation 
between the volume and pres- 
sure of air in an enclosed vessel. 
(The law now known as Boyle's 
Law (q.v.).) 

Mars (planet) Period of daily 
rotation measured by Cassini, 
Maraldi and Huygens. 
MARTIN, Archer John 
Porter {b. 1810) With Le 
Ghatelier inv. a reverbatory 
furnace for steel-making which 
was later lined with high-class 
silicious bricks to produce, in 
1873 Siemens-Martin open- 
hearth mild steel. See Steel. 
MARUM, Martinus van 
(Hoi) ( 1 750-1837) 1787. With 



A. Paets van Troostwijk ( 1 752- 
1837), succeeded in liquefying 
ammonia. 

Maser (Acronym = Micro- 
wave Amplification by Stimu- 
lated Emission of Radiation) 
191 7. Concept of stimulated 
emission of radiation intro. by 
Albert Einstein. This concept 
was later dev. by Dirac, who 
predicted the properties of 
stimulated emission. 1952. 
Amplification of microwaves 
first suggested by J. Weber. 
1955. Microwave amplification 
demonstrated by G. H. Townes, 
using ammonia. 1956. Solid- 
state ruby amplification sug- 
gested by N. Bloemberger. 
1958. Extension of maser tech- 
niques to visible light suggested 
by A. L. Schawlow and G. H. 
Townes. See also Laser. 
MASKELYNE, Nevil (1732- 
181 1 ) 1774. Deduced the aver- 
age density of the earth as 4.71 
by measuring the deviation of 
a plumbline from the vertical at 
Mount Schiehallien, Scotland. 
Mass-production 1794. Con- 
tinuous fully mechanized flour- 
mill des. and built by Oliver 
Evans (U.S.). 1833. Ships' 
biscuit-making mechanized for 
the British Royal Navy. 1869. 
First "dissembly"-line des. for 
the dismembering of pigs at 
Chicago; together with a con- 
tinuous monorail for pork pack- 
ing. The forerunner of modern 
assembly-line. 1898. Eli Whit- 
ney (U.S.) first made mass- 
production possible by manu- 
facturing components to suffici- 
endy accurate limits for inter- 
changeability. 1903. First 
modern mass-production plant 
at mail-order firm of Sears, 



MAST, SHIP'S III 

Roebuck, Chicago, c. 1910. 
System intro. by Henry Ford for 
production of his "Model T" 
motor-car. 1923. First transfer 
machine intro. into Morris 
Motor Works. 1924. James 
Archdale des. his first auto- 
transfer machine. 
Mast, Ship's 1240 B.C. Inv. att. 
to Daedalus, of Athens. 
Mastoiditis (surgery) First 
operation for mastoiditis made 
by Jean Louis Petit (1674- 
1750), of Paris. 

Matches a.d. 970. Thao-Ku 
records Chinese "light-bringing 
slave," known as "yin kuang 
nu"; which later became the 
commercial "fire-inch-stick," 
or Huo-Tshun, as sold in the 
markets of Hanchow. 1270. 
This inv. mentioned by Marco 
Polo. 1530. Sulphur matches 
first mentioned in England. 
1680. Robert Boyle used sul- 
phur-tipped splints drawn 
through phosphorus-impreg- 
nated paper, c. 1745. Flint and 
steel wheels for miners inv. 
Charles Spedding, of White- 
haven, Cumberland. 1780. 
Phosphorus matches in use in 
England. 1 780. "Phosphoric 
Candle" of phosphorus-impreg- 
nated paper in glass tube, intro. 
into France. 1805. Matches 
tipped with potassium chlorate 
and sugar, dipped in sulphuric 
acid to ignite. (Inv. by Chanel.) 
18 10. Matches intro. into Eng. 
from France, where inv. by 
Peltier and named "Instant 
Light Box." 1827. First modern 
matches of potassium chloride, 
antimony sulphide and sand- 
paper sold by John Walker, of 
Stockton-on-Tees. 1830. J. F. 
Kammerer (Ger) inv. matches 



MAXIM 

using yellow phosphorus, sul 
phur and potassium chlorate' 
1833. Charles Sauria (Fr) pat' 
phosphorus matches. 1834. 
Matches finally superseded 
flint-and-steel. 1842. Matches 
first machine-made. 1 85 1 . Non- 
poisonous matches of amor- 
phous phosphorus made by 
Arthus Albright, of Birming- 
ham after acquiring the pat. to 
produce amorphous phos- 
phorus already taken out in 
1845 m Austria by Anton 
Schroetter, of Vienna. 1852. 
J. E. Lundstrom and his brother 
(Swed), of Jonkoping, made 
safety matches with amorphous 
phosphorus on the box side. 
(According to von Meyer's 
History of Technical Chemistry, 
phosphorus matches were also 
intro. by Irinyi, of Pesth, Romer, 
of Vienna,oldenha and Muser, 
of Darmstadt.) i860. Wax 
match-making machine inv. 
Louis F. Perrier, of Marseilles. 
MAUDSLAY, Henry (1711- 
1832) Prolific inventor respons- 
ible for inv. of screw-cutting 
lathe, two-point chuck and 
lathe slide-rest. 

MAUPERTUIS, Pierre- 
Louis Moreau de (Fr) (1698- 
1759) 1744. Prop, the principle 
of least action, as applied to 
pure mechanics. 
MAUROLYGO, Francesco 
(It) (1494-1575) Great optical 
mathematician whose work 
Photismi de Lumine was not 
published until 36 years after 
his death. (Preceded Kepler in 
many of his ray refraction 
theories. } 

MAXIM, Sir Hiram S. (1840- 
1 9 1 6) Prolific inventor respons- 
ible for inv. the machine-gun 



MAXWELL 



112 METALS, GRANULATION OF 



bearing his name, together with 
many model and full-sized 
heavier-than-air flying 
machines. 

MAXWELL, James Clerk 
(1831-79) 1 868. Inv. automatic 
control system. 1873. Dev. the 
Faraday-Maxwell theory of 
electricity. 

MAYER, Julius Robert von 
(Ger) (1814-78) Prop, as a 
"supreme and universal law of 
nature," his so-called "prin- 
ciple of energy," which claimed 
that the total amount of energy 
in the universe is constant. 
MAYR (Marius) Simon 
( 1 570-1 624) Claimed that he 
had disc, the moons of planet 
Jupiter in 1609 (before Galileo) . 
Meat Extract 1838. Baron von 
Liebig (Ger) (1803-73) redu- 
ced flesh food to 15 per cent of 
its bulk (weight) by desiccation. 
Megaphone c. 1666. Inv. 
Sir Samuel Morland (1625- 
95). 

MEIKLE, Andrew (1719- 
181 1 ) 1788. Inv. first useful 
threshing-machine, which 
threshed the corn, blew away 
the chaff, and separated grain 
and weeds by sieving. (Also 
various windmill invs.) 
MENDELEEV, Dimitri 
Ivanovich (Rus) (1 834-1 907) 
1872. Proved the Periodic Law 
of Atomic Weights of the 
Elements. 

Mendelevium (element) 1954. 
Disc, by Glen Seaborg (U.S.). 
Mendelism (genetics) 1865. 
Abb6 Mendel pub. his 
work. 1900. Mendel's work re- 
disc. and made known to world. 
Mercerization (textiles) Inv. 
John Mercer (1 791-1866), of 
Blackburn, Lanes. 



Mercury (metal) Pre-750 B.C. 
Mercury disc. 1540. First used 
in silver refining. 1640. First 
used in refining gold. 
Mercury, First Transit of 
Planet 1 63 1 (Nov. 7) . First time 
obs. by Gassendri (1 592-1 658). 
Mercury Fulminate 1 700. 
Impure first made by Johann 
Kunckel (Ger) ( 1 630- 1 703) . 
1 800. Pure first made by E. C. 
Howard. 1807. Applied to small 
arms ignition by Rev. Forsyth, 
of Aberdeen. {See also Per- 
cussion cap.) 

Meridian, Measurement of 
Arc of 1 669-70. First measured 
by Jean Picard (Fr), north of 
Paris. 1735. Degree measured 
by Charles- Marie de la Gonda- 
mine (Fr) (1701-74) and Pierre 
Bouguer (Fr) (1685-17 19), in 
expedition to Finland and 
Peru; when earth shape was 
established as an oblate 
spheroid. 

Mesmerism 1766. Intro, by 
F. A. Mesmer (1734-18 15). 
Mesons, "K" (0 and r) 
1953. Anomaly between d and 
t particles disc, in England by 
R. Dalitz. 

Mesons (Yukawa particles) 
1936. 7r mesons first detected 
in upper atmosphere by Carl 
D. Anderson. 1947. v- mesons 
disc, by Powell, C. M. G. Lattes 
(Braz), and G. P. S. Occhialini 
(It). 

Metals, High-temperature 
* 'creep" of 19 10. First obs. by 
Andrade. 1935. R. W. Bailey 
used Andrade's formulae to 
withstand high temperatures 
and pressures. 

Metals, Granulation of 
Decoration made by soldering 
droplets of granulated metal to 



METALLIC PACKING 



"3 



MICROPHONE 



a base found in Tutankhamen's 
tomb . 1782. Watts, a plumber of 
Bristol formed lead shot by 
pouring the molten metal from 
the tower of St. Mary Redcliffe 
church into water below. 
Metallic Packing 1797. Inv. 
Rev. Edmond Cartwright 
( 1 743-1 823) , and the same year 
independently by Barton. 
METCALF,John(i7i7-i8io) 
One of the pioneers of road 
construction in England. (See also 
Macadam, J. L.) 
Meteorology 1823. First sys- 
tematized by Prof. Daniels. (See 
also Anemometer, Barometer, 
Thermometer, etc.) 
Methyl Violet (dye) 1867. 
First prep, by August 
Wilhelm von Hoffman (Ger) 
(1818-92). 

Metonic Cycle (relation be- 
tween lunar and solar calendar) 
432 B.C. Obs. and proposed by 
Meton, of Athens. 330 B.C. 
Cycle corrected by Callippus 
(b. 370 B.C.). 

Metronome Inv. by Maelzel 
(1772-1835). 

MEYER, Julius Lothar 
(Ger) (1830-95) 1869. First 
plotted atomic volumes against 
atomic weights and thereby 
proved that the properties of 
the elements are a periodic 
function of their atomic weight. 
(See Elements, Periodic tables 
of.) 

Mezzotint (engraving) 1643. 
Method inv. Col. de Siegen. 
MICHAUX, Ernest (Fr), of 
Paris 1865. With his workman 
Pierre Lallement, made a 
crank-driven velocipede. There 
is a monument to him at Bar-le- 
Duc. (See Cycle.) 
MICHELSON, Albert 



Abraham (1852-1931) c. 1881. 
Pioneered measurement of the 
speed of light. 

Micrometer 1638. Inv. by 
English astronomer William 
Gascoigne. 1640. Spider-thread 
micrometer inv. by Gascoigne. 
1667. Screw adjustment added 
to Gascoigne's micrometer by 
Adrien Auzout (Fr). 1678. Ole 
Romer (Den) (1644-17 10) inv. 
Double-image micrometer. 
1740. Circular micrometer sug- 
gested by Boscovitch. 1742 
Boscovitch's micrometer 
adopted by astronomer Lacaille 
(Fr). i777.Dioptricmicrometer 
inv. by Jesse Ramsden (1735- 
1800). 1792. Engineer Jean 
Richer (Fr) (1630-96) inv. 
micrometer which could divide 
a "ligne" (0$ in.) into 1,200 
parts. 1848. Jean-Laurent 
Palmer (Fr) imp. Gascoigne- 
type micrometer and prod, first 
practical micrometer which 
could measure to 0.05 milli- 
metre, c. 1820. Henry Maud- 
slay (1711-1832) made micro- 
meter to measure to 16066 hi. 
1856. Whitworth made micro- 
meter accurate to to^b" m « 1869. 
Micrometer imp. by J. R. Brown 
and Lucien Sharpe (U.S.). 
1875. Bar micrometer inv. by 
Brown and Sharpe. 1887. 
Screw-thread micrometer inv. 
See also Vernier. 
Microphone 1667. Micro- 
phone idea conceived by 
Robert Hozke. 1821. Chas. 
Wheatstone prod, a "micro- 
phone." 1837. Prof. Charles G. 
Page (U.S.) disc, that magnetiz- 
ing an iron bar electrically 
produced therein a "click." 
1854. Charles Bourseul sug- 
gested use of flexible disc on 



MICROTOME 



114 



MICROSCOPE 



which sound would cause a 
battery circuit to make and 
break, and so produce vibra- 
tions on another disc. He made 
experiments, but proceeded no 
further. 1856. Du Moncel disc. 
that increased pressure on an 
electrical contact diminished 
its resistance, i860. Philip Reiss, 
of Freidrichsdorf inv. a micro- 
phone for music. 1876. Alex- 
ander Graham-Bell (U.S.-Scot) 
exhib. his microphone at 
Philadephia, and Elisha Gray 
independently pat . a. version of 
the same instrument. 1877. 
Emil Berliner and T. A. Edison 
both inv. contact microphones. 
Moving-coil (dynamic) micro- 
phone independendy inv. by 
Charles Cuttris (U.S.) and 
E. W. Siemens (Ger). T. A. 
Edison inv. carbon microphone. 
1878. David E. Hughes imp. on 
Moncel's idea and was first to 
use word "microphone." 1878. 
Henry Hunnings inv. carbon- 
granule microphone. 1880. 
A. E. Dolbear inv. condenser 
microphone. 1890. Anthony C. 
White inv. solid-back, button 
microphone. 19 16. Dolbear's 
inv. dev. practically by E. C. 
White. 19 19. A. M. Nicholson 
first to make crystal micro- 
phone, using Rochelle salt. 
(See Piezo-electricity.) 1923. 
Ribbon microphone inv. by 
W. H. Schottky and Erwin 
Gerlach (Ger). 1931. Moving- 
coil microphone brought to 
perfection by E. G. Wente and 
A. L. Thomas. Ribbon micro- 
phone perfected by H. F. Olsen. 
1932. Crystal microphone 
brought to perfection by G. B. 
Sawyer. 1935. Dolbear's 
microphone dev. by H. J. von 



Braunmiihl and W. Weber 
(Ger). (See also Telephone.) 
Microtome 1866. W. His 
made sliding microtome. 1876. 
Improved microtome inv. 1883. 
Threfall inv. automatic micro- 
tome. 

Microscope 1590. Hans Zansz 
(Jansen) (Hoi), or his son 
Zacharias, of Middelburg, first 
placed two convex lenses so 
that one would magnify an 
enlarged image placed in the 
focus of the other. 1625. The 
word Microscope first used by 
J. Faber, of Bamberg. 181 2. 
Prof. Giovanni Battista Amici 
(It), of Modena, conceived 
original idea of reflecting micro- 
scope; also made first attempt 
at achromatization of micro- 
scope objectives. 1820. Selli- 
gues (Fr) and Jacques L. V. 
Chevalier (Fr) , of Paris, adopted 
the plan of superimposing three 
or four combined lenses, each 
double-convex and made of 
flint and crown glass. 1824. 
William Tulley, of London, 
made a triplet objective of 
9/ 1 6th in. focus capable of 
magnifying iqo diameters; and 
later one of power 300. 1826. 
Reflecting microscope im- 
proved by Goring, c. 1830. First 
achromatic microscope ap- 
peared. 1837. London optician 
Ross made a combined triple- 
front-and-two-doubler objec- 
tive to plans of J. J. Lister. 
1840. Prof. Amici (It) intro. 
Immersion system. 1 85 1 . Riddel 
devised single objective bino- 
cular microscope. 1878. Ernst 
Abb6 (Ger) des. first modern 
microscope, which was made 
at workshop of Carl Zeiss, at 
Jena. Abbe also des. first 



MICROSCOPE, ELECTRON 



"5 



MILL, WATER 



illuminated substage for 
Robert Koch. 1886. Apochro- 
matic system intro. 1892. Green- 
ough des. double objective 
binocular microscope. 1903. 
Zsigmondy and Siedentopf dev. 
technique of dark-field ultra- 
microscope. 1904. Dark-field 
microscope combined with 
ultra-violet light by Kohler 
(Ger). 1935. Zernicke, of Gron- 
ingen inv. phase-contrast 
microscope. 1943. Reflecting 
microscope further imp. by 
C. R. Burch. 

Microscope, Electron 1932. 
Bruche and Johannson prod. 
first images by electrons con- 
trolled through lens aperture. 
c. 1934. Knoll and Ruske dev. 
first magnetic electron micro- 
scope. 1939. Vladimir Zwory- 
kin (U.S.) prod. electron 
microscope which magnified 
100,000 times. 

Milky Way 1761. J. H. Lam- 
bert (Ger) prop, first theory of 
the Milky Way. 
Mill, Hand {See Quorn.) 
Mill, Animal-powered 5th 
cent. B.C. Donkey-driven edge- 
runner mills or "Trapetum" 
for grinding corn grown and 
used at Athens, c. 300 b.c. Also 
used for crushing olives, and 
in the silver mines at Lorion. 
(Generally used in Mediter- 
ranean countries.) 
Mill, iron-rolling 1 798. Con- 
tinuous iron-rolling null inv. by 
William Hazeldine. 1856. 
Three-high iron-rolling mill inv. 
by Christopher Polheim (Swed) 
for rolling sections. Used first at 
Motala. 1862. Re-mo. by 
George Bedson, of Manchester. 
1862. Three-high mill in use 
in Birmingham. 



Mill, Slitting (for hand-made 
nails) 1588. Imported from 
Flanders and established at 
Dartford, Kent, by Bevis Bul- 
mer. 1628. Intro. Richard Foley 
(1580-1657) at Hyde, near 
Stourbridge. See also Nails. 
Mill, Sugar 1449. Three-roller 
(wooden) sugar mill inv. Pietro 
Speciale, Prefect of Sicily; suit- 
able for water or ox drive. 1 653. 
Iron-clad roller mill intro. by 
George Sitwell. 1754. John 
Smeaton inv. triangular sugar 
mill with three rollers. 1773. 
Dumb turner John Fleming 
pat. the "Wallerer Wheel." 
1802. Richard Trevithick and 
Vivian (Cornwall) pat. steam- 
driven roller sugar mill. 1805. 
Steam "Cane-engine" built by 
James Cook, of Glasgow, c. 
1830. Matthew Boulton and 
James Watt design sugar mill. 
1840. Roller sugar mill pat. by 
James Robinson. 1858. Hy- 
draulic pressure intro. in sugar- 
milling by Jeremiah Howard. 
Mill, Tide 1 1 70. Earliest 
recorded in Britain at Wood- 
bridge, Suffolk. 

Mill, Water 398 b.c. Water 
mills protected by Roman edict. 
5th cent. b.c. Overshot water- 
wheel in use in Athens, below 
the Parthenon, c. 85 b.c. Anti- 
pater of Thesalonica mentions 
"Shedand-type" water mill. 
Late 1 st cent. b.c. Vitruvius 
Pollio, Marcus (c. 50-26 B.C.) 
desc. mill with undershot water- 
wheel geared to millstone. (No 
evidence of its use.) Roman 
General Belisarius said to have 
inv. the floating, current-driven 
mill. a.d. 2nd cent. Undershot 
water-wheels evinced by 
archaeological finds alongside 



MILL, WIND 



116 



MITCHELL 



the Roman Wall, England. 
c. 315. Large water mill using 
water-wheels in series, built at 
Barbegal, France, to grind corn 
for 50,000 persons. 3rd cent. 
"Shetland" (Norse) horizontal 
water mill in use in Ireland. 
536. Belisarius devised water 
mill to float on the River Tiber 
("Current-wheels"). 762. Earli- 
est documentary evidence of 
corn-grinding water mill in 
England. 1086. Domesday 
Book records 5,264 mills 
(mosdy, probably water) in 
England. 12th cent. Undershot 
water-wheels illus. in French 
MSS. Floating water mill in 
use on River Seine, at Paris. 
(See also Water-wheel.) 
MiU, Wind 7th cent. Hori- 
zontal wind-mill probably 
known. Early 10th cent. Hori- 
zontal wind-mill used in Arab 
countries, ioth-nth cents. 
Horizontal wind-mill in use in 
Low Countries, c. 1180. Post- 
type wind-mill used in Nor- 
mandy. 1 191 . Earliest reference 
to wind-mill in England at 
Bury St. Edmunds. 
Mill (general machinery of) 
1588. Ramelli desc. new roller 
mill. 1502. Boiler mechanized 
the bolting process. 1588. 
Ramelli and Veranzio mech- 
anize bolting-mill. 1637. First 
English pat. for mill taken out 
by George Manby and Thomas 
Lidell. (24 more pats, in the 
subsequent 162 years.) 
Milling-machine 1848. Desc. 
by Eli Whitney (U.S.) and 
built for sale. Howe made first 
milling-machine. 1861. Uni- 
versal milling-machine inv. by 
J. R. Brown and Lucien Sharpe 
(U.S.) for cutting drill-spirals. 



This was the first milling- 
machine. It was suggested to 
Brown and Sharpe by Howe. 
1862. W. B. Bement (U.S.) inv. 
vertical milUng-machine. 1864. 
J. R. Brown inv. formed cutter 
for milling-machine. 1870. 
James Watson (U.S.) pat. mill- 
ing-machine. 1883. Swing- 
spindle and movable table inv. 
L. Cosgrove. 1885. Swivelling 
spindle milling-machine inv. 
Joseph Saget (Fr). George 
Richards inv. milling-machine. 
1900. Milling-machine first 
intro. into England. 
MILLIKAN, Robert 
Andrews (U.S.) (1 868-1 953) 
Physicist who first accurately 
determined the charge of an 
electron. 

Mimeograph 1870. Inv. 
Thomas Alva Edison (U.S.) 
(1847-1931). 

Mine-haulage 18 12. George 
Stephenson adapted a pumping 
engine to. 1844. Endless-rope 
steam-operated system intro. 
John Buddie, at Wallsend. 
Mineralogy 1695. First made 
an accurate science by John 
Woodward. 

Mineral Waters (artificial) 
1 82 1 . First made by Dr. Struve, 
of Dresden. 1825. Flavourings 
first added. (See also Gases and 
Soda-water.) 

Minuet Waltz 1889. Intro, by 
Johann Strauss. 
Mirror 1250 B.C. First men- 
tioned, Job xxxvii. 18. (c. 287- 
212 B.C. multiple faceted con- 
centric mirror inv. by Archi- 
medes of Syracuse.) a.d. 1300. 
First made from glass at Venice. 
1673. First used in England. 
(See also Burning-glass.) 
MITCHELL, John (1729- 



MITCHELL 



117 



MOON, MAPS OF THE 



1823) 1750. First to prop, the 
inverse square law of magnetic 
attraction and repulsion, which 
was in 1785 proved with a 
torsion balance by Charles 
Augustin de Coulomb (Fr) 
( 1 736-1 806). 

MITCHELL, L. E. (U.S.) 
1919. With A. J. White (U.S.) 
re-inv. "new" pipless electric- 
light bulb. (This had already 
been inv. by Jaeger (Ger) in 

1903.) 

Mnemonics 477 B.C. Science 
inv. by Simonides the Younger. 
MOBIUS, August Ferdinand 
(Ger) ( 1 790-1868) With Hein- 
rich Gunther Grassman (Ger) 
founded the so-called direct 
methods of calculation now 
used in vector analysis. 
Modelling, Wax 328 B.C. Bust 
first modelled in wax. 
"Moho" ("MohoroviciS") 
Discontinuity of the earth's 
crust first recognized by seismo- 
logist Mohorovi&c ( Jugo-Slav) . 
MOISSAN, Henri (Fr) (1852- 
1907) 1892. Evolved the means 
of increasing efficiency of the 
electric arc metallurgical fur- 
nace. 

Molecule 1865. Diameter of 
M. first est. by Loshmidt; by 
Stoney, 1868; by Sir W. Thom- 
son, 1870. 

Molybdenum, (element) 1 778. 
Disc. Torberu Bergmann, with 
C. W. Scheele (1742-86). 1782. 
Isol. by Hjelm. 

Molybdic Acid. 1 778. Disc, by 
C. W. Scheele. 

Momentum (moment) 1 745. 
Principle of areas, or principle 
of moment of momentum prop. 
by Daniel Bernoulli (1700-82). 
MONDINO of Bologna (c. 

9— IAD 



1 2 70-1 326) The first practical 
anatomist. 

Monel-metal (nickel-cobalt- 
iron alloy) 1905. Disc, by 
Ambrose Monell, president of 
International Nickel Corp., 
U.S.A. 

Monorail 1821. First monorail 
inv. by Henry Robinson Palmer. 
Others inv. by: 1825, Henry 
Sergeant (U.S.) ; Jacob Jedder 
Fisher; 1829, D. Maxwell; 
1830, J. Stimpson (U.S.); 1831, 
Bryant and Gyatt (U.S.) ; 1832, 
J. Richards (U.S.); 1837, U. 
Emmons (U.S.); 1845, William 
Newton; 1846, Sir Samuel 
Brown; 1872, E. Crewe (U.S.); 
1876, Gen. Leroy Stone (.U.S.) ; 
and 1884, C. F. M. T. Lartigue 
(Fr), who erected the passenger 
and freight monorail — the Los- 
towel and Ballybunion Railway 
in Ireland. See Addendum. 
Monotype Casting Machine 
1 841 . Type composing machine 
inv. M. Ballanche, of Lyons. 
1887. "Monotype" machine 
inv. Tolbert Lanston, clerk at 
Pension Office, Washington, 
D.C., U.S. Dr. Mackie, of the 
Warrington Guardian inv. and 
dev. a steam-operated compos- 
ing machine. 

MONTGOLFIER, Joseph 
( 1 740-1810) and £tienne 
( I 745~ I 799) of * Annonay, 
France. 1783 (June 5). First 
balloon (hot-air) ascent with- 
out passengers at Annonay. 
Aug. 27. Second ascent from 
Champ de Mars, Paris. (See 
Balloon.) 

Moon, Maps of the 1645. 
Chart prod, by Michael Florent 
van Langeren (Hoi) (d. 1675). 
1647. Chart prod, by Johannes 
Hevelius (Hevel, or Hewelke) 



MOON, LEBRATION OF THE 



118 



MOTOR-GAR 



(Hol)(i6i 1-87). 1834-36. J. H. 
von Madler, with W. Beer, 
pub. four-vpl. topographical 
charts of Moon. 

Moon, Libration of the 1637. 
Disc, by Galileo ( 1 564-1 642) . 
Mordants Early 17th cent. 
Cornelius Drebbel (Hoi) disc. 
use of tin salts as mordants. 
c. 1 782 . True action of mordants 
disc. P.J. Macquer (1718-84). 
MORLAND, Sir Samuel 
(1625-95) 1674. Inv. efficient 
packing rings for steam-engine 
pistons. 

Morphine (morphia) 1803. 
First isol. from opium by 
Charles Derosne (Fr) (1780- 
1846). 1806. Isol., indepen- 
dently from same source by 
Sertiirner. 

MORSE, Samuel Finley 
Breeze (U.S.) (1791-1872) 
1840. Inv. the telegraphic code 
bearing his name. 1844. Sent 
first electric telegraph message 
from Washington, D.C., to 
Baltimore. 

MORT, Thomas Sutcliffe 
(Australia) (181 6-78) 1 86 1 . 
Built first machine-chilled cold 
store at Sydney, N.S.W. 
Mortar See Cement. 
MORVEAU, Louis-Bernard, 
Baron Guyton de (Fr) (1737- 
1816) 1789. Proposed tentative 
chemical terminology in his 
book Traite elementaire de chemie. 
MOSELEY, H. G. S. (1887- 
191 5) Disc, that atomic nucleus 
had an electric charge the size 
of which is characteristic of the 
atom; the numerical value of 
this charge being known as its 
atomic number. 
Motor-bus 1869. Three-wheel 
steam motor-bus des. Andrew 
Nairn of Leith (Scotland). 1889 



(Feb.). W. C. Bersey built for 
Michael Radcliffe-Ward a 3J 
ton, battery-driven motor-bus. 
Tried in London between Vic- 
toria and Charing Cross rail- 
way stations. 1896. Converted 
horse-bus ran in London. 1896. 
Daimler-built petrol lorries in 
use. 1897. First motor-bus to 
run in London between Notting 
Hill and Marble Arch. Twin- 
cylinder, 17-seats; 9 miles per 
gallon. Sponsored by H. J. 
Lawson. 1899 (June 15). First 
motor-bus service in world 
inaugurated between Kunzel- 
sau and Mergenthein, Ger- 
many. Fischer inv. petrol-elec- 
tric motor-bus. 1901. Daimler 
1 1.8 h.p. wagonettes run in 
service on three routes in 
London : Piccadilly-Putney, 
Oxford Circus-Kilburn, and 
Clapham Junction-Streatham. 
1902. 27-seat Cannstadt- 
Daimler motor-bus ran service 
between Eltham and Lewi- 
sham, London. 1902-9. Steam 
motor-buses tried in London. 
1906. Petrol-electric motor-bus 
inv. W. A. Stevens, of Maid- 
stone. Petrol-electric motor-bus 
also inv. E. H. Geist, of 
Cologne. 1931-39. Henschel 
and Son, of Cassel, manufac- 
tured steam Motor-buses under 
Doble pats. {See also Road 
vehicles, steam.) 
Motor-car, Electric 1891. 
William Morrison, of Des 
Moines, U.S., first to attempt to 
run motor-car from accumula- 
tors. 

Motor-car 1820. Rev. Edward 
Cecil des. an external-combus- 
tion-engined vehicle. 1823. 
Samuel Brown des. an external- 
combustion-engined vehicle 



MOTOR-CYCLE 



"9 



MOTOR-CYCLE 



(and pumping-engine) . See also 
Engine, internal-combustion. 
1860-63. fitienne Lenoir (Fr) 
(1822-1900) drove a gas- 
engine-propelled road vehicle. 
1865. Mackenzie pat. vehicle 
with other power than steam, 
with clutch and reduction gear- 
ing. 1867. Savalle (Fr) pat. 
applic. of Lenoir engine to 
road vehicle. 1874. Kirkwood 
pat. vehicle propelled by ex- 
plosion of gas/air mixture. 
1875. S. Marcus drove a road 
vehicle fitted with a gas-engine. 
1879. G. B. Selden (U.S.) key 
pat. for application of internal 
combustion engine to light 
road vehicle. 1877. Rosenwald 
(Ger) pat. vehicle worked by 
gas-engine and clutch, c. 1884. 
Karl Benz independently des. 
a four-cycle petrol engine and 
tried it in a road vehicle (pat. 
1886). c. 1885. Gotdieb Daim- 
ler (1834-90) inv. high-speed 
petrol engine and tried it in 
several road vehicles. 1890. 
Benz prod, first four-wheeled 
motor-car. 1891. Charles E. 
Duryea (U.S.) makes first 
motor-car in U.S. 1891-92. 
J. D. Roots "Petrocar" features 
pat. 1892. Roots built motor 
tricycle. 1893. Benz. intro. 
Ackermann steering on his 
motor-cars. 1894. Panhard- 
Levassor dev. Daimler-engined 
motor-car in France. 1895. 
Benz makes first racing-car and 
delivery-van. Roots and Ven- 
ables three-wheeled "Petro- 
car" built. See also Motor-cycle. 
1895 (June). First motor-car — 
a Canstadt-Daimler, brought 
to England by J. A. Koosen. 
1896. Peugeot pat. four-stroke, 
twin-cylinder petrol engine and 



marketed it the following year 
in a tubular-chassised motor- 
car. Frederick W. Lanchester 
des. and builds his first unique 
motor-car. 1897. Stanley, of 
Newton, Mass., U.S., intro. his 
first steam motor-car. 1901. 
First Mercedes motor-car built 
by Daimler. 1902. First rear- 
engined motor-car a U.S. 
Cadillac, appears. 1904. M. 
Pope (U.S.) inv. exhaust gas- 
heated muffle. 1909. Darracq 
intro. pressed-steel motor-car 
chassis as unit with bodywork. 
(There is, apparendy, no evi- 
dence of actual prod, by the 
Spanish engineer who des. it.) 
1 93 1. Pressed-steel motor-car 
bodies first prod. See also indivi- 
dual technical details and in- 
dividual motor-car accessories. 
Motor-cycle (and Tricycle) 
1882. Profs. Ayrton and Perry 
inv. and ran an electric accu- 
mulator-driven tricycle (Faure 
accumulator) (q.v.). c. 1886. 
Gottlieb Daimler (Ger) (1834- 
90) makes the first motor- 
cycle with £ h.p. petrol en- 
gine. 1892. J. D. Roots des. 
and made single-cylinder two- 
stroke motor-cycle. 1894 
Hildebrand and Wolfmuller 
(Ger) pat. and market four- 
cycle, twin-cylinder machine 
capable of 24 m.p.h. 1896-97. 
Col. H. Capel Holden pat. first 
four-cylinder motor-cycle. 

1900. Clement-Gerrard detach- 
able cycle-motor unit intro. 

1901. "Motosacoche" detach- 
able cycle-motor unit intro. by 
H. and A. Dufaux, of Geneva. 

1902. Michael and Eugene 
Werner (Fr) build motor-cycle 
after having in 1 896 built a light 
"motorcyclette" with a De 



MOTOR-CYCLE, STEAM 



I20 



MOULDS 



Dion-Bouton type of engine and 
clutch drive through, chain. 
1903. John A. Prestwich prod. 
the first English proprietary 
motor-cycle engine — the 
"J.A.P." He also pioneered the 
vee-twin engine in England. 
1905. 14-h.p. Peugeot-engined 
motor-cycle attained a speed of 
86 m.p.h. at Brighton. 1908. A 
"J.A.P."-engined motor-cycle 
reaches 90 m.p.h. at Brighton. 
1884. Edward Butler des. and 
pat. light, oil-driven tricycle, 
shown at Stanley Cycle Show of 
that year. The machine was 
built the following year. 
1887. Brown pat imp. model 
which was built in 1888. 1889. 
Brown built a four-cycle en- 
gined vehicle which was run on 
Kentish roads. 

Motor-cycle (and Tricycle), 
Steam 181 8. Steam motor- 
cycle said to have had its initial 
trial in the Luxembourg 
Gardens, Paris. 1869. French 
Michaux velocipede {see Cycle) 
fitted with a single-cylinder 
Perreaux steam-engine unit. 
c. 1869. S. H. Roper (U.S.) 
made steam-driven velocipede. 
1877. Meek, of Newcastle upon 
Tyne prod, a steam-driven tri- 
cycle. Cheylesmore pedal-cycle 
installed with a steam unit by 
Sir Thomas Parkyns and A. H. 
Bateman. 1884. L. D. Cope- 
land, of Philadelphia, U.S. 
became first commercial pro- 
ducer of a motor-cycle of any 
kind by fitting a steam-engine 
unit into an American "Star" 
ordinary bicycle. 1887. Count 
Albert De Dion (Fr) (1856- 
1946) const, steam motor-tri- 
cycle. 1888. Leon Serpollet (Fr) 
(1858- 1 907) const, steam motor- 



tricycle, c. 1913. Pearson and 
Cox hot-tube, flash-boilered 
steam motor-cycle intro. com- 
mercially by Frank Giffin 
Carter, of Croydon. Production 
ceased owing to the outbreak of 
World War One. 
Motor, Electric 1829. Joseph 
Henry (U.S.) (1797-1878) built 
electric motor. 1832. William 
Sturgeon, having inv. and made 
an electro-magnet in 1825, 
made a crude magnetic engine 
or electric motor. 1838. Thomas 
Davenport (U.S.) (1802-51) 
made electric engines (electric 
motors) and used them for 
driving workshop tools and a 
small printing-press. 1838. M. 
H. Jacobi (1801-75) drove a 
boat by a magnetic engine. 
(Zenobie-Theophile Gramme, 
having intro. the ring-armature 
in 1870, in 1873 gave first 
demonstration of power trans- 
mission from an electric genera- 
tor, through wires, to an electric 
motor (f mile) driving a pump 
at the Vienna Exhibition.) c. 
1887. Alternating-current elec- 
tric motor developed. 1887-88. 
Nikola Tesla (185 7- 1943) pat. 
two-phase alternators and in- 
duction motors; thus inaugur- 
ating polyphase electrical 
engineering. {See also Ship, elec- 
tric; Locomotive, electric; Rail- 
way, electric, and Dynamo.) 
MOUFET, Thomas (1553- 
1604) London naturalist who, 
pioneered the study of insects in 
his book Theatre of Insects. Pub. 
(Latin), 1634, and in English, 
1658. 

Moulds (casting) 328 B.C. Said 
to have been inv. by Lysistratus 
to cast wax figures. 1466. Casts 
from human face in plaster first 



MOULD-MAKING MACHINE 



121 



MUSICAL GLASSES 



taken by Andrea Verrochi (It). 
(See also Casting.) 
Mould-making Machine 
(sand) 1850. Inv. R. Jobson. 
Mouth-organ 1821. Inv. by 
Buschmann, of Berlin. 
Mowing-machine See Reap- 
ing-machines. 

Mowing-machine, Lawn 
1830. Inv. Edwin Budding, of 
Stroud, Glos., after machine 
used for cutting pile on cloth. 
1870 Horse-drawn mowing- 
machine intro. 1893. Steam- 
driven mowing-machine 
intro. 

Made Add 1780. Disc. C. W. 
Scheele (Swed) (1742-86). 
MUDGE, Thomas 1755. Inv - 
the "English lever" watch 
escapement mechanism. 
Mule (textiles) 1779 (1774?). 
Inv. Samuel Crompton. 1825. 
Made self-acting by Richard 
Roberts, who imp. upon it by 
adding the "faller wire" mech- 
anism. 

Mullerian Ducts (anatomy) 
Disc, by Johannes Miiller 
(1801-58), of Coblenz. (He 
was the tutor of Herman von 
Helmholtz.) 

Multiplier, Thermo-electric 
Inv. Melloni (1798- 1854). 
Muntz-metal 1832. Inv. G. F. 
Muntz, a brassfounder of Bir- 
mingham, who sold it for the 
sheathing of ships' bottoms. 
MURDOCH (MURDOCH), 
William (1 754-1839) Prolific 
inventor. 1785. Inv. and built 
an experimental model steam 
tricycle (cylinders § in. bore X 
2 in. stroke). 1799. Pat. worm- 
driven cylinder-boring 
machine; one-piece steam 
cylinder; double-dee steam- 
engine slide-valve (in place of 



James Watt's four poppet 
valves) ; a £ h.p. rotary steam- 
engine; and many other impor- 
tant invs. 

Muscles Power of muscles to 
contract disc, by Haller (1708- 
i777)> a pupil of Boerhaave 
( 1 668-1 738) , founder of organic 
chemistry. 

MUSHET, David ( 1 772-1 847) 
Inventor of the steel-making 
process bearing his name. 
Music c. 920. Notation inv. by 
Hucbald (d. 930). 1024. Nota- 
tion imp. by Guido d'Arezzo; 
and also by Franco, Bishop 
Ambrosius of Milan (340-397), 
and Pope Gregory I (544-604) . 
c. 14 10. Dunstable inv. poly- 
phony. 1482. Equal tempera- 
ment system devised by 
Bartolo Rames and later 
championed by Simpa Stevin. 
151 1. Mean tone system prop. 
by organ-builder Arnolt Schlick 
(Ger). 1577. Schlick's system 
elaborated by Franciscus 
Salinas, Spanish musician. 
1636. Mersenne detected har- 
monics and determined 
absolute frequencies. 
Musical-box (Carillon a 
musique) 1 780. Inv. (cylinder- 
type) by Louis Favre, of 
Geneva. 1885. Card-disc record 
musical-box inv. by Paul Loch- 
man. 1886. Steel disc record 
musical-box inv. by Paul Loch- 
man. 1889. 27-in. diameter 
steel-disc musical-box ("Sym- 
phonion") made in U.S. 
1890 c. "Polyphon" steel-disc 
musical-box developed. 
Musical Glasses (Harmon- 
icon) 1 65 1. Inv. in Nuremberg. 
Intro, as a musical instrument 
into England by Christopher 



MUSSCHENBROEK 



122 



NEEDLE 



Willibald von Gluck (1716- 
1787). {See also Harmonicon.) 
MUSSCHENBROEK,Petrus 

van (Hoi) (1 692-1 761) With 
's Gravesande (Hoi), was the 



first to des. and demonstrate 
machines for measuring tensile, 
breaking, and bending strength 
of various materials used as 
beams, arches, etc. 



N 



Nails Used in Ur of the 
Chaldees to fasten together 
sheet metal. "Iron in abun- 
dance, for nails" mentioned in 
1 Chronicles xxii. 3. Pre- 1500. 
Made by hand by drawing 
small pieces of metal through a 
succession of graded holes in a 
metal plate. 1 741. Manufacture 
by smiths recorded in Walsall, 
England, where 60,000 persons 
employed in trade. 
Nail-making Machine 1786. 
First inv. by Ezekiel Reed 
(U.S.). 1790. Inv. Thomas 
Clifford. 1 85 1. Wire-nail- 
making machine made by 
Adolph Felix Browne, of New 
York City. 

NAPIER (NEPER), John 
(Scot) (1550-16 1 7) Inv. the 
calculating "bones" bearing 
his name, and logarithms. 
Narcotine 181 7. Isol. from 
opium by Robiquet (Fr). 191 1. 
Synthesized by Perkin and 
Robinson. 

NASMYTH, James (Scot) 
(1808-90) 1827. Inv. a steam 
road carriage. 1838. Inv. a 
steam hammer. 



Navvy, Steam (Steam 
shovel) 1877. Inv. H. W. Ball. 
1878. Inv. Messrs. Ruston, 
Proctor and Co., of Lincoln. 
Naturalism (art) c. 1450. 
Prop, by Leone Battista Alberta 
and Piero della Francesca (It) ; 
artists. 

Needle (sewing) 10,000-5,000 
b.g. (Middle Stone Age). Bone 
needles 1—2 in. long with eyes 
bored from both sides found in 
cave-dwellings. Pliny the Elder 
(a.d. 23-79) mentions needles 
of bronze. 1370. Hook-eyed 
iron needles made in Nurem- 
berg. 15th cent. Eyed needles 
made in Holland. 1545. Fine 
steel "Spanish" needles made 
by an Indian in Cheapside, 
London. The art then lost. 
1650. Art of needle-making re- 
disc. in England by Christopher 
Greening, of Long Crendon, 
Buckinghamshire. He migrated 
to Redditch, Studley, and 
Alcester. 1755. Chas. F. Weis- 
enthal inv. double pointed 
needle with central eye. (Used 
in Heilmann's embroidery 
machine.) 1 860. Flap-needle 



NEEDLE, SEWING-MACHINE 



123 



NEWCOMEN 



inv. William Pidding, of 

London. 

Needle, Sewing-machine 

1907. Self-threading sewing- 
machine needle inv. Frank 
Giffin Carter, of Brighton, 
Sussex. 

Needle (magnetic dip) 1544. 
Disc, by German Pastor George 
Hartmann. 1576. Disc, gener- 
ally att. to Wapping (London) 
compass-maker ; Hartmann's 
prior disc, not being made 
known. 

NEILSON, James Beaumont 
(Scot) ( 1 792-1 865) 1829. I nv - 
pre-heated air-blast for smelt- 
ing; being followed by Cowper, 
in i860, who des. the modern 
high towered blast-furnace. 
Neodymium (element) 1885. 
Disc. Carl Auer von Welsbach 
(Ger) (1858-1929). 
Neomycin (drug) 1948. Disc. 
Dr. Waksman. (See also Strepto- 
mycin.) 

Neon (element) 1898. Disc, by 
Sir William Ramsay (1852- 
19 16). (See also Argon, Helium, 
Krypton and Xenon.) 
Neon Tube Sign 1909. Collie 
obs. that a bubble of neon gas 
in evacuated chamber of a 
Topler pump acquired a red 
luminosity under electric dis- 
charge. 1910. Georges Claude 
(Fr) intro. neon tube sign. 
Neoprene (artificial rubber) 
1 93 1. Prod, by Julius Arthur 
Nieuland (U.S.) by polymer- 
izing chloroprene obtained 
from monovinyl-acetylene. 
Neo-Salvarsan 191 2. Disc. 
Paul Erlich (Ger). (See also 
Salvarsan.) 

Nephelometer 1903. Inv. 
Theodore William Richards 
(U.S.). 



Nephoscope (cloud speed- 
measuring instrument 1868. Inv. 
Karl Braun (Ger). 
Neptune (planet) 1846. Disc. 
by Johanne G. Galle, at Berlin 
as a result of independent cal- 
culations^by J. C. Adams ( 1 8 1 9- 
92) and J. J. U. Leverrier (Fr). 
Neptunium (element) 1940. 
Disc. McMillan and P. R. 
Abelson (U.S.). Isotope Np 237 
disc. A. C. Wahl and Glen T. 
Seaborg(U.S.). 
NERNST, Walther (Ger) 
(1864-1941) 1916. WithHaber 
and Bosch synthesized am- 
monia from highly-compressed 
hydrogen and nitrogen. (First 
factory opened, 1 9 1 7. ) 
Nerves (anatomy) 18 14. Main 
types of nerves disc, by Sir 
Charles Bell ( 1 744-1 842) . 
Nerve-action, Reflex Disc, by 
Marshall Hall (1 790-1857), of 
Nottingham. (Theory accep- 
ted only on the Continent.) 
Net-weaving Machine 1830. 
Net-weaving machine to pro- 
duce variable-pitch mesh inv. 
Alexander Buchanan, of 
Paisley. 

NEUMANN, Franz Ernst 
(Ger) (1798-1895) 1831. Disc. 
that product of molecular 
weight and specific heat is 
approximately equal to the sum 
of the atomic heats of the con- 
stituent elements comprising a 
substance. 

Neutron 1932 (Feb. 27). Pres- 
ence announced by J. Chad- 
wick (1891- ). 

Neutrino Particle 1956. De- 
tected by F. Reines and C. L. 
Cowan at Los Alamos, U.S. 
(See also Feynman Theory.) 
NEWCOMEN, Thomas 
( 1 663-1 729) Blacksmith, of 



NEWTON 



124 



NITROGLYCERINE 



Dartmouth, England. From 
1705 onwards made many invs. 
to imp. the atmospheric steam- 
engine. 

NEWTON, Sir Isaac (1642- 
1727) Born- Woolsthorpe, near 
Grantham, England. Founded 
mechanics as an independent 
science, and applied it to 
nature. Established synthesis 
of terrestial and celestial mech- 
anics by relating mechanics to 
theoretical astronomy. Made 
major invs. and disc, in optics. 
Nickel 1 751 . Isol. by Cronstedt. 
1 775. First refined by Torbern 
Bergmann (1735-84). 1804. 
First prepared pure. 1822. 
Chinese "pak-tong," or white 
copper analysed by Fyfe and 
found to be an alloy of nickel, 
zinc and copper. 1843. Bottger 
first deposited nickel electroly- 
tically. 1870. Nickel plating 
commercially dev. 1878. Nickel 
first prepared malleable by 
Fleitmann. 1889. James Ridley 
disc, use of nickel in alloy steels. 
1 890s. Ludvig Mond inv. car- 
bonyl extraction process. 
Nichol Prism 1828. Inv. by 
William Nichol (Scot) (1768- 
1851). 

Nicotine 1560. Intro, into 
Europe by Jean Nicot (1530- 
1600), French consul at Lisbon. 
Brought seeds to Catharine de 
Medici. 1828. Alkaloid disc.hy 
Possett and Reimann. 1893. 
Structure of the alkaloid est. 
1904. Synthesized by Marc- 
Auguste Pictet (Fr). 
Nicotinic Acid 1937. First 
isol. (from liver) by Elvehjem. 
NIEPCE, Joseph Nicephore 
(Fr) (1765-1833) 1814. Com- 
menced experimenting to pro- 
duce camera pictures by action 



of light and finally succeeded in 
prod, permanent pictures. 
Entered into partnership with 
L. J. M. Daguerre, who six 
years after Niepce's death 
(1839) improved the process 
and termed it ' 'Daguerreotype' ' . 
Ni6pce also made a velocipede 
("celeripede"). 

NIEUWLAND, Julius 
Arthur (U.S.) (1878-1936) 
1 93 1. Prod. "Neoprene" by 
polymerizing chloroprene ob- 
tained from monovinyl-acety- 
lene by the aid of hydrochloric 
acid. 

Niobium (element) 1801. Disc. 
by Charles Hatchett. 
Nitric Acid c. a.d. 800. Disc. 
by Giaber (Geber, or Yeber) 
(Arab). 11 50. First prod, from 
saltpetre and alum in Italy. 
Nitrogen (gas) 1772. Disc. 
independently by Joseph 
Priestley (1 733-1 804) and 
Lewis Morris Rutherdorf 
(1816-92). 1903. Kristian 
Birkeland ( 1867-19 17) and Dr. 
Samuel Eyde (Nor) (1866- 
1940) fixed nitrogen gas elec- 
trolytically. {See also Nernst.) 
191 1 . Active nitrogen disc. Lord 
Rayleigh (1842-19 19). (Nitro- 
gen cycle (botany) : see Jean 
Baptiste Boussinggault (Fr).) 
Nitro-cellulose 1830s. Pelouze 
and Bracconot (Fr) prod, nitro- 
cellulose. 1846. Schonbein 
(Swit) made first nitro-cellulose 
explosive — gun-cotton ( q. v. ) . 
(Nitro-cellulose disc. (?) 1841 
by Schonbein.) 

Nitrogen-cycle (botany) 1850. 
Disc, J. B. Boussinggault. 
Nitro-glycerine 1846. Disc. 
Aloysius Sobrero (1812-88) 
whilst working in Pelouze's 
laboratory. 



NITRO-METHANE 



"5 



NYLON 



Nitro-methane 1872. First 
disc, as a nitro-derivative by 
Hermann Kolbe (Ger) (1818- 
84). 

Nitrous Oxide (gas) 1772. 
Disc. Joseph Priestley (1733- 
1804). 1799. Anaesthetic effect 
of disc, by Sir Humphry Davy 
(1 778-1829). 1823. Nitrous 
oxide first liquefied by Michael 
Faraday (1 791-1867). 1824. 
Dr. Henry Hill Hickman, of 
Ludlow, England anaesthetized 
animals with nitrous oxide. 
(See also Anaesthetics.) 
NOBEL, Alfred B. (Swed) 
(1833-96) 1867. Inv. dynamite, 
an explosive made by absorbing 
nitro-glycerine (q.v.) in the 
diatomaceous earth, kieselguhr. 
Nobelium (element) 1954. 
Disc. 

NOBILI,Leopoldo (It) ( 1 784- 
1835) 1825. I nv * ^ e astatic 
galvanometer (q.v.). 
Nocturnal (survey instru- 
ment) 1235. I™ ' by Raymond 
Lully (Lull, Lulle, or Lulli) (c. 
1 232-13 1 6) , of Palma, Majorca. 
NOLLET, Jean-Antoine (Fr) 
(1700-70) 1746. Popular elec- 
trical experimenter who named 
the "Leyden Jar." (See Con- 
denser, Electrical.) 
Notation, Literal (mathema- 
tics) Late 1 6th cent. Inv. Victa 
(Fr). 

Notes (musical) 1681. Dr. 
Robert Hooke (1 635-1 703) cal- 
culated vibration of sounds by 
striking of teeth of revolving 



brass wheels. 1 700. Joseph Sau- 
veur (Fr) determined number 
of vibrations to a given musical 
note. See also Siren. 
Nuclear Fission 1938. Disc. 
by O. Hahn (1879- ) and F. F. 
Strassmann (Germans) ; and 
named by O. R. Frisch ( 1 904- ) . 
Numbering-machine 1 796. 
Inv. Joseph Bramah (1748- 
1814) for numbering Bank of 
England notes. 1850. Disc-type 
numbering and counting 
machines for table use inv. 
Joseph John Baranowski, of 
London. 

Numbers Early cents, a.d. 
Negative numbers first used in 
India. 1 797. Geometrical inter- 
pretation of prop, by Carl 
Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). 
Numerals 1000 a.d. Ben 
Musa (Arab) brought into use 
Indian numerals later known 
as Arabian numerals. 
Nut, Lock 1856. Inv. F. P. 
Dimpfel (1st Brit. Pat.) 1857. 
J. Murphy inv. Pin-type Lock- 
nut. 

Nutation (of earth's axis) Disc. 
James Bradley (1 692-1 762). 
Nut-milling Machine 1830. 
Self-acting nut-milling machine 
inv. James Nasmyth (1808-90). 
Nylon 1938. Nylon (first wholly 
man-made fibre) announced 
by E. I. de Pont de Nemours 
(U.S.) as result of 10 years' 
research by W. H. Carrington 
(U.S.). 



OBEL 



126 



ORCHESTRION 



o 



OBEL, Matthias de V (1538- 
1616) Naturalist. Made first 
attempt to classify plants by 
their structure. 

Octobasse (music) 1849. 
Instrument inv. Jean-Baptiste 
Villaume (Fr). 

Odometer 25 B.C. Mentioned 
by Marcus Vitruvius Pollio. 
1 724. Inv. by Meyneir (Fr) and 
imp. by Hillerin de Boistissan- 
deau (Fr) and attached to 
carriage wheel. 1756. Ke-inv. 
byHohlfeld(Ger). 
Odontology 1839. Made a 
science by Prof. Owen. 
(ERSTED, Hans Christian 
(Den) (1777-1851) 1820. Disc. 
the magnetic field surrounding 
a wire carrying electric 
current. 

OHM, George Simon (Dan) 
( 1 787-1 854) 1826. Disc, and 
formulated the electrical law 
now bearing his name. 1843. 
Made outstanding experiments 
with harmonic vibrations. 
Oil See Petroleum and Lubri- 
cants. 

Oil, Cod-liver Medicinal 
value of disc, by Dr. John 
Hughes Bennet ( 1 8 1 2- 1 875) , 
of Edinburgh. 

Oil-on-water Experiment 
1757. First made by Benjamin 
Franklin (U.S.) (1706-90). 
Oilcloth 1754. First made by 
Nathan Taylor at Knights- 
bridge, London. (See also 
Kamptulicon.) 



Oil Colours 1230. First used 
in painting in England, c. 1400. 
Inv. by Brothers Van Eyck 
(Hoi) .^1450. First used in paint- 
ing in Venice by Veneziano. 
Omnibus, Horse Blaise Pascal 
(1623-62) suggested. 1829. 
Intro, into London by George 
Shillibeer (July 4). 1854. Ap- 
peared in Paris. 

Onimeter (survey instrument) 
1869. Inv. Eckhold (Ger) as 
combination of theodolite and 
level. 

Opera. Created, as an attempt 
to reconstruct the formula of 
Greek meliopeia, by Peri and 
Monteverde (1567-1643). 
1656. Intro, in England ("Siege 
of Rhodes.") 1669. Intro, in 
Paris by Abbot Perien. 17 10. 
First Italian opera in England 
("Almahide"). 

Opthalmoscope 1850 Inv. 
Hermann von Helmholtz 
(Ger) (1821-94). 1849. Crude 
device used by Charles Bab- 
bage. 

Oratorio c. 1550. Musical 
style orig. by Philip Neri. 
1732. First performed in Eng- 
land at Lincoln's Inn Fields 
theatre. 

Orchestrion (automatic 
orchestra) 1789. Inv. Abbe 
Vogler (Fr). 181 o. "Organo- 
lyricon" inv. Saint-Paul, of 
Paris. 181 7. "Apollonicon" 
const, by Flight and Robson, 
London. 1 85 1 . F. T. Kauffmann 



ORGAN 

inv. five self-acting orchestral 
machines. 1845-8. Michael 
Welte, of Vohrenbach, made 
large automatic organ. 1861. 
Welte inv. the "Orchestrion." 
1902. Paul Lochmann des. and 
prod, a piano-orchestrion (q.v.) 
called the "Original Konzert 
Piano." 1902. Schubbe and 
Co., of Berlin, made a huge 
orchestrion for an Eastern 
potentate. 

Organ c. 300 b.c. Ctesibos inv. 
water-blown organ, or 
hydraulos. 220 b.c. Inv. ascribed 
to an Alexandrian barber. 1 79 1 . 
Organ without bellows inv. by 
Benedictine monk Luzuel. 
1 85 1. Henry Willis inv. pneu- 
matic control for organ at 
Crystal Palace. 1856. American 
vacuum organ (harmonium) 
inv. by Estey, of Attenborough, 
Vermont, U.S. 1866. Electro- 
pneumatic organ in use at 
Salon, Provence, Fr., with mag- 
netically controlled wind- 
valves. 1934. Laurens Ham- 
mond (U.S.) inv. "Hammond" 
organ. 1939. Laurens Ham- 
mond inv. "Novachord" organ. 
(See also "Apollonicon.") 
Orion 1948. Intro, by du Pont 
de Nemours (U.S.). 
Orrery 1696. Inv. by and 
named after Lord Orrery. 
Orthicon See Cathode-ray 
tube. 

Oscillograph 1893. Mirror- 
type inv. by Blondel (Fr). 1897. 
Mirror-type imp. by Duddell. 
Osmium (element) 1804. Disc. 
by Charles Smithson Tennant 
( 1 768-1838). 

Osmosis 1 748. Disc, as taking 
place through animal mem- 
brane into sugar solution by 
Abbe Nollet (Fr) (1700-70). 



127 OXYGEN 

1 81 5. Re-disc, by Parrot, and 
also by W. Fischer in 1822. 
1827. R- J- H. Dutrochet 
measured osmotic pressure and 
experimented with endosmosis 
and exosmosis. 1848. Basic 
principles explained by Baron 
Liebig. 1867. Membranes for 
osmosis prepared by Traube. 
1877. Rigid membranes pre- 
pared by W. Pfeffer. 1898. 
Rigid-member osmometers per- 
fected by Naccari. 
Osteopathy Named and first 
practised by Andrew Taylor 
Still (U.S.) (b. 1828), of Vir- 
ginia. 1902-3. Manipulative 
system brought to Britain by 
J. Dunham, L. Willard Walker, 
and Franz Joseph Horn. 
Otaphone (deaf-aid) 1836. 
Webster inv. an imp. otaphone. 
Otosclerosis First recognized 
by Joseph Toynbee, of Lincoln 
(1815-66). 

OTTO, Dr. Nikolaus A. (Ger) 
(1832-91) Conducted early ex- 
periments with gas-engine, thus 
helping in the transition be- 
tween it and the petrol engines 
of Benz and Daimler. 
Oven, Domestic Electric 
19 10. Intro, in Eng. 
Overlaying (metal) 1600 b.c. 
Overlaying in gold, silver and 
copper practised in Ancient 
Egypt. 

Ovum (anatomy) 1827. Mam- 
malian ovum disc, by Ernst von 
Baer, of Koenigsberg (1792- 
1876). 

Oxalic Add 1862. First ob- 
tained by Dr. Dale. 
Oxygen 1727. Accidentally 
made by Stephen Hales (1677- 
1761). 1771. Disc, by C. W. 
Scheele and named (1774) by 



PACINOTTI 



128 



PANEMORE 



Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier 
(Fr). 1799. First administered 
by Dr. Thomas Beddoes and 
Sir Humphry Davy at the 
Pneumatic Institute, Bristol. 
1877. First liquefied by Louis 
Cailetet (Fr). (Also liquified 
independently by Pictet (Swit.) 
1887. First high-pressure oxy- 
gen cylinders inv. 1889. First 
commercially liquefied by Karl 



von Linde (Ger) (1 842-1 934). 
(See also Refrigeration; Gases.) 
Ozone 1785. Van Marum first 
noticed change in oxygen made 
by passage of electric spark. 
1840. Dr. Christian Frederich 
Schonbein, of Basle disc, ozone. 
Ozone disc, to be magnetic by 
Alexander E. Becquerel (Fr) 
(1820-91). 1904. Water first 
ozonated at Nice, France. 



P 



PACINOTn, Antonio (It) 
(1841-1912) i860. Inv. first 
ring-wound dynamo armature. 
Packing (gland and piston) 
1674. Sir Samuel Morland 
(1625-95) inv. hat-leather pack- 
ing rings for his metal plunger- 
pump. 1797. Rev. Edmund 
Gartwright (1 743-1 823) inv. 
first expanding metallic piston. 
1 798. Cupped leather packing 
inv. by Henry Maudslay (171 1- 
1832) for Joseph Brama's hy- 
draulic press. 181 3. Bryan 
Donkin, of Penzance inv. 
double-expanding piston-ring 
used by Maudslay and Perkin 
when modified by them. 1820. 
William Jessop, of Butterley 
Ironworks inv. spiral-spring 
packing ring for pistons, c. 1825. 
John Barton inv. metallic piston- 
packing. 1852. Spit piston-ring 
inv. John Ramsbottom. 1856. 
David Joy inv. split-spiral 



piston-ring. 1880. Metallic 
packing intro. Britain by U.S. 
Metallic Packing Co., of Phila- 
delphia. (See also Piston rings.) 
Paddle 1752. Paddle-wheel (of 
modern type) inv. by Bernouilli 
(It). 1785. Chain-paddle inv. 
by Fitch (U.S.) . (See also Water- 
wheel and mill.) 
PAIN, Albert C. (1856-92) 
1890. Inv. pressurized engine 
oil lubrication system. 
Painting, Water-colour Intro. 
end of 1 8th cent. 
Palladium (element) 1803. 
Disc. Dr. W. H. Wollaston 
( 1 766-1 828). 

Pallas (planet) 1802. Disc. 
Heinrich Wilhelm Matthaus 
Olbers (Ger) ( 1 758-1 840) . 
Panemore (globular wind- 
mill) 1655. Mentioned by the 
Marquis of Worcester in his Cen- 
tury of Inventions, No. 15. Later 
re-mo. by Desquinemare (Fr). 



PANNING 129 

Panning (metal recovery) 
3000 B.C. Practised by gold- 
miners of Ancient Egypt. 
Panorama 1788. Inv. by 
Robert Barker, of Edinburgh. 
Pantograph 1603. Inv. by 
Christopher Scheiner (Ger). 
1 82 1 . Imp. by Prof. Wallace and 
called "Eidograph." 
Pantomime 364 B.C. Intro. 
into Ancient Rome. 1530. Intro. 
as "modern" inv. into Italy by 
Ruzzante. 

Paper 2000 B.C. Papyrus used 
in Egypt. 190 B.C. Parchment 
superseded papyrus, a.d. 105. 
Inv. (?) by Tsai-Hun (Gh), of 
Leiyang. 600. Made from 
cotton in China. 793. First 
paper-mill erected at Baghdad. 
1290. Water-power applied to 
pulping rags at Ravensburg, 
Yorkshire. 1300. Paper first 
made from rags. 1690. White 
letter-paper produced. 1719. 
R. A. F. de Reaumer (Fr) pro- 
posed that paper could be made 
from wood, but never tried out 
the idea. c. 1732. Clergyman 
Jacob Christian Schaffer (Ger), 
also suggested wood for paper- 
making. 1855. Esparto-grass 
for paper-making began to be 
imported. 1857. Vegetable 
parchment paper inv. 1873. 
Chemically produced wood- 
pulp developed. 1895. Yarn 
first prod, from paper (xylolin) 
by Emil Claviez, of Saxony. 
1903. Kraft paper (sulphated) 
prod, in Norway. 
Paper-clip, office 1899. Inv. 
Johann Vaaler (Nor). 
Paper-making Machines 
1798. Continuous machine 
using no manual labour inv. 
Francois Nicholas Robert, of 
Paris. (Roberts's pat. sold to 



PARAFFIN 

Didot Saint Leger in 1800, 
who later sold British pat. to 
Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier. 
The Fourdriniers and Bryan 
Donkin (China-clay) prod, in 
1903 a continous paper-making 
machine in England.) 
Paper-money 1024. ^ntro. in 
Tabriz. 

Papier Mach6 1740. Martin 
(Ger) learnt technique from 
Lefevre (Fr). 1745. First made 
in England by John Baskerville 
(1706-75). 

PAPIN, Denis (Fr) (1647- 
1712) inv. pressure-cooker 
(digester) and the safety-va?ve, 
among other invs. 
PARACELSUS (Phillipns 
Aureolus Theoprastns von 
Hohenheim) (Swit) (1493- 
1541) Gave first stimulus to die 
careful classification and exam- 
ination of all natural substances 
and founded the Paracelsian 
School. 

Parachute c. 1495. Idea 
sketched by Leonardo da Vinci 
(1452-1519). 1500. Used in 
Siam (?). 161 7. First illus. of 
parachute appeared in Veran- 
tius's Machinae Novae. 1783. 
First tried by Le Normand (Fr) , 
who jumped from a house 
window with a 30 in. diameter 
umbrella. 1802. Andr6 Jacques 
Garnerin (Fr) (1 769-1 823) 
made a parachute descent at 
Paris from 4,500 ft. with a 
23 ft. diameter parachute. 
1837. Cocking (Eng) jumped 
from 5,000 ft. over Lee, Kent. 
Paraffin 1830. First obtained 
and named by Georg von 
Richtenbach (Ger) (1788- 
1869). 1847. Procured from 
shale oil by James Young, c. 



PARALLAX OF MOON 



I30 



PELTIER 



1856. First prod, by distillation 
by Dr. Gesner, of London. 
Parallax of Moon 1760. 
Determined by J. J. Laland 
(Fr) to be 57 15'. 
Parallax of Sun 1822. Deter- 
mined by J. F. Encke (Ger) to 
be 8.57*. 

Parity, Conservation of 
1927. Law enunciated by E. 
Wigner. 

Parking-meter 1935 (July 
16). First one installed in 
Oklahoma City, U.S. by the 
Parking Meter Co. Des. by 
Carl C. Magee and known as 
the "Park-O-Meter." 
Parkinson's Disease 181 7. 
Named by James Parkinson. 
1958. Cure prop, by Dr. Irving 
Cooper (U.S.). 

PARSONS, Charles Alger- 
non (1854- 1 931) 1884. Des. 
and const, the first practical 
steam turbine. 1894. Built first 
turbine-propelled ship. (See 
Turbine, steam.) 
Parthogenesis (biology) First 
disc, by Antonie van Leeuwen- 
hock (Hoi) ( 1 632-1 723), in 
aphis. 1745. Re-disc. Charles 
Bonnet, of Geneva (1720-93). 
PASCAL, Blaise (Fr) (1623- 
62) Inv. the wheelbarrow (q.v.). 
1639. First enunciated theorem 
of conic sections later known as 
"Pascal's Theorem." 164.1. Inv. 
calculating machine (q.v.). and 
an omnibus. 

PASTEUR, Louis (Fr) (1822- 
95) Biological chemist and 
bacteriologist. Disc, the part 
germs play in causing disease. 
1848. Demonstrated that polar- 
ization in crystals (optical acti- 
vity) was a molecular property. 
Disc, bacillus of rabies. 
Paul's Tube (surgery) 1892. 



Inv. Dr. Frank Thomas Paul 
(1851-1941). 

Paving, Road 312 B.C. Paved 
Appian Way in Rome const. 
gth cent. Streets of Cordova, 
Spain, paved. 1185. Rough 
stone slab paving used in Paris 
to reduce dust. 1533. London 
first paved. 1 7 1 7. Le Large (Fr) 
inv. paving machine. 1824. 
Joseph Aspdin made Portland 
cement (q.v.). 1827. Concrete 
road pat. by Hobson. 1834. 
Rolled granite chips first 
grouted with tar-mac by John 
Loudon Macadam (1756- 
1836). 1839. Wood-block pav- 
ing first tried. 1870. Asphaltic 
matter first used for roads by 
de Smelt (Fr) and asphalt 
macadam by Clifford Richard- 
son in 1894. (See also Roads.) 
Pearls, Artificial 1 7 1 6. Form- 
ula for making inv. by Jannin, 
ofParis. 

PECQUER, Onisiphore (Fr) 
1827. I nv - th e differential gear. 
Pedometer c. 1756. Inv. by 
Hohlfeld (Ger). 1799. Pat. by 
Ralph Gouts. 1831. Pocket 
instrument pat. by William 
Payne, of London. 
PELIGOT, Eugene Melchior 
(Fr) (b. 181 2) c. 1840. With 
J. B. A. Dumas first recognized 
the radical "methyl" as being 
present in methane and wood 
alcohol. 

Pellagra Dietary origin of 
complaint disc, by Goldberger. 
PELTIER, Jean Charles 
Athanase (Fr) ( 1 788- 1 842 ) 
Parisian watchmaker who, in 
1834, disc, that a weak electric 
current could produce a cooling 
effect when flowing through a 
thermo-couple — the"Peltier 
Effect." 



PELTON 



*3* 



PERCUSSION 



PELTON Leslie Allen 

(1829-1908) 1880. Devised the 
impulse water-wheel now 
bearing his name. 
Pen 635. Quills first used for 
pens according to St. Isidore 
of Seville. Mid-7th cent. Quill 
pens in general use. 1748. 
Earliest record of steel-nibbed 
pen in written claim of Johann 
Janssen of Aix-la-Chapelle to 
have inv. it. (Not as popular as 
quills of grey goose.) 1780. 
Cylindrical steel pens cut like 
quills made by Harrison of 
Birmingham. 1 803 . Joseph Wise 
inv. metal-nibbed "perpetual 
pen." 1808. Bryan Donkin inv. 
first two-piece steel pen-nib of 
No. 23 S.W.G. metal. 1820. 
Joseph Guillot, of Birmingham 
inv. new steel nib. 1823. Haw- 
kins and Mordan inv. nibs of 
horn and tortoiseshell. 1824. 
Doughty, of London made gold 
nibs ruby-tipped. 1830. James 
Perry, of London, inv. steel nib 
with side slits. 1830. Donkin 
inv. "bow" or ruling-pen. 1831. 
MordenandBrockedon inv. "in- 
clined" pen-nibs. 1845. Quills 
for pens finally superseded. 
c. 1 870. Vibrating "electric" pen 
inv. T. A. Edison (U.S.). 
Pen, Ball-Point 1888. John 
L. Loud (U.S. pat. ball-point 
pen. 1938. Brothers Ladislao J. 
and Georg Biro (Hung) re-inv. 
ball-point pen. (Glycerinated 
ink for ball-point pens inv. by 
Franz Seech (Aus).) 
Pen, Fountain 1663. Samuel 
Pepys (1632-1703) used a 
"reservoir pen." 1740. "Pen 
without end" inv. by Jean 
Felitit6 Coulon de Thevenot 
(Fr) (1754-1813). 1809. First 
two British pats, referring to 



fountain pens. 181 9. John 
Schaffer inv. "Penographic" 
pen with quill-shaped brass 
nib. 1833. William Baddeley 
inv. plunger-filled fountain pen. 
Pencil 1 56 1. Black-lead pencils 
made by Konrad von Gesner 
(1516-65). 1795. Nicholas 
Jacques Cont6, of St. Cenari, 
Normandy inv. pencils of pul- 
verized graphite and potter's 
clay — the Conte pencil. 1823. 
Hawkins and Mordan pat. ever- 
pointed pencil. 1863. Johann 
Faber,of Stein, near Nuremberg 
pat. screw-top, ever-pointed 
pencil-case. 

Pendulum 1657. First applied 
to clocks by Christiaan Huygens 
(1629-95), an d a ^ so between 
1600-50 by various inventors, 
including Galileo, c. 1 700. Fro- 
manteel, first put pendulum to 
practical use in England. 1851. 
J. B. L. Foucault (Fr) (1819- 
68) demonstrated rotation of 
earth by pendulum at the 
Pantheon, Paris. "Gridiron," 
temperature-compensating 
pendulum inv. John Harrison. 
(See also Clocks and Watches.) 
Pendulum, Ballistic Inv. 
Benjamin Robins (1707-51). 
Penicillin (antibiotic) 1929. 
Disc, in fungus Penicillium 
notatum by Prof. Alexander 
Fleming. (Original disc, made 
in 1928.) Intro, into clinical 
medicine in 1 939 by Sir Howard 
W. Florey and Dr. Ernst Chain, 
theory of heat; stating that the 
product of atomic weight and 
1 94 1 (Feb. 12). First injection 
made. 

Pepsin 1835. Disc. Theodore 
Schwann (Ger) (1810-82). 
Percussion Principle disc. Dr. 



PERCUSSION-CAP 



132 



PHAKASCOPE 



Alexander Forsyth (1769- 
1843). 

Percussion-cap 1807. Chlor- 
ate of potash, sulphur, 
powdered glass and charcoal 
mixture used as fulminating 
powder by Rev. Forsyth, of 
Aberdeen. 18 14. Landscape 
painter Joseph Shaw inv. safe, 
steel-cap for bullet; a pewter 
percussion-cap in 1815; and a 
disposable copper one in 181 6. 
Per-iodic Acid Disc, by Mag- 
nus. 

Periscope 1875. First applied 
to railway trains by W. A. 
Robinson, of G.W.R., Canada. 
PERKIN, Sir William Henry 
( 1 838-1907) 1856. Disc, first 
artificial dyestuff — magenta. 
Also prod, first synthetic per- 
fume — coumarin. 
PERKINS, Jacob ( 1 766-1 849) 
1823. Inv. flash steam boiler 
with a working pressure of 
1,500 p.s.i. 

Perrotine (fabric-printing 
machine) 1834. Inv. by Claude 
Perrot (Fr). 

Perspective First studied by 
Ucello (It) (d. 1432). 1822. 
First (sic) proposed by Jean 
Victor Poncelet (Fr) (1788- 
1867). 1832. Theory furthered 
by Jakob Steiner (1796- 1863); 
whose proofs were revised and 
imp. by Luigi Cremona (It) 
(1830- 1 903). 1847. Theory 
again furthered by von Standt 
(Ger) (1 788-1 867). 
Perspiration (anatomy) Disc. 
by Santorio (1 561-1638). 
PETIT, Aleads-Tnerese (Fr) 
( 1 791-1820) 1819. With P. L. 
Dulong interlinked the atomic 
theory of his time with the 
theory of heat; stating that the 
product of atomic weight and 



specific heat of an element 
was 6. 

Petroleum 1540. "Naptha" 
known to have been transported 
in Western Europe in flasks on 
carts, c. 1600. Bitumen-shale 
treated at Pitchford-on-Severn, 
Shropshire, and a black varnish 
("Welsh lacquer") prod, from 
shale at Pontypool. 1863. 
Petroleum disc, in U.S. See also 
Gas, natural. 1922. Tetra-ethyl 
lead as an anti-knock additive 
to petroleum disc, by Boyd and 
Thomas Midgley Jnr., of 
General Motors, U.S. 
Petroleum, Catalytic crack- 
ing of 1915. Aluminium cata- 
lyst inv. by A. M. McAfree and 
C. F. Cross, c. 1930. Nickel 
catalyst and "fixed bed" pro- 
cess, inv. Eugene Houdry (Fr). 
1 94 1. Fluid process intro. 
by Standard Oil Company, U.S. 
Petroleum, Synthetic Fried- 
rich Bergius dev. process involv- 
ing use of powdered coal and 
heavy oils. 1925. The wholly 
synthetic Fischer-Tropsch pro- 
cess dev. 1927. First commercial 
plant built in Leuna Werke, 
Mersburg, Germany. 1934. 
"Kogasin" produced from coke, 
air and water by Ruhr-Chemie, 
Germany. 

PEURBACH, John ( 1423-61 ) 
Pioneer mediaeval German 
astronomer who proved that 
Ptolomaic astronomy had been 
fully absorbed in Western 
thought by his book Theoricae 
novae planetarum. 
Phagocytes 1884. Disc. 
Metschnikoff. 

Phakascope (optics) Inv. Her- 
mann von Helmholtz (1821- 

94)- 



PHASMATROPE 



«33 



PHOTOGRAPHY 



Phasmatrope (optics) 1870. 
Inv. by Henry Heyl. 
Phenacetin (drug) 1887. D™ - 
Phenakistascope See Strobo- 
scope. 

Phenol (carbolic acid) 1834. 
Disc, and named by Carl David 
Tolme Runge (Ger) (1856- 
1927). 1846 (other authorities). 
Disc. Augustin Laurent (1807- 

53)- 

Phonautograph 1856. Inv. 
Leon fidouard Scott de Martin- 
ville (Fr) (d. 1879). 
Phonograph 1877. Inv. 
Thomas Alva Edison (U.S.) 
(1847-1931). 

Phosgene 181 1. Disc. Sir 
Humphry Davy (1 778-1829). 
Phosphorescence 1603. Disc. 
by Vicenzo Gascariolo of 
Vienna when calcining "Bolog- 
nese Stone." 1675. Electro- 
luminescence disc, by Jean 
Picard (Fr) when shaking mer- 
cury in the dark. 1676. Thermo- 
luminescence disc, by Johann 
Sigismund Elsholtz when heat- 
ing fluorspar. 1790. Crystallo- 
luminescence disc. J. G. Pikel 
and J. Schonwald. 1838. Fluor- 
spar found to be luminescent 
by Sir David Brewster (1781- 
1868). 1845. Quinine sulphate 
disc, to be luminescent by Sir 
John Frederick William Her- 
schel (1792-1872). See also 
Luminescence and fluorescence. 
Phosphoretted Hydrogen 
(PH 3 ) 1783. Disc, by Gen- 
gembre. 

Phosphoroscope Inv. by Alex- 
ander Edouard Becquerel 
(1820-91). 

Phosphorus nth cent. Disc. 
by Alchid Bechir (Arab). 1669. 
First made accidentally by 
Brandt, of Hamburg, by heat- 

10— IAD 



ing urine, coke and sand. 1 774. 
Isol. by Gahn (Swed) and 
G. W. Scheele (Swed). (Also 
reputed disc, by Johann Kiinkel 
(Ger) ( 1 630-1 703).) 
Phosphorus Oxychloride 
Disc, by Wiirtz. 
Phosphorus Trifluoride 
Disc. Henri Moissan (1852- 

I907)- 

Photo-electric Cell 1867. 
Hertz experimented with 
photo-electric effects. 1873. 
Photo-electric properties of 
selenium disc, by George May, a 
telegraphist at Valentia, Eire. 
{See also Selenium.) Results 
confirmed by Willoughby- 
Smith and W. G. Adams. 1888. 
Hertz const, first selenium 
photo-electric cell. 
Photography 1727. Effect of 
light on silver chloride disc, by 
Dr. Johann Heinrich Schultz 
(Ger). 1826. Joseph Nic6phore 
Niepce (Fr) (1 765-1833), of 
Chalon-sur-Marne, took 
world's first picture there. 1839. 
L. J. M. Daquerre (Fr) per- 
fected production of silver 
photographic image on a 
copper plate. 1841. William 
Henry Fox-Talbot (1800-77) 
inv. paper-negative "Callo- 
type." 1847. Niepce made first 
sensitive plate of silver iodide 
on albumen. 1850. Collodion 
wet-plate inv. 1851. Scott- 
Archer used silver-collodion in 
his wet-plate process. 1864. 
B. J. Sayer and W. B. Bolton 
inv. silver bromide emulsion in 
collodion applied to dry-plate. 
1 87 1. R. L. Maddox inv. use of 
silver bromide emulsion in 
gelatine. 1884. Roll-film inv. 
by W. H. Walker. (See also 
Camera.) 1885. George East- 



PHOTOGRAPHY 



134 



PIANO-PLAYER 



man (U.S.) (1854-1932) pat. 
machine for making continuous 
photographic film. 1888. 
George Eastman placed first 
roll-film camera on market. 
1889. Eastman-Kodak Go. intro. 
celluloid film. 

Photography, Astronomical 
1850. W.C.Bond (U.S.) (1789- 
1859) made first successful 
experiment at Harvard, U.S., 
by taking photograph of the 
moon. 1857. Bond first photo- 
graphed a double star. 1858. 
Warren de la Rue took first 
picture of scientific value of the 
sun. 1 882. John William Draper 
(181 1-82) and H. G. Vogel 
took picture of great nebula of 
Orion. 

Photography, Colour 1890. 
Lippmann, of Paris, photo- 
graphs solar spectrum in colour. 
1 89 1. Lippmann photographed 
stained-glass window, fruit and 
flowers in colour. 191 2. Dr. 
Rudolph Fischer (Ger) pat. 
basic principles of dye-coupler 
colour process (the "Koda- 
chrome" process). 1923. Leo 
Godowsky Jnr. and Leopold 
Mannes (U.S.) prod, crude 
picture containing al} colours 
on a three-layer type of film. 
1935. Godowsky and Mannes 
imp. system marketed by East- 
man Kodak as "Kodachrome." 
Photogravure 1852. Inv. Fox- 
Talbot. 

Photometer, Photometry 
1080. Sufi (Abderrahman) 
(Arab) imp. methods of photo- 
metry of stars. 1760. Science 
founded by J. H. Lambert 
(Ger). Photometer inv. by 
Count Rumford (1753-1814). 
Other types inv. by Arago, and 
Wheatstone. 1844. "Grease- 



spot," or shadow photometer 
inv. R. W. Bunsen. 1889. Detail 
photometer inv. Otto Lummer 
and Eugen Brodhuhn. 
Photons Albert Einstein 
( 1 879-1 955) suggested that 
light consisted of bundles of 
energy — now called photons. 
{See also Investigations of Prince 
Louis de Broglie and Edwin 
Schrodinger.) 

Photophone 1880. Inv. in 
U.S.A. 

Photosynthesis 1 779. Disc, by 
engineer Jan Ingenhousz (Hoi) 
(1730-99), while working in 
London. {See also Chlorophyll.) 
Photozincography 1800. Per- 
fected by Col. James. {See also 
Printing.) 

Phrenology 1785. First pro- 
posed as science of craniology 
by Dr. Gall (Ger) (1 758-1 828). 
181 2. Spurzheim (Ger) ex- 
panded on Dr. Gall's ideas. 
1 819. Combe published first 
English book on phrenology. 
Phtalein (dyes) 1871-87. Disc. 
by Adolf von Bayer (Ger) . 
Physharmonica {See Organ, 
American.) 

Pianoforte 1709. Inv. Barto- 
lommeo Christofori (It), and 
first brought to England from 
Rome by monk, Father Wood. 
1 716. Marius, of Paris, inv. 
upright pianoforte, c. 1830. 
Pleyel, of Paris, inv. iron-framed 
pianoforte. 1837. Jonas Chick- 
erling (U.S.), of Boston, Mass., 
intro. iron-framed pianoforte in 
U.S. Sebastian Erard (1752- 
1831) made many improve- 
ments to pianoforte. 1850. 
Paper-manufacturer Andrew 
Dimoline, of Bristol, inv. com- 
pensating pianoforte action. 
Piano-player, Player-piano 



PIAZZI 



135 PIPE, TOBACCO-SMOKING 



Mechanical piano inv. Nicolo 
Frabris (1 739-1801). Muzio 
Clementini (It) (1 752-1832) 
inv. a "self-performing piano." 
1848. Hohlfeld (Ger) inv. 
"music machine recording on 
paper." 1876. Piano player inv. 
John McTammany (U.S.) (pat. 
1881). 1887. M. Welte, of 
Berlin, claims to have built first 
organ or orchestrion (q.v.) to 
use paper rolls pneumatically. 
1896. Edwin S. Votey (U.S.) 
inv. first practical piano player 
and coined word "Pianola." 
1898. Storey and Clark, of 
Chicago, intro. "Orpheus" self- 
playing organ. (See also Barrel- 
organ and "Orchestrion.") 
PIAZZI, Guiseppe (It) 
(1746-1826) 1801. Disc, first 
minor planet Ceres. 
PICARD, Jean (Fr) (1620-82) 
1675. Disc. Electro-lumines- 
cence. 

PICKARD, John (n.d.) Pat. 
the crank in late 18th cent. 
(English Pat. No. 1263.) 
Picric Acid 1771. First disc. 
P. Woulf. 1 788. J. F. Hausmann 
re-disc, picric acid and used it 
as a dye. 1871. Sprengel disc. 
picric acid to be explosive. 
1886. Picric acid first used as 
explosive. 1888. Picric acid 
intro. into England and used as 
"Lyddite." (See also Explosives.) 
PICTET, Marc-Auguste 
(Swit) With C. W. Scheele and 
Edme Marriotte carried out 
early experiments in radiant 
heat. 

PIERRE DE MARICOURT 
(c. 1250) Pioneer of systematic 
scientific experiments in mag- 
netic phenomena. (See Epistola 
magnete, written by him in 
1269.) 



Piezo-electricity Disc, by 

Pierre and Jacques Curie (Fr). 

Piezometer Inv. by Hans C. 

(Ersted (Dan) (1 777-1851). 

Pile, Electric See Battery, 

electric. 

Pile, Screw Inv. Alexander 

Mitchell and first used to erect 

lighthouse on the Maplin 

Sands. 

Piles, Interlocking 1588. Illus. 

by Augustin Ramelli (1531- 

90)- 

Pilot, Automatic See Gyro- 
stabilizer (aircraft). 
Pins 1483. Bone pins first used 
in England. 1540. Brass pins 
imported into England from 
France. 1543. Pins first made in 
England. 1824. Lemuel Well- 
man Wright inv. pin-making 
machine. 

Pin, Safety 1849. ^ nv - and^af. 
Walter Hunt, of New York — 
sold pat. for £300. 
Pinchbeck (alloy) Inv. Thomas 
Pinchbeck (d. 1783). (Inv. also 
attributed to Charles I's 
nephew, Prince Rupert.) 
Pipe 1st cent. b.c. Lead and 
bronze pipes used by Romans. 
1790. Lead seamless pipe cast 
by John Wilkinson, and brass 
and copper pipe drawn by 
Charles Green. 1 797 Extrusion 
method suggested, but not 
practised by Joseph Bramah. 
1820. Extrusion method inv. by 
Thomas Burr, a Shrewsbury 
plumber, using a hydraulic 
ram to produce lead pipe. i860. 
R. Mannesmann (Ger), of 
Remscheid, conceived idea of 
making seamless steel tubing. 
1885. The brothers Mannes- 
mann publicize their tube- 
rolling process. 
Pipe, Tobacco-smoking 



PIPE-LINE I36 

1850. Condensing type inv. by 
William Edward Stait. 
Pipe-line 1874. First one laid 
by Van Sickle (U.S.). 
Piston Inv. in the West by 
Theophile Desaguliers (Fr) 
( 1 633-1 744) . 1 590. Screw-oper- 
ated piston desc. by Cyprian 
Lucar in his book Lucar solace. 
Piston-horn (music) 181 5. Inv. 
Heinrich Stolzel (Ger). 
Piston-ring See Packing, 
piston. 

Pitot Head 1732. Inv. Henri 
de Pitot (Fr) (1695-1771). 
PLXn, Hippolyte (Fr) (n.d.) 
1832. Inv. first electro-magnetic 
machine (dynamo) and later 
same year, at suggestion of 
A. M. Ampere, fitted it with 
commuting device and prod. 
direct current. 

PLANCIUS, Petrus (Hoi) 
(1551-1622) Did much pioneer 
work in physics, geometry, 
astronomy and mathematics 
with Simon Stevin (Stevinius). 
PLANCK, Max 1900. Prop. 
the Quantum Theory. 
Plane, Inclined Principle of 
first established by Simon 
Stevin, of Bruges (1 548-1 620). 
Plane-table (surveying instru- 
ment) 1 55 1. First desc. by Abel 
Foullon, of King Henry IPs 
household. 

Planetarium 1 749. Clockwork 
planetarium inv. and made by 
French optician Claude Simon 
Passement. c. 1830. Another 
inv. Thomas Harris Barlow 
(U.S.). 1923. Projection plane- 
tarium inv. by Prof. Walther 
Bauersfeld, of Munich. 
Planets, Astronomical 
Laws relating to the 406-366 
B.C. Regular motions of planets 



PLANTA 

first disc, by Eudoxus. 16 18. 
Law disc, now bearing his name 
by John Kepler (Ger) (1571- 
1630). 

Planimeter 1814. Desc. by 
J. M. Herman. 1824. Desc. by 
Gonella, of Florence. 1827. 
Desc. by Johannes Oppikoffer, 
of Berlin. 1849. Desc. by Wetli, 
of Vienna. 1851. Inv. (sic) by 
Paul Cameron, and by John 
Sanginer. 1854. Polar plani- 
meter inv. Prof. Jakob Amsler- 
Laffon, of Zurich. i860. 
Planimeter inv. by John 
Dillon, of Dublin. 
Planing Machine 1794. In 
use at Horace Miller's works, 
Preston, Lanes. i8o2.J.Bramah 
dev. planing machine inv. by his 
draughtsman Joseph Clement 
for use at Woolwich Arsenal 
(worked by a 90 h.p. steam- 
engine). Sir Marc I. Brunei inv. 
(sic) planing machine. 18 14. 
Inv. James Fox, of Derby. 181 7. 
Chain-drive planing machine 
inv. Richard Roberts. J. Wilkin- 
son inv. first metal planing 
machine. 1827. Jointly with 
William Thompson, a cabinet- 
maker of Fountainbridge, Edin- 
burgh, Malcolm Muir inv. 
planing machine for floor- 
boards. 1836. John McDowall 
inv. planing machine adapted 
for grooving and tongueing 
floor-boards. 1857. James 
Nasmyth inv. gear-driven plan- 
ing machine. 

Planisphere 1731. Clockwork 
planisphere inv. and made by 
Abbe Reginald Outher, show- 
ing the phases of the moon. 
PLANTA, Martin (Swit) 
(1727-72) Early investigator of 
electro-statics and electrical 
instrument-maker. 



plant£ 

PLANTS, Raimond-Louis- 
Gaston (Fr) (1834-89) 1859. 
Inv. the lead cell electric accu- 
mulator. 

Plants, Classification of 
1570. Matthias de l'Obel made 
first attempt at plant classifica- 
tion. 1583. Andrea Gesalpino 
(It) (1519-1603) arranged 
plants by flowers and fruits. 
Kaspar Bauhin (Swit) (1560- 
1624) distinguished between 
the idea of genus and species. 
(See also Binominal nomencla- 
ture of animals and plants.) 
Lobel (1538-16 1 6) disc, the 
two groups of plants — mono- 
cotyledons and dicotyledons. 
Plants, Fertilization of 1 789. 
Disc, by Sprengel as being due 
to insects. Sex-organs of flowers 
disc. Nehemiah Grew (1641- 
1712). 

Plants, Respiration of a.d. 
950. Disc, by Al Farabi (Arab). 
Re-disc. Stephen Hales (1677- 
1761). 

Plastic Coating 1924. Albert 
E. P. Girard and Maurice 
Roumanzielles jointly pat. pro- 
cess for coating yarns with 
plastic. 

Plastic Surgery 1553. Gaspar 
Taliacotius (It) made artificial 
noses. 1800. Plastic surgery 
intro. into Europe as "Rhino- 
plasty" by French sturgeon 
Lucas, who had seen an Indian 
physician restore a man's nose 
with skin from the forehead. 
1827. The art of plastic surgery 
revived in France. 
Plate, Sheffield 1742. Process 
inv. Thomas Bolsover, of 
Sheffield, for making buttons. 
Matthew Boulton (1 728-1809) 
devised method of soldering 



I37 PLOUGH 

silver wire to mask edge of 
plated articles. 

Platinum 1735. Disc, by the 
Jesuits in Columbia. 1750. Isol. 
by Watson. 1851. First used for 
chemical apparatus. 
PLATO (429-347 B.C.) Athen- 
ian philosopher who first 
realized the importance of 
mathematics to science. 
Plimsoll Line 1876. Inv. and 
intro. by Samuel Plimsoll (1824 
-98). 

PLINY the Elder (a.d. 23-79) 
Roman natural scientist. Wrote 
Naturalis historia. 
Plough Pre-3000 B.C. Used in 
Egypt and Mesopotamia, c. 
2000 b.g. Earliest iron plough- 
shares found in Palestine. (No 
ploughshares are traceable to 
Hellenic sources, but socketed 
and spearheaded types were 
commonly used in Ancient 
Rome.) 500 B.C. Curved 
wooden mould-board plough 
used in China, nth cent 
Plough intro. into Europe. 1523. 
Wheeled plough noted by Fitz- 
herbert. 16 19. David Ramsey 
and Thomas Wildgoose pat. 
ploughing machine (English 
Pat. No. 6). 1627. William 
Brouneker, John Aprice and 
William Parham inv. machine 
for ploughing and tilling 
worked entirely by two men. 
1634. William Parham, John 
Prewett, Ambrose Prewett and 
Thomas Dorney inv. "engine" 
for ploughing without oxen. 
1707. Iron ploughbreast in use 
in Essex. 1730. "Rotherham" 
plough in use. Disney, Stany- 
forth and Joseph Foljambe inv. 
plough. 1763. Cast-iron plough 
mould-board inv. and made by 
Small at his Blackadder Works. 



PLUMB-LINE 



I 3 8 



POLAROGRAPHY 



1766. Cuthbert inv. drawing 
(traction) plough. 1 785. Robert 
Ransome inv. and prod, cast- 
iron, tempered ploughshares. 
1 800. Richard Lambert inv. 
mole plough. 1800. Plenty inv. 
friction-wheel plough. 1808. 
Robert Ransome inv. plough 
with replaceable parts. 1837. 
John Upton took out first 
steam-plough pat. 1853. John 
Oliver inv. chilled iron plough- 
shares. 1855. "Guideway" 
ploughing system pat. by Hal- 
kett. 1867. Phillip Smith des. 
ploughing system for use with 
Howard's transverse ploughing 
traction-engine, c. 1890. Disc 
plough inv. {See also Traction 
engine.) 

Plumb-line 11 00 B.C. Used in 
Ancient Egypt. 

Pluto (planet) March 3, 1930. 
Disc, by Clyde Tonbaugh. 
Plutonium (element) 1942. 
Disc, by Glen T. Seaborg, E. M. 
McMillan, J. W. Kennedy, 
and A. C. Wahl (U.S.) by 
transformation of uranium 238 
by neutron capture. 1 948. Prob- 
lem of making a suitable con- 
tainer for plutonium at high 
temperature solved. 1949. Plu- 
tonium being prod, in England. 
1950 (July). Atomic plant at 
Windscale, Cumberland began 
prod, plutonium on a large scale. 
Plywood 2800 B.C. Inv. in 
Ancient Egypt, where wood 
was very scarce ; six plies being 
fastened together by wood pegs. 
c. 1 9 1 8. Popularized in England 
through work done by French 
prisoners of war. 
Pneumonia Bacillus disc, by 
Albert Fraenkel (1848-19 16), 
of Berlin. 
POINCAIRE, Jules Henri 



(Fr) (1854-1912) c. 1903. 
Savant responsible for many 
critical observations on the 
mathematics of mechanics. 
POINSOT, Louis (Fr) (1777- 
1859) 1803. Savant responsible 
for the development of the 
theory of couples of forces, in 
his work Elements de statique. 
Points, Railway {See Signal 
interlocking, railway.) 
POISSON, Simeon-Denis 
(Fr) ( 1 78 1 - 1 840) Savant whose 
name has remained connected 
with the law governing the 
adiabatic changes in the condi- 
tion of a gas. (Boyle-Marrotte 
law relates to the corresponding 
isothermal conditions.) 
Poisson's Brackets (mathe- 
matics) 1925. Significance of 
disc. A. M. Dirac (Fr). 
Polarimeter 1840. Inv. by 
Jean Baptiste Biot (Fr) (1774- 
1862). 1842. Intro, into the 
sugar industry by Ventzke 
(Ger). 

Polarized Light 1690. First 
recognized and explained by 
Christiaan Huygens (Dan) 
(1629-95). 1808. E. L. Malus 
(Fr) (1775-1812) disc, practical 
application of polarized light. 
1828. Polarizing prism inv. by 
Scotsman William Nicol. 1845. 
Michael Faraday disc, magnetic 
rotation of polarized light. 1850. 
Dr. W. B. Herepath disc, polar- 
izing properties of combined 
iodine and quinine sulphates. 
1925. Edwin H. Land (U.S.) 
inv. first practical synthetic 
light-polarizing material and 
demonstrated it in 1932. (The 
chromatic polarization of light 
disc, by D. F. Arago.) 
Polarography 1922. Inv. 
Jaroslav Herovsky, of Prague. 



POLHEM I39 

POLHEM, Christopher 

(Swed) (i66i-i75i)/«0.andflfefl. 
the section-rolling, water-driven 
iron mill, thus transforming the 
iron-rolling industry. 
Politzer's Bag (surgery) 1863. 
Inv. Dr. Adam Politzer (1835- 
1920), of Vienna. 
Polka 1835. Inv. in Prague. 
1844. Intro, into England. 
Polonium (element) 1898. 
Disc. 

Polyphon {See Musical-box.) 
Polythene 1933. Disc, by P. H. 
Fawcett. 1936. Pilot continuous 
process in use. 1938. Full-scale 
pilot plant in operation. 1939. 
One mile of submarine cable 
insulated with polythene. 
PONCELET, Jean-Victor 
(Fr) ( 1 788-1 867) Savant who 
intro. use of kilogramme/metre 
unit in mechanics. 
POND, John ( 1 767-1836) 
One-time Astronomer Royal of 
England. In \%<$<$pub. catalogue 
of 1,1 12 stars — a pioneer work. 
PONS, Jean-Louis (Fr) 
(1761-1831) Astronomer who, 
in 1818 disc. Encke's comet, 
named after the mathematician 
who made the disc, possible by 
determining its orbit. 
POPHAM, Admiral Sir 
Home 1803. With Marryat inv. 
the original International Flag 
Signal Code. 

Porcelain 1531. Intro, into 
England. 1687. Von Tschisn- 
haus made porcelain from 
kaolin. i705.JohannFreiderich 
Bottger ( 1 685-1 719) usually 
credited with disc, of making 
porcelain. 

PORTA, Giovanni Battista 
Delia (It) (1535-1615) Scien- 
tist and pharmaceuticist some- 
times credited with formulating 



POWER 

the idea of the telescope, which 
was said to have been made in 
Italy in 1590 before finding its 
way to Holland. 
Portland Stone 1616. First 
quarried on the Isle of Portland, 
Dorsetshire. 

Positron (absolute particle) 
1932. Disc, by Carl D. Anderson 
(U.S.) (b. 1905) and Prof. 
P. M. S. Blackett (U.K.), 
independently. 

Post-card 1862 (Nov. 1). First 
issued in U.K. 1882 (Nov. 2). 
First reply-paid post-card in 
U.K. 

Potassium (element) October 
19, 1807. Disc, by Sir Humphry 
Davy ( 1 778-1 829). 
Potter's Wheel 3250 B.C. Evi- 
dence of vases made on potter's 
wheel in Sumeria. 3000 B.C. In 
use in Palestine. 2750 B.C. First 
appeared in Ancient Egypt (III 
Dynasty). 2000 B.C. Appeared 
in Crete. 1800 B.C. In Greece. 
750 B.C. In Italy. 400 B.C. 
Appeared in Rhine and Upper 
Danube river-valleys. 50 b.c. 
First appeared in Southern 
England, a.d. 1550. First evi- 
dence of use of potter's wheel in 
the Americas. 

POUILLET, Claude-Servain 
(Fr) (1791-1868) 1837. With 
Sir John Herschel was first to 
measure strength of sun's radia- 
tion. 

POULSEN, Valdemar (Den) 
Inv. undamped arc radio trans- 
mitter and the first tape sound 
recorder. 

Powder, Smokeless 1881. 
First prod. 

POWER, Henry (1623-68) 
1649. Disc, capillary channels 
between the arteries and veins 



POWER STATION, ELECTRIC 



X4O 



POWER TRANSMISSION 



of the human body. (See also 
Malpighi and Harvey.) 
Power Station, Electric 1865. 
Hydro-electric generating sys- 
tem prop, by Gazel (Fr). 1866. 
Felice Marco (It) pat. principle 
of electric generation by water- 
power. 1 88 1 (Oct. 12). First 
public hydro-electric plant 
brought into use at Godalming, 
Surrey. 1881. T. A. Edison des. 
and const, first steam-driven 
power-station — New York. 
1882. Edison des. and const, first 
steam-driven power-station in 
England — Holborn, London. 
1882. First hydro-electric 
station in U.S. (for D.C. out- 
put) — Appleton, Wis., 1883. 
Giant's Causeway Tramway 
hydro-electric station opened 
at Walkmills, Go. Antrim, 
Ireland. 1889. First alternating 
current hydro-electric plant 
erected at Oregon City, U.S. 
Power Transmission (auto- 
mobile) 1 90 1. Benson inv. fluid- 
coupling drive. 1904. Centri- 
fugally operated, two-speed 
automatic power transmission 
fitted to U.S. Sturtevant car. 
1906. Dr. H. Fottinger inv. fluid 
flywheel drive. 191 1. Petrol- 
electric system pat . by Thomas. 
1924. Alan Coates (Scot) inv. 
convertor couplings. 1930s. 
Ferguson inv. convertor coup- 
ling transmission. 1948. Buick 
"Dynaflow" epicyclic-conver- 
tor coupling intro. (Types of 
automatic transmission inv. by 
H. F. Hobbs (mechanical), and 
by Jacob Rabinow (U.S.) 
(Smith's electro-mechanical 
system).) (See also Fluid fly- 
wheel, Compressed air trans- 
mission, Belt transmission, 
torque convertor, etc.) 



Power Transmission (belt 
and rope) c. 1490. Leonardo 
da Vinci credited with inv. flat 
belt, crossed belt, and linked 
chain drives. 1750. Richard 
Arkwright (1732-92) used rope 
power transmission on cylin- 
drical pulleys, with friction- 
wheels and toothed-wheels on 
his spinning frame. James Har- 
greaves (d. 1778) used rope 
power transmission for steadily 
driving his spinning jenny. 
1800-08. Marc Isambard 
Brunei used convex pulleys 
and belt-drive, together 
with metal-to-metal cone 
clutches in machines he des. 
for Portsmouth Dockyard. 
1850. M. Hirn (Fr), of 
Golmar, Alsace, des. water- 
wheels with pulleys and endless 
wire ropes to transmit and use 
power of waterfalls at a dis- 
tance. Scheme shown at Paris 
in 1862. 1856. Rope trans- 
mission intro. (sic) by James 
Combe of Belfast. (See also 
Chains, Driving Gears and 
Telpherage.) 

Power Transmission (com- 
pressed air) 1 799. George Med- 
hurst ( 1 759-1829) transmitted 
water-wheel compressed air at 
210 p.s.i. to a compressed air 
motor in a mine. 1803. William 
Murdock (1 754-1839) used 
compressed air power trans- 
mission for ringing his door- 
bell. 1839. Compressed air 
power transmission used by 
London and Birmingham Rail- 
way engineer to ring signal-bell 
between Euston and Camden 
Town stations, London. 1861. 
Compressed air power trans- 
mission used to drive rock-drills 
by Sommeiller (Fr) in driving 



POWER TRANSMISSION 



141 



PRINTING PRESS, HAND 



Mont Cenis railway tunnel. 
(See also Compressed Air.) 
Power Transmission (elec- 
tric) 1733. Electricity (static) 
transmitted 1,256 ft. along a 
wet thread. 1 820. A. M. Ampere 
(Fr) ( 1 775-1836) suggested 
electric needle telegraph (q.v.). 
1870. Froment, of Paris, drove 
solenoid-operated beam-engine 
at a distance. 1873. Z. T. 
Gramme first demonstrated 
electric power transmission over 
J mile at Vienna Exhibition. 
1882. Marcel Duprez built first 
long distance electric power 
transmission from Munich to 
Miesbach (37 miles). Electric 
power transmission first used in 
mines. 1884. Duprez builds 
25 mile direct current line from 
Criel to Paris. 1886. First alter- 
nating-current transmission 
line erected from Gerci, via 
Tivoli, to Rome. (See also 
Telegraph, Electric.) 
Praesodymium (element) 
1885. Disc. 

Praxinoscope 1877. Pat. 
Raynaud. 

Precipitation, Gas 1884. Sir 
Oliver Lodge re-disc, phenom- 
enon that electric discharge 
through smoke precipitates the 
smoke. 1904. Dr. F. G. Cottrell 
(U.S.) repeats Lodge's experi- 
ments. 

PREGL, Fritz (Ger) (1869- 
1930) 1910-16. Dev. technique 
of microanalysis. 
Preservative, Timber 1795. 
Vacuum process of impregna- 
tion inv. by Sir Samuel Bent- 
ham. 1828. "Kyanization" pro- 
cess inv. by John Howard Kyan 
(pat. 1832). 

Press, Power 2nd-ist cent. 
B.C. Screw-press used for wine 



and olive oil in Ancient Greece. 
1553. Antoine Brucher (Fr) inv. 
coining press. 1664. Blaise 
Pascal (Fr) (1623-62) pro- 
posed hydraulic press. 1790. 
Fly-press inv. by Matthew Boul- 
ton ( 1 728-1 809). 1796. Hy- 
draulic press inv. Joseph 
Bramah (1 748-1814). 1799. 
Copying-press inv. James Watt 
(1736-1819). 

Press-stud (fastener) i860. 
Inv. by John Newnham, of 
Birmingham. 

Pressure-cooker (autoclave) 
Inv. by Denis Papin (Fr) (1647- 
1712). 

PREVOST, Pierre (Fr) 
(175 1 -1 839) Astronomer who, 
with William Herschel, in 1 783, 
determined the so-called solar 
apex — the point in the heavens 
towards which the solar system 
is moving through space. 
PRIESTLY, Joseph (1733- 
1804) English chemist. Disc. 
carbon monoxide, nitrous 
oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen, 
and oxygen gases; the latter on 
Aug. 1,1774. 

Printing Press, Hand Print- 
ing pioneered in Germany by 
Johannes Gensfleisch Guten- 
berg (c. 1397-1468) 1423. 
Laurens Janszoon Coster, of 
Haarlem, printed books using 
thick ink. 1 440. J. G. Gutenberg, 
of Mainz, printed Vulgate 
Bible. 1452. Peter Schoffer cast 
first metallic type in matrices 
and used it on 2nd edition of the 
Vulgate Bible. (See Type.) (By 
1500 there were 1,050 printing- 
presses in Europe : in Italy, 532 ; 
Germany, 214; France, 147; 
Spain, 71; Holland, 40; other 
nations, 46; of which seven 
were in London, three in West- 



PRINTING MACHINE, POWER I42 



PROPELLER 



minster, two in Oxford, and 
one in St. Albans.) 1800. Earl 
Stanhope inv. the "Stanhope" 
hand-press. 1817. George 
Clymer, of Philadelphia, U.S. 
inv. the "Columbian" press. 
'Albion" press inv. R. W. Cope, 
of London. (A portable hand 
printing press was inv. by Abb6 
Rochon(Fr).) 

Printing Machine, Power 
1804. Saxony printer Frederick 
Kcenig inv. power printing 
machine. 18 14 (Nov. 28). First 
machine-printed copy of The 
Times appeared. 1818. Augus- 
tus Applegath and Gowper pat. 
cylinder machine const. 1837. 
Thomas Edmondson (1792- 
1851) inv. railway ticket print- 
ing machine. 1848. Hoe rotary 
machine intro. into Europe 
(Paris) from U.S., and into 
England nine years later. 1851. 
Thomas Nelson, of Edinburgh 
inv. continuous rotary machine. 
i860. Automatic feed inv. by 
G. Sprye, of St. Leonards-on- 
Sea, Sussex. 1868. Walter inv. 
rotary machine. 
Printing, Colour 1455. John 
Fust (Faust) attempts colour 
printing. 1820. Ghromo-xylo- 
graphy (wood-block) in use. 
Later dev. by William Savage 
and George Bolton. 1849. 
Colour printing dev. by G. C. 
Leighton. 1889. Colour print- 
ing explained to London 
printers. (See also various colour 
printing methods: Litho- 
graphy, Photo-lithography, 
etc.) 

Printing, Copper-plate 1450. 
Idea conceived in Germany and 
supposedly inv. by T. Fimguerra 
(1410-75?). (See also Blocks, 
Printing, Zincography, etc.) 



Printing, Textile (machines) 
1676. Frenchman sets up tex- 
tile printing works at Rich- 
mond, Surrey. 1756. Inv. by 
Bonvallet, of Amiens. 1764. 
Textile printing intro. into Lan- 
cashire. 1780. Inv. Roland (Fr). 
1783. Thomas Bell used en- 
graved metal cylinders for 
cotton printing. 1785. Bell's 
roller printing process imp. by 
Nicholson. 1791. Inv. Rom- 
billard, of Paris. Inv. by Ober- 
kampf and Samuel Widmer, a 
Swiss chemist. (See Perrotine.) 
Probability, Theory of First 
studied by Cardanus, then by 
Pierre de Fermat (Fr) (1605- 
65). 1 8 14. Further dev. by 
Laplace and Pierre Simon (Fr) 
( 1 749-1827). 

Probe (surgery) Porcelain- 
tipped probe inv. by Auguste 
Nelation (Fr) (1807-73) an< * 
first used on Garibaldi to trace 
bullet by lead mark. 
Promethium (element) 1945. 
Disc, joindy by J. A. Marinski, 
L. E. Glenedin (U.S.), and C. D. 
Corydell. 

Prontosil (drug) 19 10. Disc. 
Gerard Domagk (Ger). 1932 
synthesized by Klover and 
Mietzsch (Ger). 
PRONY, G. F. C. M. Riche 
<*e ( I 755~ I 839) 1 82 1. Dev. 
brake-type dynamometer. 
Propeller (helix) c. 400 B.C. 
Inv. ascribed to Archytas of 
Tarentum. 180 b.c. Hot-air- 
driven propeller lamp-cover in 
use in China, a.d. 1505. First 
applied to air in the West by 
Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 
15 19); but his note-books not 
pub. until 1797. 17th cent. Hot- 
air-driven screw appears in 
Western Europe. 1752. Daniel 



PROPULSION, JET 



143 



P.T.F.E. 



Bernoulli proposed propeller. 
1768. Propeller for ship pro- 
pulsion prop, by engineer Alexis 
Jean Pierre Paucton (Fr) 
(i736?-g8). 1770. James Watt 
(1736-1819) sketched his 
"spiral oar" in a letter to a 
friend. 1784. Valet tested a 
screw-type (propeller) on a 
river-boat. 1785. Inv. by 
Joseph Bramah, and pat. 1 794. 
Lyttelton pat. propeller. 1796. 
John Fitch (U.S.) experimented 
with propeller at New York. 
1802. Capstan- worked propel- 
ler fitted to transport ship 
Doncaster by Edward Shorter. 
1804. John Cox Stevens (U.S.) 
drove a steamboat at 7 knots 
an hour by two narrow-bladed 
propellers at stern. 1815. Rich- 
ard Trevithick pat. propeller. 
1826. Joseph Ressel (d. 1857), 
of Bohemia, used a two-man- 
power propeller-driven boat on 
the Danube. 1829. Ressel fitted 
a 2 ft. diameter propeller to a 
Trieste boat with a 6 h.p. 
engine and steamed out to sea. 
(All further trials of boat 
stopped by police.) 1836. Pro- 
peller independently inv. 
by Francis Pettit-Smith and 
John Ericsson (Swed). 1838. 
S.S. Archimedes the first success- 
ful propeller-driven steamer 
(237 tons). 1838. T. Lowe pat. a 
propeller and tries it on royal 
yacht Fairy. 1842. Bennet 
Woodcroft imp. propeller by 
increasing its pitch at blade- 
tips. 1843. Screw propeller 
adopted by British Navy. 1844. 
Propeller-driven ship Great Bri- 
tain built — first propeller ship 
to cross Atlantic Ocean. 1848. 
William Maudslay inv. variable 
pitch ship propeller fitted to 



S.S. Bosphorus and used on 
England-Cape Town route. 
1849. Robert Griffiths imp. ship 
propeller by enlarging the boss 
and reducing the blade-tip area. 
Propulsion, Jet 1420. Gio- 
vanni da Fontana sketched jet- 
propelled fish, birds and a 
rabbit. Also proposed its 
use for measuring water depths 
and air heights. 1495. Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio des. jet propul- 
sion petards on wheels and 
floats. (See also Aircraft, and 
Ship.) 

Protein 1838. Term first used 
("Proteine") by Gerard Johann 
Mulder (Hoi) (1802-80). 1882. 
Emil Fischer (Ger) (1852- 
1919) pioneered modern pro- 
tein chemistry. 

Protoactinium (element) 
191 7. Disc. 

Protoplasm 1853. Protoplasm 
(primitive form of living 
matter) disc. Hugo von Mohl. 
PROUST, Joseph Louis (Fr) 
( 1 754-1826) Early chemist who 
disagreed with C. L. Berthollet's 
theory of chemical compounds 
as prop, in Recherches sur les lois de 
Vaffiniti (i'jqS). 

Protractor 1801. Three- 
armed protractor inv. Capt. 
Joseph Huddart. 
PROUT, William London 
doctor who started a hypothesis 
on the unity of matter in 1815. 
Prussian Blue 1704. Disc, by 
German dyer Diesbach by 
accident. 

Prussic Acid 1782. Disc, by 
C. W. Scheele (Swed) (1742- 
86). 

Psycho-analysis See Sub- 
conscious mind. 
P.T.F.E. (polytetrafluoroethy- 



PTOLEMY 144 

lene) Used for making friction- 
less (unlubricated) bearings. 
PTOLEMY, Claudius (a.d. 
2nd cent.) In his Almagest dealt 
with trigonometric and gonio- 
metric principles, together with 
tables of chords. Pioneer Greek 
astronomer. 

Ptolemaic System (astron- 
omy) a.d. 140. System per- 
fected by Claudius Ptolemy. 
Ptyalin 1841. Obtained (from 
saliva) by Louis Mialhe (1807- 
1886). 

Pulley c. 700 b.g. Probably 
used in connection with chain- 
of-pots pump to irrigate Hang- 
ing Gardens of Babylon. 
PULLMAN, George M. 
(U.S.) (1831-97) 1858. Per- 
fected the railway sleeping-car 
of 1839 and des. the luxury 
railway coach bearing his name. 
Pulsometer See Pump. 
Pump c. 1485 B.C. Supposedly 
inv. by Grecian Danaus. 700 
B.C. Chain-of-pots pump on 
rope used to water Hanging 
Gardens of Babylon. 3rd cent. 
B.C. Ctesibus inv. plunger pump 
of which specimens dating as 
late as 1st cent. b.c. have been 
found. 2nd cent. b.c. Chain-of- 
pots for baling mentioned in 
Egyptian papyri, c. 100 b.c. 
River current-driven wheel-of- 
pots applied in Egypt during 
the Roman period, a.d. 1st 
cent. Square-pallet chain-and- 
rag pump used in China. 1456. 
Italian artist Pisanello depicts 
piston pump powered by a 
water-wheel and operated by 
two simple cranks and con- 
necting-rods. 1556. Georgius 
Agricola (1494- 1555) desc. in 
De Re Metallica multi-stage 
reciprocating bucket pumps 



PUMP 

driven by water-wheels; horse- 
operated, gear-driven rag-and- 
chain pumps in series to drain 
mines up to 600 ft. deep; also 
mine ventilating pumps, centri- 
fugal fans and water-driven 
bellows for furnace blowing. 
1615. S. de Caus (1 576-1 630) 
steam pump in which steam 
drove out the water. 16 16. G. 
Finugio illus. self-acting bucket 
pump. 1 618. R. Fludd (1574- 
1637) desc. automatic free- 
piston pump to raise clean 
water by power of dirty water. 
1634. Hannibal and Vyvyan, 
of Cornwall, inv. (English Pat. 
No. 67) engine for draining 
mines. 1635. John Bate pub. 
description of leather plunger 
pumps and valves. (See also 
Packing, piston.) 1636. D. 
Schwenter illus. two types of 
gear-wheel pumps. 1650. Otto 
von Guericke made pump and 
cylinder in which vacuum 
caused piston to do work. 1672. 
Square-pallet chain pump intro. 
into Europe. 17th cent. Air 
compression vessels for pumps 
intro. in Germany. 1674. Sir 
John Morland (1625-95) P at ' 
plunger pump with metal 
plunger and hat-leather pack- 
ing. 1698. Capt. Thomas Savery 
(1650-17 1 5) prod, steam pump 
of "Pulsometer" type. 1712. 
Capt. T. Savery installed one 
of his pumps at Camden House, 
Kensington, London. (See also 
Newcomen's steam pumping- 
engine.) 1 7 1 6. P. de la Hire (Fr) 
( 1 640-1 718) desc. double-acting 
piston pump. 1 724. P. Leupold 
(1674-1777) desc. two-cylinder 
high-pressure steam pump. 
J 735- Water-pressure pump 
used in France. (See also Ram, 



PUMP, CENTRIFUGAL 



145 



PUPIN 



hydraulic.) 1 746. Spiral air-lift 
pump inv. by tinworker Andreas 
Wirz, of Zurich. (See Zurich 
Machine.) 1765. W. West- 
garth intro. water-pressure 
pump at Goal Gleugh, North- 
umberland, c. 1767. Smeaton 
des. bucket mine pump. 1796. 
Boswell desc. first pump of 
modern des. on principle of 
Heron's fountain, in Hachette's 
Traiti elementaire des machines. 
1840. Henry Howarth (U.S.) 
inv. double-acting, reciprocat- 
ing steam pump. 1841. Direct- 
acting steam pump. inv. 1857. 
1865. Gog-wheel chain pump 
inv. by Jean Bastier (Fr). 
1857. Double-acting steam 
pump inv. 1872. "Pukometer" 
type steam pump inv. by H. 
Hall, of New York. 
Pump, Centrifugal 1732. 
First record of centrifugal pump 
by Le Demour (Fr). 1783. 
Thomas Erskine inv. centrifugal 
pump (pat.). 18 1 8. "Barker's 
Mill" (q.v.) type of pump prod. 
in Massachussets, U.S. 1831. 
Disc-type centrifugal pump first 
prod, by Blake, of Connecticut, 
U.S. 1839. Massachusets 
centrifugal pump inv. (sic) by 
Andrews, of New York. 1846. 
Valve-disc-type centrifugal 
pump pat. bought by John 
Gwynne and intro. into Eng- 
land. 1846. Andrews's further 
patents bought by Gwynne and 
pat. in England in 1851. 1848. 
Appold began making Lloyd- 
type centrifugal pumps of fan 
type. 1854. Gwynne pat. ver- 
tical-shaft centrifugal pump. 
1 85 1. Clune inv. rotary centri- 
fugal pump. 1876. Prof. 
Osborne Reynolds inv. multi- 
stage centrifugal pump without 



guide-vanes (pat. by Gwynne). 
(Other types of centrifugal 
pumps were inv. 1841, Whit- 
law; 1845, Sir Henry Bessemer; 
1846. von Schmidt; 1849 and 
1850-51, Bessemer imp. centri- 
fugal pumps.) 

Pump, Gog-type 1636. D. 
Schwenter illus. two types of 
gear-pump in his Deliciae 
physico-mathematicae. 1823. 
"Rangeley" pump, with two 
fluted, cogged rollers inv. by 
Dixon and Rangeley. 
Pump, Gas 19 10. Inv. by H. A. 
Humphrey (1 868-1 951) with 
W. J. Randell. (In this pump, 
the piston was replaced by 
the water -column being 
pumped.) 1 9 10. E. Baynes Bad- 
cock pat. two-cycle gas com- 
bustion pump. 

Pump, Motor-car Petrol 
1900. Diaphragm-type petrol 
pump fitted to Oldsmobile 
(U.S.) car. 1902. Injector pump 
fitted by Klaus to his carburet- 
tor. 1904. Plunge feed-pump 
fitted by Gibbon to carburettor. 
1905. Petrol feed-pump fitted to 
Henriod car. 1 9 1 1 . J. Higginson 
and H. Arundel inv. the "Auto- 
vac" petrol feed system. 1928. 
"A.C." petrol-pump inv. by 
J. N. Morris and M. D. Scott, 
marketed by A.C.-Spinx Co. 
Pump, Vacuum 1650. Otto 
von Guericke (Ger) (1602-86) 
inv. valveless type. 1659. Robert 
Boyle and Robert Hooke jointly 
produce the first English air- 
vacuum pump. 1865. Inv. Her- 
mann Sprengel (Ger). 1913. 
Rotary vacuum pump inv. Dr. 
Wilhelm Gaede, of Freiburg, 
Baden. 

PUPIN, Michael Idvorsky 
(1858-1935) Inventor of the 



PYCNOMETER 



I46 



PYROPHONE 



acoustic "Loading spool" 
whereby sound could be trans- 
mitted over a distance. 
Pycnometer (specific gravity) 
c. a.d. 1000. Applied by Al 
Biruni (Arab). 

Pyocyanase (early antibiotic, 
originally effective against 
plague and anthrax, but now 
abandoned) 1894. Disc, by 
Rudolf Emmerlich, of Munich 
and Oscar Lowe, of Vienna. 
Pyramidon (drug) 1886. Syn- 
thesized, for the first time. 
Pyrheliometer Inv. Claude- 
Servain Pouillet (Fr) (1791- 
1868). 

Pyrogallic Acid 1786. Disc. 
by G. W. Scheele (Swed) ( 1 742- 
86). 

Pyrometer 1730. Petrus van 
Muschenbroeck (Hoi) (1692- 
1761) inv. bar pyrometer. 1750. 
Josiah Wedgwood (1730-95) 
inv. silicious cones for pottery 
furnace temperature checking. 
1782. Wedgwood inv. pyro- 
meter for pottery furnaces. 
1785. Jesse Ramsden (1735- 
1800) inv. pyrometer for check- 
ing temperature of survey rods. 



1 82 1. Prof. Daniell, of King's 
College, London inv. registering 
pyrometer. 1823. Princep desc. 
use of graduated series of alloys 
with known melting-points to 
act as pyrometers. 1823. 
Thomas Johann Seebeck disc. 
the way to generate electric 
current by keeping loops of 
dissimilar metals at differing 
temperatures. 1834. Jean- 
Charles Athanase, a watch- 
maker of Paris disc, the thermo- 
couple. 1850. Becquerel (Fr) 
inv. (sic) the thermo-couple. 
1 85 1. Ericsson inv. the air 
pyrometer. 1870. C. W. 
Siemens inv. platinum electric 
resistance pyrometer. 1887. 
Callender inv. (sic) platinum 
wire resistance pyrometer. 
1 89 1. Le Chatelier (Fr) inv. 
electric pyrometer. 1888. 
Thermo-electricity applied to 
pyrometry. 1910. Fery (Fr) inv. 
fixed-focus radiation pyro- 
meter. 

Pyrophone (sensitive flame, or 
singing flame) Inv. by Kcenig. 
1869. "Lustre chantant" inv. 
by F. V. Kastner, of Paris. 



Q 



Quadrant c. a.d. 150. Ptolemy 
(100-160) used a stone solar 
quadrant with gradations 



marked on its polished side. 
Tycho Brahe ( 1 546- 1 60 1 ) used 
large quadrant of his own 



QUANTUM THEORY 



«47 



RADIO TELEGRAPHY 



design at Uraniberg Observa- 
tory, Hven, Denmark. 1672. 
Two reflecting quadrants des. 
by Sir Isaac Newton (1642- 
1727). 1725. George Graham 
( 1 673-1 751) inv. mural quad- 
rant erected at Greenwich 
observatory. 1 730. Reflecting 
quadrant inv. by Thomas God- 
frey (U.S.). 1750. Bird inv. 
quadrant used at Greenwich. 
(See also Sextant.) 
Quantum Theory 1900. Pro- 
posed by Max Planck (Ger). 
191 3. Planck's theory amplified 
by Neils Bohr (Dan) . 
Quaternions 1843. Inv. Sir 
Rowan W. Hamilton (1805- 



65) . (See also Vector analysis.) 
Quern 2500 B.C. Saddle quern 
used in Egypt. 1200 B.C. Rotary 
quern used in Syria. (See also 
Mill.) 

Quaver (music) 1496. Inv. by 
Gafurius. 

Quinine 181 1. First obtained 
from cinchona bark by Pfaff. 
1820. Disc, (sic) by Pelletier and 
Caventou. 1838. Composition 
established by Baron von 
Liebig. 1865. Synthesized by 
W. L. Scott. 1908. Chemical 
structure deduced by Rabe. 
1944. Synthesized by R. B. 
Woodward, of Boston, Mass., 
U.S. 



R 



Rabies See Viruses. 
Radar (RAdio Direction And 
Range) 1888. Carl Hertz re- 
flected and refracted centi- 
metre-long radio waves, 1935. 
First experiments made near 
Daventry by Dr. Watson-Watt. 
1937. Const, commenced on 
chain of 20 radar stations 
located from the Solent to the 
Firth of Tay. 1945. J. S. Hey 
used radar for detecting enemy 
V-2 rockets. "Gee," "Bloc," 
and "H2S" radar systems dev. 
by A. C. B. Lovell. (See also 
Radio-astronomy.) 



Radiant Heat Properties of 
disc, by Macedonio Melloni 
(It) (1798-1854). 
Radiator, Electric c. 1910 
Intro, in England. 
Radiator, Motor-car 1898. 
Honeycomb radiator (the 
steam condenser of 50 years 
earlier) first fitted to Cann- 
stadt-Daimler motor-car, then 
on Mercedes and Albany cars. 
1904. Louis Renault (Fr) pat. 
first rear-of-engine radiator. 
(See also Condenser, steam.) 
Radio Telegraphy and Tele- 
phony 1895. Guglielmo Mar- 



RADIO TELESCOPE 



148 



RADIUM 



coni (It) (1874 — 1919) sent 
first radio telegraphy signals in 
Italy. 1895. Alexander Popoff 
(Rus) and Eugene Ducretet 
(Fr) give practical demonstra- 
tion at Leningrad. 1896. Mar- 
coni pat. apparatus in U.K. 
1898. Radio telegraph link 
made from South Foreland 
lighthouse to South Goodwin 
light-vessel. 1900. Reginald 
Fessenden (U.S.) first transmits 
speech by radio. 1901. Prof. F. 
Braun inv. first crystal detector 
— the psilomelan. 1901 (Dec. 
12). First trans- Atlantic radio 
link made from Poldhu, Corn- 
wall to St. John's, Newfound- 
land. 1903. Arc Radio speech 
transmission inv. by Valdemar 
Poulsen (Dan). 1904. Sir 
Ambrose Fleming inv. two- 
electrode valve (q.v.). 1905. 
Fessenden pat. his heterodyne 
system of detection. 1906. Lee 
de Forest (U.S.) inv. three-elec- 
trode valve. (The inv. of the 
feed-back valve circuit to 
amplify signals has been vari- 
ously credited to Major Edwin 
Armstrong (U.S.), G. S. Frank- 
lin, Irving Langmuir, Meissner, 
and H. J. Round), Carborun- 
dum detector inv, by H. H. 
Dunwoody (U.S.) ; and G. W. 
Pickard inv. silicon detector. 
1907. Fessenden broadcasts 
speech 100 miles by radio. 1924. 
Armstrong conceived idea of 
frequency modulation; 1933, 
perfected a system of static-free 
frequency modulation broad- 
casting which was tried in U.S. 
(First frequency-modulated 
transmission (broadcast) in 
U.K. not made until 1955.) 



1927. Armstrong inv. super- 
regenerative receiver, c. 1930. 
Armstrong inv. super-hetero- 
dyne receiver. 1947. J. A. 
Sargrove inv. printed radio 
receiver circuit. (See also Broad- 
cast, radio.) 

Radio Telescope 1931. 
Karl Jansky (U.S.) made first 
radio telescope. 1937. Grote 
Reber (U.S.) made first dish- 
type radio telescope. (See also 
Radar and Radio-astronomy.) 
Radio-activity 1898. Disc, by 
Henri Becquerel (Fr). Induced 
radio-activity disc, by Frederic 
and Irene Joliot-Curie (son-in- 
law and daughter, respectively, 
of Madame Curie). 
Radio-astronomy 1931. Karl 
Jansky (U.S.) made first major 
study of radio atmospherics and 
found that their maxima 
occurred every 23 hours 56 
minutes. 1937. Finding cor- 
roborated by Grote Reber 
(U.S.), who first suggested that 
they came from outer space. 
Skellet (1935), and Appleton 
(1939) obs. that radio waves 
were reflected from the iono- 
sphere. (See also Radar and 
Radio telescope.) 
Radiometer 1873. Inv. Sir 
William Crookes (1832-19 19). 
Radium (element) 1898. Disc. 
by Pierre Curie (Fr) (1859- 
1906) and his wife Marie 
Sklodowska (Pol) (1867-1934). 
1903. Sir William Ramsey and 
Frank Soddy disc, that radium 
slowly degenerated into helium. 
1909. Radium prod, from uran- 
ium experimentally by Fred- 
erick Soddy. (1909. First 
gramme of pure radium 



RADON 

bromide sold by Austrian 
Government for £10,000.) 
Radon (element) 1900. Disc. 
Rail-car 1899. Daimler petrol 
rail-car accommodating 18 pas- 
sengers run on Wurtemburg 
Railways. 1903. First petrol 
rail-car run in G.B. on North 
Eastern Railway. 1913. First 
diesel-electric rail-car in use in 
Sweden. 

Rail, Railway 1830. "T"-rail 
des. R. L. Stevens (U.S.). 1845. 
W. H. Barlow inv. "saddle- 
back" rail. 

Railway, Levigated (Mag- 
netic) inv. Louis Bachelet (Fr). 
Railway, Electric 1837. 
Thomas Sturgeon propels a 
locomotive with electricity 
with the motor he inv. in 1832. 
1838. Prof. Charles Page (U.S.), 
of Washington, D.C. des. an 
electric motor with which he 
successfully hauled a train 5^ 
miles between Washington and 
Bladensburg, on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, in 1839. 
1838. Prof. Robert Davidson, 
of Edinburgh, ran an electric 
locomotive near Glasgow with 
the motor he had inv. 1840. 
Uriah Clark, of Leicester built 
an electric locomotive which 
ran on a circular track at his 
home-town. Pinkus pat. electric 
railway with two extra con- 
ductor rails. 1847. Lilly and 
Colyon, of Pittsburg, Pen., 
U.S., dev an electric rail- 
way. 1864. Bellet and De 
Rouvre des. electric railway 
with conductor rails. 1873. 
Hallez de Arros, of Nancy, inv. 
a battery-driven locomotive. 
1884. E. M. Bentley and W. H. 
Knight inv. electric railway 
which operated in Cleveland, 
11— IAD 



149 



RAMSAY 



Ohio, U.S. (See also Locomo- 
tive, electric and Tramway, 
electric.) 

Railway, Atmospheric 1824. 
Vacuum railway system prop. 
George Medhurst, 181 2, pat. 
John Vallance. 

Rain, Man-made 1945. First 
prod, by process inv. by V. J. 
Schafer (U.S.). 

Rainbow Colours in rainbow 
explained by Harriot (1560- 
162 1). (See also Roger Bacon 
and Vitellio.) True theory of 
rainbow explained by Antonio 
deDominis (1 566-1 624). 161 1. 
Theory further dev. by Johann 
Kepler (1571-1630). 1637. 
Theory perfected by Ren6 Des- 
cartes (1596- 1 650). (See also 
Spectrum.) 

Rake, Horse c. 1807. Earliest 
record of use in Essex. 
Ram, Hydraulic 1772. Ram 
with manually-operated valves 
inv. and set up at Oulton, 
Cheshire by John Whitehouse. 

1796. J. M. Montgolfier (Fr) 
and Axm6 Argand made ram 
automatic by placing a loose 
impulse-valve in its waste-pipe. 

1797. Ram imp. by Matthew 
Boulton (1728-1809). Single- 
acting suction ram. inv. Bern- 
oulli. 1858. Double-acting ram 
inv. by Nicholas Leblanc (Fr) 
(1742-1806). 

Ram-jetEngine ("Athodyd,") 
or aero-thermo-dynamic duct 
engine. See Engine, jet. 
RAMELLI, Agostino (It) 
( I 53 I_ 9°) J 588. One of the 
pioneers of technical handbook 
writing, with his book Various 
and ingenious Machines (Le diverse 
et artificiose machines). 
RAMSAY, Sir William 
(1852-1916) Chemist and 



RAMSDEN 



150 



RECORDERS, MAGNETIC 



physicist who disc, many of the 
inert gases in the earth's atmos- 
phere. (See also J. W. S. 
Rayleigh.) 

RAMSDEN, Jesse (1735- 
1800) 1770. Inv. the first screw- 
cutting lathe and many other 
precision mechanical and 
optical devices. 

RANKINE, William John 
Macquorn (Scot) (1820-72) 
c. i860, evolved the scientific 
term "energy." 

Rate-of-turn Indicator 
(aeronautical engineering) 
1910. Inv. H. F. Wimperis. 
1929. Schilovski and Cooke inv. 
improved instrument. 1930. 
Reid and Segrist inv. "Stan- 
dard" R.A.F. instrument. 
RAYLEIGH, John William 
Strutt, Baron (1842-19 19) 
Chemist and physicist. Made 
efforts to discover a formula for 
the distribution of the emission 
of a black body over various 
wavelengths. Investigated the 
distribution of the inert gases 
argon, helium, krypton, neon 
and xenon. (See also Sir W. 
Ramsay.) 

Rayon (cellulose acetate) 1855. 
Early rayon inv. George Aude- 
mars (Swit). 1884. Chardounet 
pat . spinneret process of prod. 
(See Chardounet.) 1890. First 
prepared by Schutzenberger 
(Ger). 1899. First filaments 
made by C. A. Bronnert (Ger). 
1 9 1 9 . Stretch-spinning of rayon 
inv. by Edmund Thiele and Dr. 
Elsaesser (Ger) by cuprammon- 
ium process. 1930. Modern 
rayon inv. 

Razor, Safety 1847. Safety 
razor with comb-teeth guard 
inv. William Samuel Henson 
(1805-88), of Chard, Somerset. 



Reaping Machine 1799. 
Joseph Boyce inv. machine for 
cutting wheat and corn. 1800. 
Robert Mean inv. machine for 
cutting standing corn and grass. 
(See also mowers.) 1 8 1 1 . Salmon 
desc. reaping machine with 
clippers and delivery system. 
Smith, of Deanstown, Scotland, 
desc. reaping machine with 
rotary cutter and side delivery. 
David dimming desc. rotary 
reaping machine. 1830. Bud- 
ding inv. a small mowing 
machine. 1834. McCormick/>a*. 
his reaper. 1851. Marsh incor- 
porated conveyer-belt in reap- 
ing machine. 1878. Appleby 
inv. knotting device for reap- 
ing machines. 1880. Appleby 
fits reaping machine with auto- 
binder. 1936. First "baby" 
combine harvester intro. 
REAUMUR, Ren£ Antoine 
Ferchault de (Fr) (1683- 
1757) 1730. Inv. thermometer 
with scale graduated o° to 8o°. 
(This scale now bears his 
name.) 

Recoil, Gun 1867. Hydraulic 
recoil absorber inv. Sir William 
Siemens. 1898. French "75" 
gun with recoil absorber intro. 
(See also Gun.) 

Recorders, Magnetic 1888. 
Oberlin Smith first prop, idea of 
magnetic sound storage. Valde- 
mar Poulsen (Dan) pat. his 
"Telegraphone," or wire 
recorder. 1903. Wire recorders 
made in U.S.A. 1907. Direct- 
current biasing principle inv. 
by Poulsen. 1920. Alter- 
nating-current biasing inv. by 
Poulsen. c. 1920. Kurt Stille 
(Ger) perfected the "Blattner- 
phone." c. 1920. Dr. Pfleumer 
(Aus) inv. plastic tape for mag- 



RECTIFIER, ELECTRICAL 



I5I RELATIVITY, THEORY OF 



netic recorders. 1921. Alter- 
nating bias current perfected 
by W. L. Carson and G. W. 
Carpenter (U.S.). 1927. J. A. 
O'Neill pat. paper tape in U.S. 
1930. German "Magneto- 
phone" tape in use. 1937. 
Plastic tape made and used in 
Germany. 1939. Cellulose 
acetate tape began to be used. 
c. 1940. Marvin Camras (U.S.) 
imp. the wire recorder. 
Rectifier, Electrical 1902. 
Peter Cooper-Hewitt intro. mer- 
cury arc rectifier. 1924. First 
commercial form of selenium 
rectifier intro. 1926. Copper 
oxide rectifiers for low powers 
only intro. 1936. First pumpless, 
air-cooled, steel-clad mercury 
rectifiers installed in England. 
Refining, Electrolytic 1869. 
Elkington's process of electro- 
lytic refining instituted at Pem- 
bray, S. Wales. 1878. Holloway 
inv. first electrolytic process for 
refining copper. 
Reflection (See Light.) 
Reflex Action (biology) 1833. 
Term intro. by Dr. Marshall 
Hall ( 1 790-1857). 
Refraction (See Light.) 
Refractometer 1874. First inv. 
and const . by Ernst Abbe. 
Refrigeration 1000 b.c. 
Chinese poems by Shi Ching 
refer to ice cellars, a.d. 23-79. 
Pliny the Elder mentions new 
inv. of method of cooling drinks 
in snow, stored and insulated 
by grass. Indians, Egyptians 
and Estonians chilled water 
by placing it in shallow, porous 
pans and leaving them out-of- 
doors at night. 1842. H. Benja- 
min froze food by immersion 
in mixture of ice and brine. 
1852. Lord Kelvin and Prof. 



Rankine prop, first open-cycle 
refrigeration. (Picture of mach- 
ine in catalogue of 1862 Exhi- 
bition.) 

Refrigerator 1834. Jacob 
Perkin inv. first vapour-com- 
pression refrigerator. 1845. 
Dr. John Gorrie (U.S.) inv. 
air refrigerator. 1851. Filed 
first U.S. patent for making 
ice by compressed air. 1857. 
James Harrison (Australia), 
of Geelong, used Perkins's 
refrigerator to export meat 
by ship. i860. Carr£ (Fr) inv. 
ammonia absorption refrig- 
erator. Carbon dioxide used as 
a refrigerant, c. i860. Ether, 
methyl chloride, and sulphur- 
ous acid used as refrigerants. 
1862. Gorrie's refrigerator imp. 
by Kirk, who added a regen- 
erator. 1873. Kelvin-Rankine 
refrigerator made in practical 
form by Giffard and by Cole- 
man and Bell. 1876. Dr. Carl 
Linde intro. ammonia refrig- 
erator. 1905. Platen and Mun- 
ters (Swed) inv. absorption-type 
("Electrolux") R. Philips (Hoi) 
prod, refrigerator for making 
liquid air at atmospheric pres- 
sure. 1930. T. G. N. Haldane 
had installed at his home the 
first heat-pump of his own 
design. See also Cryogenics. 
REGNAULT, Henri Victor 
(Fr) (1810-78) Physicist who 
pioneered accurate measure- 
ment of heat and determined 
pressure of saturated water and 
heat of vaporization of water at 
various temperatures. 
REISS, Philip 1 86 1. Inv. mem- 
brane microphone. 
Relativity, Theory of 1905. 
First prop, by Swiss Patent 
Office clerk Albert Einstein 



RELAY, ELECTRIC 



«5* 



RIVETING MACHINE 



(1879-1955). 1915. Theory 
established by R. A. Millikan 
(U.S.). 

Relay, Electric 1837. First 
devised by Edmund Davy and 
termed a "renewer." 
Repeating Circle (surveying) 
1787. Inv. fitienne Lenoir (Fr). 
Reserpine (drug) 1956. Syn- 
thesized by R. B. Woodward, 
of Boston, U.S. 

Resins, Synthetic 1901. 
Alkyd synthetic resin disc, by 
William Smith. 1918. Synthetic 
resin made from ammonia and 
carbon dioxide — synthetic urea 
made, which, plus formalde- 
hyde/™*/. "Plaskon," "Beetle," 
and "Scarab" wares. 1926. 
Commercial alkyd resins de- 
rived from glycerine and napth- 
aline products. 

Respirator c. 1853. Charcoal 
respirators and air filter inv. 
Dr.JohnStenhouse. 1870. Fire- 
men's respirator inv. Prof. John 
Tyndall (1820-93). 1879. Dr. 
Woillez (Fr) anticipated the 
idea of a respirator. 1929. 
Phillip Drinker, of Harvard, 
U.S. inv. the "Iron Lung." 
(A respirator was also devised 
by Dr. Marshall-Hall, of Edin- 
burgh.) 

Respiration, "Cheyne- 
Stokes" First desc. by William 
Stokes of Dublin (1804-78), 
and John Cheyne, a Scottish 
doctor practising in Dublin. 
Retort (coke-oven) 1796. Bee- 
hive-type gas-retort inv. 1888. 
Inclined coke-oven inv. by 
Coze, of Rheims. iSgg.Koppers 
inv. coke-oven. 1900. Vertical 
coke-oven inv. by Bu6. (The 
horizontal gas-retort inv. by 
Coppee (Bel) and dev. later by 
Hussener and Carl Otto.) 



Revolver 1835. Col. Samuel 
Colt, of U.S. Army inv. six- 
chambered revolver. 
Reynaud's Disease 1862. 
First desc by Reynaud. 
Rhenium (element) 1925. 
First identified. 

Rhodium (element) 1803. 
Disc, by William Hyde Woolas- 
ton ( 1 766-1 828). 
Rifle 1498. Rifled hand-guns 
used at shooting-match at Leip- 
sig. 1568. Straight-grooved 
rifles used in Germany. 1563. 
Spirally rifled hand-guns 
referred to in Swiss law. 1645. 
Bavarian rifle regiments known 
to have existed. 1827. J« N. 
Dreyse inv. the needle-rifle, 
adopted by Prussian army in 
1842. 1833. Minte rifle inv. by 
Minie, of Vicennes, and 
adopted by French army — by 
British army in 1852. 1836. 
Saw the advent of the Bruns- 
wick Rifle: 1853, that of the 
Enfield short rifle; i860, that 
of the Enfield long rifle; 1864, 
the Schneider; 1866, the 
Chassepot; and 1871, the 
Martini-Henry. 

Rifle, Sporting 1856. Need- 
ham inv. sporting rifle. (Other 
early English sporting rifles inv. 
by Green, Davies and Murcott.) 
1875. Anson and Deeley inv. 
sporting rifle. (Other invs. in- 
clude those of Purdey and 
Greener (ejector sporting 
rifle).) 

Riveting Machine c. 1805. 
Mark Isambard Brunei estab- 
lished army boot factory with 
riveting machine for riveting 
soles. (Hand work was reverted 
to as soon as war was over.) 
1838. Sir William Fairbairn 
inv. riveting machine to cope 



ROADS 



153 



ROAD VEHICLE, STEAM 



with boilermakers' strike at his 
works. 

Roads c. 1785. Waterbound 
flint ("Macadam") roads inv. 
by John Loudon Macadam 
(1756-1836). 1815. First "Mac- 
adam" road laid in England at 
Bristol by Macadam and R. L. 
Edgeworth. 1830. First tarmac 
road in England laid in Notting- 
hamshire. 1832. Asphalt road 
first dev. in France by Sassenay. 
1854. Compressed rock and 
asphalt road laid in Paris. 1865. 
Concrete roads intro. into U.K. 
in Scodand. 1870. Compressed 
rock and asphalt roads intro. 
into U.S. 1870-90. De Smedt 
and Richardson intro. water- 
tight chip-sand-bitumen roads. 
1873. Tarmac roads intro. into 
U.S. 1879. Road-making 
machines intro. in Germany. 
1892. Concrete roads intro. into 
U.S. 1 90 1. Guglielminetti (It) 
intro. hot bitumen treatment of 
De Smedt's roads. Three-layer 
road-making system intro. by 
P. M. Treseguet (Fr). (See also 
Paving, road.) 

Road Vehicle, Steam (pas- 
senger and freight-carrying) 
1 763. Nicholas Joseph Cugnot 
(Fr) ( 1 725-1 804) built a model 
steam road vehicle. 1769. 
Cugnot first steam road vehicle 
which reached a speed of 2J 
mph. 1780. Charles Dallery 
(Fr) des. and const, a steam road 
vehicle with a multi-tubular 
boiler. 1 784-86. William Mur- 
dock (1754- 1 839) des. and const. 
a model steam road vehicle. 
1786. William Symington 
(Scot) des. a steam road vehicle 
model with rack transmission- 
gear. 1788. Robert Fourness 
and James Ashworth, of Hali- 



fax, Yorkshire, pat. gear-drive, 
steam road vehicle with a three- 
cylinder engine run on high- 
pressure steam. 1788. Nathan 
Read (U.S.) des. and const. 
model steam-carriage with a 
multi-tubular boiler. 1801. 
Richard Trevithick, of Corn- 
wall, const, a steam road vehicle 
which ran at Camborne. 1802. 
Trevithick's steam road vehicle 
pat. 1803. Trevithick's vehicle 
ran in streets of London. 1805. 
Oliver Evans (U.S.) (1755- 
1819) des. an amphibious steam 
vehicle — the first steam road 
vehicle to run on roads of 
U.S.A. 18 1 5. Josef Bozek, of 
Prague des. a steam road vehicle 
to carry three persons. 18 19. 
George Medhurst (1759-1827) 
des. a steam road vehicle which 
ran between Paddington and 
Islington, in London. 1821. 
Julius Griffith, of Middlesex, 
des. steam road vehicle with 
change-speed gears and spring- 
mounted engine. 1824. David 
Gordon inv. steam road vehicle 
worked by backward-thrusting 
legs. (Idea also tried by Sir 
Goldworthy Gurney (1793- 
1876) the following year.) 1824. 
W. H. James, of Birmingham 
and Sir James Anderson, of 
Ireland, des. steam road vehicle 
with two twin-cylinder engines 
each of which drove one rear 
wheel. 1825. Timothy Burstall 
and John Hill (Scot) des. four- 
wheel-drive steam road vehicle 
with ratchet-type differential 
drive, and of great construc- 
tional ingenuity. 1828. James 
and Anderson des. 18-seater 
steam road vehicle capable of 
1 5 m.p.h. Other outstanding steam 
road vehicle designs are the follow- 



ROCKET 154 

ing: Sir G. Gurney, 1823, 1827, 
1 83 1. Walter Hancock (1799- 
1852), 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 

1833* l8 34> i835 and l8 36. 
John Scott Russel, of Edin- 
burgh, 1834 (ran between 
London and Kew). Francis 
Macerone and John Squire, 
1833, 1834, 1843. Frank Hills, 
ofDeptford, 1839-43. (His last 
steam road vehicle made long 
runs from London to Brighton, 
Windsor and Hastings.) Among 
other less important British steam 
road vehicle builders were: 
Nasmyth, Heaton, Battin, 
Gibbs, Hanson, Roberts, 
Gough, Redmund, Napier, 
Ogle and Summers, Church, 
Maudslay Palmer, Fraser and 
Alexander Gordon; and in 
France, Dietz, Omont, Cazalet 
and Pecquer. From 186 1 onwards 
the following are the most important 
invs. of steam road vehicles: 1861, 
W. O. Carrot, of Leeds; 1862, 
Yarrow and Hilditch, of Green- 
wich; 1862, Tangye, of Bir- 
mingham; 1862, A. Patterson; 
1867, H. P. Holt; 1867, R. W. 
Thomson; 1868, R. E. B. 
Crompton; 1868, Catley and 
Ayres, of York; 1869, L. J. 
Todd, of Leith; J. H. Knight, 
of Farnham, Surrey; 1868, 
Joseph Ravel (Fr) ; 1869, 
Andrew Nairn, of Leith; 1874, 
Charles Randolph; H. A. C. 
Mackenzie, of Diss, Norfolk; 
1877, A. B. Blackburn (first use 
of liquid fuel); 1880, Sir 
Thomas Parkyn and A. H. 
Bateman; 1881, J. C. Inshaw; 
1882, Copeland (U.S.), of 
Philadelphia (steam tricycle); 
1873, Amedee Bollee, Snr., 
des. and const. 12-seat 
steam road vehicle (also des. 



ROCKET 

steam road vehicles in 1878, 
1879, 1880 and 1 881). 1 883-97, 
Count Albert De Dion, in 
partnership with Georges 
Bouton and Charles Trepar- 
doux, made successful steam 
tricycles and road coaches. 
1876, 1887, 1889, 1890, 1897, 
1902, 1905, Leon Serpollet (Fr) 
( 1 858-1 907) des. and built light 
steam cycles and carriages, 
winning the land speed record 
in 1902, at 75.06 m.p.h. 1894, 
1897, Georges Scott, of Eper- 
nay (Fr), des. steam wagonette, 
steam omnibus and train of 
road vehicles. 1899. First steam 
motor-car des. by Stanley Bro- 
thers, of Newton, Massachu- 
setts. 1900. First steam car by 
White Brothers, of Cleveland, 
Ohio. 1903. First Doble steam 
car appeared. (Production of 
imp. models continued until 
1932; when car achieved 
speed of 95 m.p.h.) (See also 
Traction-engine, steam.) 
Rocket 1232. First use in war 
by Chinese against Mongols 
at sieges of Kiai-fung-fu and 
Ho-yang. 1258. Rockets men- 
tioned at Cologne. 1282. "Fly- 
ing-fire-arrow" inv. by Wei 
Chiang (Ch). 1379. Used by 
Paduans at battle of Chiozza 
and by Venetians the following 
year. 1688. Germans experi- 
ment with rockets weighing 
1 cwt. 1802. Col. William 
Congreve des. life-saving rocket. 
1806. Boulogne bombarded 
with flame-carrying rockets 
fired from ships. 1807. Rockets 
used at Copenhagen; 1809, 
in the Basque Roads; 18 10. 
Life-saving rocket inv. Henry 
Trengrouse, of Helston, Corn- 
wall. (See below.) 181 2, at 



ROCKET-PROPELLED GAR 



*55 



ROPE-MAKING MACHINE 



battle of Blankenberg; and 
1813, at Leipsig. 1914-18. Le 
Prieur (Fr) des. rocket which 
could be fired from aircraft. 
1934. Germans successfully 
fired rockets to height of i| 
miles. 1939 (Oct.). German 
rocket climbed to height of 
5 miles with complete stability. 
{Des. by team led by von Braun 
at Peenemiinde.) 1943 (Oct.). 
First "V-2" rocket rose beyond 
earth's atmosphere and 
travelled 125 miles on a fuel of 
alcohol, liquid oxygen and 
hydrogen peroxide. 1944 (Sept. 
8). First "V-2" rockets fell at 
Chiswick and Epping, London. 
*957 (Oct. -Nov.). Russian 
"sputniks" I and II successfully 
placed in orbit by rockets. 1959 
(Sept. 13). First rocket to land 
on Moon — Russian "Lunikll." 
(See Aircraft, Rocket- 
propelled.) 

Rocket-propelled Gar 1928. 
First made by Franz Opel 
(Ger) to des. of Max Valier 
(Ger). 1930. Valier started 
using liquid fuel of petrol and 
oxygen. 

Rocket, Life-saving 1791. 
Lieut. John Bell propelled 8-in. 
shell with chain attached. 1802. 
William Congreve des. life- 
saving rocket. 1807. Capt. 
G. W. Manby inv. mortar- 
type rocket, and prod, the 
mortar-rocket. 1823. Hase, of 
Saxthorp, Norfolk, inv. skeleton 
rope-reel for rocket line. 1810. 
Henry Trengrouse, of Helston, 
Cornwall, inv. life-saving rocket 
used at wreck of H.M.S. 
Anson. 

ROEBUCK, Dr. John 
(1718-94), of Sheffield. 1746. 
Inv. lead-chamber process 



for making sulphuric acid 
commercially. 

Roller, Agricultural 1841. 
Inv. by William Grosskill for 
rolling grass. (He also inv. 
clod-crushing roller.) 
Roller, Steam (road) 1738. 
Polonceau (Fr) inv. road-roller 
filled with water or crushed 
stone. 1 787. Hand-rammers dis- 
placed by Cessart's (Fr) inv. of 
iron hand- or horse-drawn 
roller. 1861. Lemoine (Fr) inv. 
steam road-roller. 1862. Bal- 
laison (Fr) inv. steam road- 
roller with two equally sized 
rollers. 1863. Clark and Butler 
des. three-wheeled road-roller. 
1867. Aveling, of Maidstone, 
Kent, des. steam road-roller. 
1902. First internal-combus- 
tion-engined road-roller used in 
England. 

Rolling-stock, Railway 1869. 
First articulated vehicle desc. by 
T. Claxton-Fidler. 
Rolls, Metal 1784. Inv. by 
Cort. (See Iron.) 
RftNTGEN, Wilhelm Kon- 
rad (Ger) (1845-1923) 1895. 
Disc. X-rays. 

Roof, Mansard c. 1650 Inv. 
by Francois Mansard (Fr) 
(1598-1666). 

Roof, Motor-car Sliding 
1929. Inv. by T. P. Colledge. 
Rope, 1792. Flat rope inv. by 
John Carr. 

Rope, Wire 1832. First made. 
1840. Robert Sterling Newell 
takes out first pat. for making 
wire rope. 

Rope-making Machine Dev. 
by Leonardo da Vinci (1452— 

I 5 I 9)- J 754- P at - by Richard 
Marsh. 1783. Inv. by Sylvester. 
1792. Pat. by Rev. Edmund 
Cartwright. 



ROPEWAY, AERIAL 



I56 



RUHMKORFF 



Ropeway, Aerial 1441. First 
on record built at Danzig by 
Adam Wybe, of Hallingen, 
Holland. 1857. Henry Robin- 
son, of Seattle, Yorkshire, 
granted first U.K. patent for 
aerial ropeway. 1868. John 
Buddie intro. endless-rope mine 
haulage into U.K. Charles 
Hodgson inv. endless aerial 
ropeway system, and later the 
fixed carrying-rope system imp. 
in 1873 by Adolf Bleichert 
(Ger). (Later imp. by Theodor 
Otto, W. T. H. Garrington, 
Kroner and Theobald Obach.) 
(See also Power transmission 
and Telpherage.) 
Rosetta Stone 1799. Disc. 
(inscriptions on rosetta stone 
deciphered by Dr. Thomas 
Young, of Taunton, Somerset. 
Rosin 19 1 2. First combined 
with synthetic resins (q.v.) by 
K. Albert. 

Rotifers (animaculae) First 
disc, by Antonie van Leeuwen- 
hoek (Hoi) (1632-1723). 
ROUTH, E. J. (1831-1907) 
1878. Prop, theory of automatic 
control equations. 
Rubber 1730. Rubber (caou- 
chouc) intro. England from 
Brazil. 1736. Charles M. de la 
Condamine (Fr) intro. rubber 
into Europe (sic). 1770. "India- 
rubber" first mentioned for 
erasing pencil-marks by Joseph 
Priestiey. 1820. Mastication of 
rubber disc, by Thomas Han- 
cock. 1839. Vulcanization pro- 
cess inv. by Charles Goodrich, 
of New Haven, N.Y. 1843. 
Word "Vulcanization" coined 
by Thomas Hancock's friend 
Brockedon. Goloshes made 
from rubber. 1855. First 
attempt to cultivate rubber 



plant in East and West Indies. 
c. 1870. Rubber came into 
common use as electrical insula- 
tor. 1873. First rubber plant 
seedlings sent from Brazil to 
Calcutta, and thence to Ceylon, 
Singapore and Java. 1877. 
2,000 seedlings brought to Kew 
Gardens, London, and sent 
thence to British Guiana, Hon- 
duras and the West Indies. 
1894. Rubber production 
abroad effectively started. 
Rubber, Synthetic i860. 
C. G. Williams (1829-1910) 
prod, isoprene. 1910. Prof. 
Harris disc, that sodium caused 
the polymerisation of butadeine 
(Pat. 191 1 by Bayer and Co.). 
Dr. F. E. Matthew indepen- 
dently made the same 
discovery the same year. 
1 9 10. S. V. Lebeder (Rus) 
makes synthetic rubber from 
butadeine. 1924. J. C. 
Patrick (U.S.) makes dev. 
in synthetic rubber prod, from 
ethylene dichloride and sul- 
phide of potassium. 1930. 
"Buna" synthetic rubber (from 
BUtadeine and NAtron) manu- 
factured in Germany. 1931. 
Neoprene synthetic rubber 
intro. 1940. Neoprene made 
from acetylene gas in U.S., and 
in U.K. from i960. W. A. 
Tilden (U.S.) (1842-1926) disc. 
isoprene could be turned into 
synthetic rubber. 
Rubidium (element) 1861. 
Disc, by R. W. Bunsen (1811- 

99)- 

RUHMKORFF, Heinrich 
Daniel (Ger) (1803-77) 1851. 
Dev. transformer inv. by M. 
Faraday and J. Henry into the 
induction-coil. (Grafton Page 



RULE, SLIDE 



157 



SATURN, MOONS OF 



(U.S.) built an induction-coil in 
1838.) (See also Coil, induction.) 
Role, Slide Circular slide rule 
inv. William Oughtred (1575- 
1660). 

Rule, Log Slide Inv. English 
Mathematician William 
Oughtred. 

Ruler a.d. 79. Bronze ruler 
found at Pompeii. 1 723. Parallel 
ruler inv. by Byon. 1 77 1 . Rolling 
ruler inv. by Eckhardt. 
Ruling Machine 1782. Inv. by 
a Dutchman living in London. 
c. 1803. Imp. by Woodmason, 
Payne, and Brown. 



Rum 1530. First prod, in 

Jamaica. 

RUMFORD, Count (See 

Thompson, Benjamin.) 
Ruthenium (element) 1845. 
Disc, by Klaus. 

RUTHERFORD, Sir (later 
Lord) Ernest (1871-1937) 
(Knighted, 19 14 and created a 
baron, 1931; b. Nelson, New 
Zealand) Pioneered nuclear 
physics with Frederick Soddy 
and others. 

RYDBERG (Swed) Disc, recip- 
rocal formula for spectroscopic 
lines of wave-length series. 



S 



SABINE, Wallace Clement 

(U.S.) (1868-19 1 9) c - 1900. 
Pioneered investigations into 
the acoustics of theatres, 
lecture-rooms, etc. 
Saiger (metallurgical process) 
1 2 th cent. Inv. by a Venetian. 
1 6th cent. Process in common 
use. 

SALINAS, Franciscus (Sp) 
(1513-90) 1577. Pioneered the 
development of German organ- 
builder Arnolt Schlick's musical 
mean-tone system. 
Salicylic Acid 1899. First syn- 
thesized, and intro. as aspirin. 
Salk Anti-polio Vaccine 
1952. First dev. by Dr. Jonas 
Salk (U.S.). 1955. First mass 
use of his vaccine. 



SALLO,Denysde (Fr) (1626- 
69) 1665. Pub. the first scientific 
"review" — Journal de savants. 
Salvarsan ("606") 1909. Disc. 
as a remedy for syphilis by Paul 
Ehrlich (1854-19 19), of Frank- 
furt. 1912. Ehrlich synthesized 
neo-salvarsan and intro. its use. 
Samarium (element) 1879. 
Disc, by Lecoq de Boisbaudran 
(Fr). 

Sand-blast 1871. Compressed- 
air sand-blast inv. by B. C. 
Tilghman (U.S.). 
Sand, Pressing Flowers in 
1633. Process disc. 
Sarrusophone (musical 
instrument) 1856. Inv. by Rene- 
Louis Gautrot, of Paris. 
Saturn, Moons of 1659. First 



SAUSSURE 



I 5 8 



SAW, HAND 



moon disc, by G. Huygens 
(1629-95). Eighth moon disc. 
by William Russel and W. G. 
Bond. 1850. W. C. Bond and 
William Rutter Dawes (1799- 
1868) disc. Saturn's "crepe 
ring." 

SAUSSURE, Horace-Bene- 
dict de (Fr) (1740-99) 1783. 
Inv. the hair hygrometer. 
SAUSSURE, Nicholas Theo 
de(Fr) (1 767-1845) 1804. Disc. 
that saltpetre (potassium 
nitrate) promoted the growth of 
many plants and cereals. 
SAUVEUR, Joseph (Fr) 
( 1653-1716) Devised method of 
sound frequency measurement 
and coined the words "noeud" 
("node") and "ventre" 
("belly") as applied to sound- 
waves. 

SAVART, Felix (Fr) (1791- 
1841) c. 1820. Determined the 
limits of audibility of the normal 
human ear, making use of a 
siren and cog-wheel of his own 
invention. 

SAVERY, Thomas (1650- 
1715) Pioneered early dev. of 
the steam-engine. 1698. Pat. 
1 h.p. engine known as the 
"Miners' Friend." 1712. In- 
stalled such an engine at 
Camden House, Kensington, 
London. 

Saw, Band 1808. Ineffectual 
steel band saw pat . by William 
Newbury. 1843. ^ m P- by J. G. 
Bodmer. 1846. First practical 
band-saw dev. by Madame 
Crepin (Fr). 1846. Band saw 
pat. by Exall, of Reading. 1849. 
Re-inv. by Lemuel Hedge 
(U.S.). 1855. First practical 
band saw inv. in France by 
Perrin. (Band-saws were also 



pat. by M. I. Brunei and R. 
Stephenson.) 

Saw, Circular 1777. First 
circular saw inv. by S. Miller. 
1790. Inv. (intro. into England) 
by Walter Taylor, Southamp- 
ton. 1791-93. Inv. by Gen. Sir 
Samuel Brunswick, of Maine, 
U.S. 1804. Circular saw inv. 
by Trotter and Sir Samuel 
Bentham. 1807. M. I. Brunei 
inv. and used circular saws of 
many sections. i8i4.Cummins 
pat. circular saw. 1824. ^ m P- 
wide teeth inv. Robert Eastman. 
1824. George Smart, of West- 
minster, used first circular saw 
in London, c. 1824. Bentham 
inv. the slotted bench, guide, 
and fence. 1824. Multiple cir- 
cular saws inv. by Sayers and 
Greenwood. 1840. First in- 
serted-tooth circular saw inv. 
1854. Diamond set saw inv. by 
Jaquin, of Paris (diam. 2 m. set 
with 1 50 commercial diamonds, 
4 cm. apart. 1863. Diamond- 
set saw first Pat. in U.S. 
Saw, Fret 1866. Vibrating fret- 
saw inv. by James Kennan, of 
Dublin. 

Saw, Hand Pre-7th cent. B.C. 
Assyrians used iron saws. Paint- 
ings of saws found at Hercu- 
laneum. Palladius desc. stiff- 
backed hand saws. Cicero, in 
an oration of Cluentius men- 
tions wood saws. Egyptian 
saws found in Thebes tombs, 
with paintings of such saws in 
use. 900 b.c. Raked-teeth saws 
intro. c. 1490 Samuel Miller 
inv. and pat. in Eng. a hand- 
frame saw. Leonardo da Vinci 
devised a hand-saw for marble- 
cutting. (Saws mentioned in 
the Bible: II Samuel, xii-31; 



SAWING MACHINE, VENEER 



159 



SCREW, WOOD 



I Kings, vii-9; Isiah, x-15; and 
Hebrews, xi-37.) 
Sawing Machine, Veneer 
1824. Inv. by Alexander Craig 
(Scot). 

Saw-mill 4th cent. Ausonius 
desc. water-driven saw-mill on 
River Moselle used for cutting 
marble. Set up in the following 
places: 1322, at Augsberg; 
1420, Madiera; 1427, Breslau; 
1490, Erfurt; 1530, in Norway; 
1540, Holstein; and Joachims- 
thal; 1555, Lyons; 1556, Saar- 
dam, Holland. 1 7th cent. Intro. 
into England, the first ones 
being destroyed by sawyers in 
1663. 

Saw, Veneer 1805. Pat. by 
Marc Isamb and Brunei. 
SAX, Adolph 1840. Inv. the 
saxophone. 
Scales (See Balance.) 
Scandium (element) 1869. 
Predicted by Mendeleev. 1879. 
Disc, by L. F. Nilson (Swed). 
SCHEELE, Carl Wilhelm 
(Ger) (1742-86) Outstanding 
chemist of 18th cent. Disc. 
chlorine, glycerine, milk-sugar, 
and hydrofluoric, lactic, oxalic, 
citric, tartaric, uric, and arsenic 
acids ; together with many other 
compounds. 1783. With Tor- 
bern Bergman (1735-84) disc. 
molybdenum. 

SGHEINER, Christopher 
( 1 575-1 650) 161 1. One of the 
first to obs. sunspots through a 
telescope; Johannes Fabricus 
having seen them the previous 
year. 

SGHLICK, Arnolt (Ger) 
(c. 1 460-1 5 1 7) 1511 . Proposed 
the mean-tone musical system. 
SCHMIDT, Wilhelm (Ger) 
(1858- 1 924) 1900. Inv. the 
locomotive superheater. 



SCHftNBEIN, C. F. (Swit) 

( 1 799-1 863) 1840. Disc, ozone. 
1846. Disc, gun-cotton. 
Schrodinger Equation 
(mathematics) 1926. Evolved 
by Edwin Schrodinger, of 
Vienna. 

SGHCTZENBERGER, Paul 
(Ger) (1829-97) 1865. Inv. 
acetate-rayon called "Cel- 
anese," which was first prod. 
commercially in 1904. 
SCHWABE, Heinrich 
Samuel (Ger) (1 789-1875) 
1 85 1. Disc, periodicy of sun- 
spot maxima. 

SCHWANHARDT, George 
(Ger) (1601-67) Pioneered 
technique of jewel-cutting to 
glassware. 

SCHWEIGGER, Johann 
Salomo Christoph (Ger) 
(1779-1857) 1820. Increased 
effect of current in Oersted's 
experimental "ampmeter" by 
coiling wire round a magne- 
tized needle. (Effect further 
imp. by Leopoldo Nobili (It).) 
Scissors, Mayo (surgical 
instrument) Inv. by Brothers 
William James (1861-1939) 
and Charles Horace (1865- 
1939) Mayo curved surgical 
scissors inv. by Marc Antoine 
Louis, a Parisian surgeon. 
Scott's Dressing (surgical) 
Inv. John Scott (1799-1846). 
Scraper, Earth 1783. Inv. 
William Driver (pat. No. 1366). 
Screw Inv. credited to Archi- 
medes of Syracuse (c. 287-212 

B.C.). 

Screw, Metal c. 1405. Men- 
tioned by Kyeser in his Bella- 
fortis. 1480. Found in clock 
const, and key-smithing. 
Screw, Wood 1845. Wood- 
screw-making machine pat. by 



SCREW-CUTTING MACHINE 



160 



SEMI-CONDUCTORS 



Japy (Fr). Japy's pat. was imp. 
by T. J. Sloan, of New York 
and later employed by William 
Angel, of Providence, Rhode 
Island. Sloan's pat. later sold to 
Nettlefold, of England. 
Screw-cutting (making) 
Machine Leonardo da Vinci 
(1452-15 1 9) used two male 
threads as masters to cut a 
thread, and explained how a 
thread could be varied in pitch 
by gear ratio variation. 1798. 
David Wilkinson (U.S.) inv. 
nut and bolt making machine. 
1836. Die-holder and dies inv. 
James Tracey, of Pembroke, 
Wales. Screw-cutter inv. N. S. 
Heineken, of Sidmouth. 1842. 
Nut and bolt finishing machine 
inv. Micah Rugg (U.S.). 1861. 
Spencer (U.S.) inv. automatic 
"brain-wheel" screw-cutting 
machine. 1879. G. W. Parker 
inv. first British automatic 
screw-making machine. 1895. 
Multi-spindle lathe inv. in U.S. 
1900. Multi-spindle lathe inv. 
in Sweden. 

Screw-nail 1858. Inv. Josiah 
Cowan. 

Screw-rivet 1866. Inv. Alfred 
Christmas Andrews. 
Screw-thread 1841. Standard 
thread inv. by Sir Joseph Whit- 
worth, c. i860. Whitworth's 
standard thread with a 55 
angle became standardized in 
England. 1864. Sellers, presi- 
dent of the Franklin Institute, 
inv. the Sellers American stan- 
dard thread, which in 1868 
was officially adopted in the 
U.S. i873.Delisle,of Carlsruhe, 
intro. metric thread system. 
Scythe 1791. Abraham Hill 
inv. steel-edged, iron-backed 
scythe. 1 795. Arnold Wilde inv. 



scythes, sickles and hay-knives 
of fused iron with steel edges 
welded thereon. 
SECCHI, Angelo (It) (1818- 
78) With H. C. Vogel, founded 
the science of stellar spectro- 
scopy. 

SEEBECK, Thomas Johann 
(Ger) ( 1 770-1 831) 1823. -Dw*. 
the thermo-electric couple. (See 
PeltierJ.C.A.) 
SEABORG, Glen T. (U.S.) 
1952-53. With A. G. Liorso 
(U.S.) disc, the elements Berk- 
elium, Californium, Einstein- 
ium, Fermium and Mendel- 
evium. 

Secretin (anatomy) 1902. Disc. 
by William Maddock Bayliss 
( 1 860-1 924) (and Starling). 
Sedative Powder 1 732. Dover 
sedative powder inv. by Capt. 
Thomas Dover, R.N. (1660- 
1742), of Warwick. 
SEGUIN, Marc R.N. (Fr) 
( 1 8 1 2- 1 880) Pioneered early 
locomotive des. and const, in 
France. 

Selenium (element) 181 7. 
Disc, in riolite by J. J. Berzelius. 
Selenium Cell 1873. Electrical 
resistance of selenium affected 
by light disc, by Willoughby 
Smith. 1875. Selenium cell for 
conversion of light into elec- 
tricity dev. by G. R. Carey. (See 
also Photo-electric cell.) 1880. 
Graham Bell inv. "photo- 
phone." 

Self-starter (automobile) 
1 91 2. A. H. Midgley/>a*. elec- 
tric self-starter with gear-ring 
on engine flywheel. 191 2. V. 
Bendix inv. automatic gear- 
coupling device for self-starters. 
Semi-conductors (transistors) 
1834. Munk (Munck) Rosen- 
schold disc, asymmetric elec- 



SEPARATORS 



161 



SEWING-MACHINE 



trical conduction in some solids. 
1874. F. Braun re-disc. Rosen- 
schold's findings when examin- 
ing metal rectifiers. Semi-con- 
ductivity of certain sulphides 
demonstrated. igoG.Semi-con- 
ductors first used. Garbur- 
endum radio detector inv. by 
Henry Harrison Dunswoody 
(U.S.) ( 1 842-1 940). "Cat- 
whisker" radio detector inv. by 
Greenleaf Whittier Pickard 
(U.S.) (b. 1877). 191 1. Oscil- 
lating diodes similar to "tunnel 
diodes," began to be used. 191 5. 
Rectifying action of germanium 
disc, by Carl Axel Frederick 
Benedicks (Swed). 1924. Losser 
disc, that many crystals rectified 
electric current. 1925. Details 
pub. of what appears to be an 
n.p.n. transistor in Canada. 
1930. R. S. Ohl experiments 
with silicon rectifiers. 1942. 
High-back-voltage germanium 
rectification disc, by Seymour 
Benzer at Purdue University, 
but not published for two years 
on account of the war. 1948. 
First public announcement of 
inv. of germanium rectifiers. 
Separators (See Centrifuges.) 
Serpent (musical instrument) 
Inv. by Edme Guillaume, ol 
Auxerre, France, as a modified 
German "Grosszinc." 
SERPOLLET, Leon (Fr) 
Pioneer of steam road vehicles 
of late 19th cent, in France. 
1887-88. Inv. steam tricycle. 
1902. One of his vehicles held 
world speed record of 75.06 
m.p.h. 1903. Gardner-Serpollet 
steam car intro. into England. 
SENARMONT, Henri 
Hureau de (Fr) (1808-62) 
Mineralogist who, in 1847, 
demonstrated that the thermal 



conductivity of anistropic 
crystals depends on direction of 
heat-flow. 

SENEFELDER, Alois (1771- 
1834) 1796. Disc, art of litho- 
graphy. 

SerunvAnti-diphtheria 1 890. 
Anti-toxin disc. Emil von 
Behring (Ger) (1854-19 17). 
Serum inv. by Emile Rouse (Fr) 
( I 853-i933). (See also Bacilli.) 
SER VITUS, Miguel (Sp) 

(i5 ir -53) J 553- Pub - first 
clear account of the pulmonary 
circulation of the blood. 1555. 
His theory seconded by Realdo 
Columbo of Padua (1516-59). 
(Servitus was burned at the 
stake.) 

Servo-control 1867. John 
McFarlane Gray (1832-93) des. 
steam steering-gear for S.S. 
Great Eastern; probably the 
first application of the hydro- 
servo, or "follow-up" principle. 
1870. A. B. Brown, of Edin- 
burgh, pat. servo-motor for 
hydraulic steering by steam, 
air, or oil. 1872. Joseph Farcot 
(Fr) inv. feedback linkage for 
ship steering-gear. 1878. E. J. 
Routh ( 1 831-1907) provided 
equations for solving the gen- 
eral problem of auto-control 
devices. 1882. P. W. Willans, 
of Rugby, inv. two-stage sol- 
enoid-operated valve to steam- 
electric generator. 1884. Proell 
(Ger) inv. practical hydro-relay 
governor. 

Sewing-machine. 1790. 
Thomas Saint took out first 
Eng. pat. for sewing-machine 
for making clogs and shoes. It 
was unsuccessful. 1804. John 
Duncan, of Glasgow, pat . sewing 
machine. 1829. French tailor 
Barth61emy Thimmonier, of 



SEXTANT 

Amplepuis, Rhone, inv. chain- 
stitch sewing-machine (unsuc- 
cessful) ; pat. in Fr. 1830. 1834. 
Walter Hunt (inv. of Safety-pin) 
inv. a sewing-machine. 1845. 
Elias Howe (U.S.) inv. lock- 
stitch machine in which needle 
moved horizontally and cloth 
vertically, with an eye at 
needle-point. 1845. Barthelemy 
pat. in Fr. two improvements. 
1846. William F. Thomas pat. 
Howe's inv. in Eng. 1850. 
Various pats, by Welhu and 
Wilson, Grove and Baker, and 
Gaillehaut. 1850. Isaac Merrit 
Singer of Pittstown, N.Y., inv. 
domestic lockstitch sewing- 
machine with eye at point of 
needle which moved vertically. 
Also added "yielding presser- 
foot" to hold cloth and a 
continuous wheel feed, to- 
gether with a vibrating shuttle. 

1 85 1. Thimmonier's machine 
shown at Great Exhibition, 
London, where it was ignored. 

1852. Otis Avery pats, sewing- 
machine. 1854. Sewing-machine 
pats, by Journau, Leblond, 
Goodwin, and Hurtu and 
Hautin. 1859. George Heseltine 
and William Jackson pat. 
sewing-machines, i860. Pats. 
of George Wright (two-needle 
lockstitch), Elias Howe, John 
Wheeler, Allen Wilson, and 
James Gibb (of Wilcox and 
Gibbs)— all U.S., pooled, i860. 
S. Chatwood, of Liverpool, inv. 
"improved" sewing-machine. 
1865. Sewing-machine which 
could sew, tack, hem, fell, 
gather, cord, quilt and braid, 
inv. by Wright and Mann. 
(Named "Excelsior.") 1865. 
Button-holing added to sewing- 
machine's accomplishments. 



162 ship 

1865. Newton inv. improved 
machine. 

Sextant 1550. Inv. by Tycho 
Brahe (1546-1601). 1699. imp. 
Shaduf (counterbalanced 
baler) c. 2000 B.C. Represented 
on an Akkadian seal. c. 1400 
B.C. In use in Egypt for irriga- 
tion purposes. 

Shaping-Machine 1836. James 
Naysmyth (1808-90) inv. shap- 
ing-machine as distinct from 
M. I. Brunei's ofc. 1805, which 
was used at Portsmouth Dock- 
yard for shaping ships' blocks. 
Shield, Tunnelling 1890. Inv. 
and intro. by J. H. Greathead. 
(M. I. Brunei also inv. a three- 
stage rectangular tunnelling 
shield. 

SHILLIBEER, George 1829. 
Des. London's first horse-bus 
which started to run on July 4, 
and carried 22 passengers, using 
three horses. (See Omnibus, 
Horse.) 

Ship Pre-3000 B.C. Sailing 
ships in use. a.d. 370. Man- 
powered paddle-ship probably 
inv. by the unknown author of 
De Rebus Bellicus. 1436. Ox- 
powered ship with three sets of 
paddles inv. c. 1490. Leonardo 
da Vinci desc. paddle-driven 
ship. c. 1500. Descharges, of 
Brest, inv. portholes. 1543. 
Blasgo de Garay (Sp) des. man- 
powered paddle-ship. 1558. 
Julius Scaliger desc. another 
similarly powered ship. 1588. 
Augustin Ramelli desc. man- 
powered paddle-ship. 1595. 
Pieter J. Livorn, Hoorn, (Hoi), 
inv. shallow -draught slender, 
three-masted "fluitschip." 1597. 
Roger Bacon desc. man-powered 
paddle-ship. 1618. David 
Ramsey and Thomas Wild- 



SHIP 163 

goose pat. a steam-driven 
ship. 1661. The Marquis 
of Worcester pat. ship with 
current-driven paddle-wheels 
which wound the vessel along a 
rope fixed to land. 1661. Too- 
good and Hayes pat. vessel 
propelled by sucking in water 
at the bow and forcing it out 
at the stern. 1664. Sir William 
Petty inv. double-bottomed ship 
which sailed from Liverpool to 
Holyhead and back in July. 
1682. Horse-driven paddle-ship 
used at Chatham. 1690. Denis 
Papin (Fr) (1647-17 12) des. 
ship powered by a gunpowder 
engine. 1696. Shipbuilding first 
made a science by Hoste. 1 702. 
Capt. Thomas Savery (1650- 
1715) proposed a ship driven 
by steam. 1707. Papin sug- 
gested a ship driven by steam. 
1709. Conrad used wind-force 
to mechanically propel a ship. 
1730. Dr. John Allen inv. a 
mechanically propelled ship. 
1737. Jonathan Hills des. first 
steamship. 1760. William 
Henry (U.S.) tried a steam 
launch on the Conegosta River. 
1770 (summer). Compte d' 
Auxiren and Compte Follenay 
built a steamship which sank 
in the River Seine. 1773. Mail- 
lard inv. a clockwork-driven 
ship. 1775. Steamship with 
engine having 8 in. cylinder 
unsuccessfully tried on River 
Seine. 1775. Fitch and Henry 
(U.S.) des. steamship. 1777. 
Compte d' Auxiren built a ship 
with "fire-driven wheels" and 
tried it on River Danube, racing 
for 1,000 livres against seven 
new boats inv. by a Venetian. 
1783. Marquis Jouffroy 
d'Abbans des. the 120 ton 



SHIP 



paddle ship Pyroscaphe and 
ascended the River Seine for 15 
minutes. 1783. Fitch (U.S.) 
sailed steamship on Delaware 
River, and Rumsey, of Virginia, 
one on the Potomac River. 
1785. Oliver Evans (U.S.) des. 
and built amphibian which 
plied on Schuyllkill River. 1 787. 
John Wilkinson, of Bradley 
Ironworks, Shropshire, des. and 
built 70 ft. canal-boat of iron, 
Trial, launching it on the 
River Severn at Willey Wharf. 
1787. Experiments made in 
U.S. with steam-pumped water 
from bow to stern as propul- 
sion. 1797. Harriot inv. ship 
driven by falling water. 1801. 
Symington (Scot) des. and 
builds steamship Charlotte Dun- 
das. 1 80 1. Tresmere inv. a 
weight-driven ship. 1802. 
Patrick Miller equips two 
paddle-boats with Symington's 
engines. 1807. Robert Fulton 
(U.S.) sailed steamship Cler- 
mont from New York to Albany. 
1 808. 84 ft. iron ship Manchester 
built. Iron ship Alburka des. and 
built for Lander's Niger Ex- 
ploration. John Stevens (U.S.) 
sailed steamship Phoenix from 
New York to Delaware. 1810. 
Joseph Hardy, of Rathmines 
Island inv. paddle ship which 
plied the canal at Portobello 
at 3 m.p.h. 181 2. First suc- 
cessful steamship in Europe 
— Comet built at Glasgow 
by Henry Bell, and started on 
regular service from Glasgow 
to Greenock on the Clyde. 1 8 1 5. 
Jevons, of Liverpool, sailed 
iron-built ship on River Mersey. 
1818. First ocean-going steam- 
ship — Savannah launched (part 
paddle, part sails). 1821. First 



SHOCK-ABSORBERS 



164 



SHOT-CASTING 



iron, ocean-going steamship des. 
with an oscillating-cylinder 
engine by Aaron Manby and 
named after him. (Built by 
Horsley and Co., and sent to 
London, where it was assembled 
before sailing to Paris under 
command of Sir Charles Napier 
(1822).) 1827. Dutch ship 
Curagao made all-steam voyage 
Rotterdam to West Indies. 
1827. Sir William Congreve 
propelled ship by capillary 
attraction of glass plates or 
sponge-wheels instead of 
paddle-wheels. 1829. 74-gun 
ship sheathed in rubber built 
in Tasmania. 1833. Dundonald 
inv. ship propelled by oscil- 
lating mercury. 1833. Royal 
William, built by Samuel 
Cunard at Quebec, crossed 
Adantic in 22 days. 1838. 
Jacobi (sic, Prof. Jevons) des. 
electro-magnetic ship 28 ft. x 
7 ft. which carried 10 persons 
at4m.p.h. onRiverNeva. 1839. 
John and M. V. Ruthven pro- 
pelled a ship by jet on Union 
Canal near Edinburgh. 1844. 
40 ft. long jet-propelled ship 
sailed on River Forth. 1848. 
Llewellyn propelled a ship elec- 
trically on lake near Swansea. 
1849. Ruthven pat. jet-pro- 
pelled ship. 1857. First steel 
ship, the Ma Roberts, built at 
Birkenhead, for Livingston's 
expedition (hull and boiler of 
steel). 1859. First armoured 
ship La Gloire des. by Depuy de 
Lome. 1 860. James Jones Aston, 
of London, des. and launched 
steam-tug Saucy Jack with 14 ft. 
diameter smooth discs instead 
of paddle-wheels, which made 
6 knots per hour on River 
Thames. 1862. Gwynne pat. 



water-jet propelled ship Water 
Witch — a gun-boat. 1864. First 
sea-going steel ship built by 
Samuelson, of Hull, of Bessemer 
steel plates. 1865. Clyde ferry 
vessel equipped by Gwynne. 
1866. Ruthven built 115 ft. 
Nautilus at Blackwall (speed of 
8 knots per hour obtained). 
1877. First oil tanker ship — 
Zoroaster built. 1924. ship with 
rotating vertical cylinder pro- 
pulsion des. and built by A. 
Flettner. 1951 (July). Keel of 
first atom-powered ship Savanna 
laid. 1955 (May). Savanna 
launched. 1962. Savanna made 
maiden voyage. (Will sail for 
3^ years without refuelling.) 
(See also Boat.) 

Shock-absorbers, Motor- 
car 1903. Pneumatic type inv. 
by Maurice Houdaille. 1903. 
Lever type inv. by Truffault. 
1904. "J.M." type inv. by Fur- 
midge. 1909. Hydraulic type 
inv. by Houdaille. 1928. Friction 
type inv. by M. D'Albay. 1933. 
Double-acting, hydraulic type 
pat. by F. G. C. Armstrong. 
Shoddy 181 3. First made into 
felt at Batley, Yorkshire. 
Shorthand (shorthand system 
inv. by Cicero's scribe, Marcus 
Tullius Tiro (106-43 B.C.); 
which was also used by Ennius.) 
1588. Bright's system my. 1682. 
Mason's system inv. but not 
pub. until 1 75 1 by Thomas 
Gurney. John Willis pub. short- 
hand alphabet. 1767. Byrom 
inv. system. 1780. Mavor inv. 
system. 1 786. Taylor inv. system. 
1837. Sir Isaac Pitman inv. 
system. 1888. Gregg system inv. 
Shot-casting c. 1820. Bristol 
plumber Watts inv. gravity lead 
shot casting, using tower of St. 



SHRAPNEL 



165 



SILK, ARTIFICIAL 



Mary Redcliffe church, Bristol. 
Shrapnel (spherical shot) c. 
1750. Bernard Forest de 
Belidor (c. 1 678-1 761) inv. 
"globes of compression." 1 784. 
English Maj. Henry Shrapnel 
( 1 761-1842) inv. first known 
(sic) "spherical shot." 
Shunting-yard, Railway 
1879. Footner inv. first gravity 
shunting-yard at Edge Hill, 
Liverpool. 

Shuttle, Flying 1 733. Inv. John 
Kay (1704-64). 
Sickle c. 6000 B.C. Sickle of this 
date made of bone set with 
flints found during Palestine 
excavations. 

SIEMENS, Ernest Werner 
von (Ger) (1816-92) 1866. 
Intro, so-called dynamo prin- 
ciple in which the magnetic 
field which generates electrical 
current is produced by the 
current itself. 

Sifting Machines (See Bolting 
machines.) 

Signalling, Railway 1834. 
Crossbar and lamp signals first 
used. 1 84 1. Semaphore arm 
inv. by Chappe" (Fr) in 1793 
adopted for railways. 1842. 
First signal telegraph line used 
between Paddington and 
Slough (Paddington to West 
Drayton, 1839). 1844. Time- 
interval "block" system inv. by 
Sir W. F. Cooke and installed 
on the Norfolk Railway, of 
Great Britain. 1844. Wire point 
and signal interlock inv. C. F. 
Whitworth. 1846. First (sic) 
point and signal interlocking at 
Bricklayer's Arms Junction, 
London. 1854. "Block" signal- 
ling system intro. i860. A. 
Chambers, of Bow, London, 
inv. "stops" or "checks" con- 



nected with signal and point 
levers, i860. M. A. F. Menons, 
of Paris inv. heat compensation 
device for signal wires 
Chambers' system of inter- 
locking intro. on North London 
Railway. 1867. John Saxby, of 
Brighton and James Easter- 
brook jointiy inv. spring catch 
system of interlocking. 1875. 
William Sykes inv. "lock-and- 
block" system. 1893. First auto- 
matic signals (Sykes) intro. on 
Liverpool Overhead Railway. 
Silhouette 1 759. Originated 
by fitienne de Silhouette, 
French Minister of Finance. 
Silicon (element) 1810. Disc. 
by J. J. Berzelius (1 779-1848). 
1823. Prepared pure by Berze- 
lius. 

Silicone (resins) 1941. Silicone 
resins made first appearance in 
U.S., after having been pion- 
eered in England by F. Kipping. 
Silk (throwing and winding 
machines) 171 7. Silk throwing 
machine inv. (sic) by John 
Lombe, who actually copied 
design from the Italians and 
erected a silk mill at Derby; the 
first "factory" in England, 
which was des. by M. Crochet 
(Fr). 1775. Silk winding 
machine inv. by Lyons textile 
designer Phillipe de Lasselle, 
of Sessel. 1776. Silk winding 
machine inv. by civil engineer 
Leture, of Lille. 1795. Silk 
winding machine inv. by Biard, 
of Rouen. 

Silk, Artificial 1664. Dr. 
Robert Hooke (1 635-1 703) put 
forward ideas for production of 
artificial silk. 1734. Rene de 
Reaumur (Fr) (1 683-1 757) 
suggested prod, of artificial silk 
from gums and resins. 1855. 



SILVER 



166 



SMELTING, METAL 



Georges Audemars (Swit) took 
out first pat. for prod, of artificial 
silk. 1884. Count Hilaire de 
Chardonnet (Fr) (1 839-1 924) 
pat. prod, of artificial silk. 1892. 
Viscose process pat. by Edward 
Bevan and Charles Cross. 1899. 
Spinnerets for 1892 process pat. 
Silver c. 4000 B.C. Disc. 1300. 
First silver groschen struck at 
Kuttenberg. 1831. Pattison inv. 
process of de-silverization of 
lead. 1 85 1. Pattison process 
replaced by that of Parkes. 
Silver Peroxide and Sub- 
oxide Disc, by Freidrich 
Wohler(Ger) (1800-82). 
Siphon c. 1450 B.C. Shown in 
use on Ancient Egyptian wall 
paintings. 2nd cent. B.C. Men- 
tioned by Heron, of Alexandria 
in his Spiritalia. 

Siren 18 19. Inv. by Cagniard 
de la Tour (Fr) and later imp. 
by Felix Savart (Fr) . 
Skeleton, Human Fossil 
1823. First one found in the 
loess of the Rhone valley and 
shown to scientists by Aime 
Boue. 1856. Neanderthal skull 
found near Diisseldorf. 1865. 
Human jawbone found at La 
Nuette, Belgium. 1887. Two 
human skeletons found at Spy, 
near Namur, Belgium. 1891. 
Neanderthal human skeleton 
found at Trinil, Java. c. 1895. 
Fragments of 40 human skele- 
tons found in cave at Chou- 
kou-tien, near Pekin by David- 
son Black and Pei (Ch). 191 2. 
Skull found at Piltdown, Sussex 
and later proved to be a fake. 
1933. Human skeleton found 
at Steinheim au de Murr, near 
Stuttgart. 1935. Skull found by 
A. T. Marston in gravel-pit 
near Gravesend, England. (The 



"Swanscombe Skull.") 1947. 
Two human skeletons found at 
Fontechevade, Fr. by Mile. 
Henri-Martin. 1948. Complete 
lower Miocene skull found on 
Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria 
by Mrs. Leakey. 
Skis Rock drawing of late Neo- 
lithic period found in Northern 
Norway showing man on skis. 
Skyscraper Principle enun- 
ciated by Eugene Viollet-le- 
Duc (Fr) (1814-79). 1884. 
William Le Baron Jenney 
(U.S.), of Bedford, Mass., des. 
and const. 10-storey building 
(demolished, 1 931) in Chicago. 
1888. L. S. Buffington (U.S.) 
pat. steel-framed system. 1890. 
First one built in Chicago. 
1896. First steel-frame building 
(a warehouse) built in England 
at West Hartlepool. {See also 
Iron, Structural.) 
Sledge Used in Scandinavia 
in the Mesolithic Age and in 
Ancient Egypt and Mesopo- 
tamia to transport stones and 
timber. 

Slotting Machine (cotter- 
drill) 1856. Inv. by W. P. 
Batho, of Bordesley Ironworks, 
Birmingham. 1861. First used 
by Holtzapffel. 1862. Imp. by 
James Nasmyth. 
Smallpox 569. First heard of 
at the Siege of Mecca. 900. 
First heard of in England. 
SMEATON, John (1724-92) 
1765. Inv. water-wheel-driven 
cylinder-boring machine and 
experimented on models to 
determine the best form of 
water-wheel to give the most 
energy as a prime-mover. 
Smelting, Metal c. 2300 B.C. 
Tuyere smelting furnaces of 
this date found at Telloh, 



SMOKE-JACK 



167 



SOUNDING MACHINE 



which suggest the use of bellows. 
(See also Iron.) 

Smoke-jack 1551. Inv. by 
Jerome Cardanus (Cardan) 
(1501-1575). 

Smoke-prevention 1661. 
John Evelyn proposed methods 
of smoke-prevention from coal 
fires. 1 715. First known exam- 
ple of variable smoke-preven- 
tion damper used in France — 
a pivoted cowl mounted on a 
chimney. 

Soap Late 4th cent. Pliny 
mentioned that he preferred 
German to Gallic soap (made 
of crude natural soda and fats). 
1 1 62-1 23 1. Desc. by Abdal 
Latif (Arab). 1524. First made 
in London (earlier in Bristol). 
171 1. Duty on soap imposed 
in England. 1853. Duty abol- 
ished. 1907. Frank Giffin Carter 
inv. an inlaid soap with inset 
abrasive of marble-flour. 
Soda 1787. Nicholas Leblanc, 
physician to the Duke of 
Orleans inv. process for making 
sulphate of soda from salt. 
(Committed suicide in 1806.) 
181 1. Ammonia-soda process 
evolved by A. J. Fresnel (Fr). 
1825. Leblanc process intro. into 
England by Charles Tennant. 
1838. J. Hemming and H. G. 
Dyer jointly pat. process similar 
to that of E. and A. Solvay 
(1861). 1854. Schlossing and 
Rolland set up works in Paris 
to operate the Hemming-Dyer 
process. 1 86 1 . Ernest and Alfred 
Solval (Bel) file ammonia-soda 
process pats. 1863. Couillet 
builds works to operate Solvay 
process. 1872. Solvay rights 
acquired by Ludwig Mond for 
G.B. 1880. Solvay process 



started in Germany. 1886. Sol- 
vay process started in U.S. 
Soda-water 1820. Chemist 
Charles Cameron, of Glasgow, 
inv. apparatus for producing 
soda-water. (See also Mineral 
waters.) 

Sodium (element) 1736. 
Sodium proved to be distinct 
from potassium by Duhamel 
(Fr). 1807. Disc, by Sir 
Humphry Davy (1778-1829). 
1885. Manufacturing process 
inv. by Hamilton Young Cast- 
ner (U.S.). 1894. New process 
inv. jointly by Carl Kellner 
(Aus) and Cartner U.S.). 
Sodium Hyposulphite 
("Hypo") 1799. Disc, by 
Chaussier (Fr). 

Solar Power 1875. Solar 
power plant with boiler inv. 
Mouchot (Fr). 191 2. Solar 
power plant des. C. V. Boys. 
Solar System 500 B.C. Theory 
of solar system prop, by Pythag- 
oras. (Other theories prop, by 
Ptolemy Claudius (2nd cent. 
a.d.) and Nicholaus Copernicus 
(1473-1543). 

Soldering 2500 B.C. Hard 
soldering used in Ur of the 
Chaldees to join sheet gold. 
1838. Soldering (or "burning") 
of lead with hydrogen desc. 
by Desbassaynes de Riche- 
mond (Fr). 

Sonnet 1024. Musical form inv. 
by Guido d'Arezzio. 
Sound (Sand) Figures 1787. 
Inv. by Chladni, who raised the 
study of sound to a scientific 
level. 

Sounding Machine 1773. 
Capt. C. J. Phillips gave first 
desc. of a deep-sea sounder when 
returning from Spitsbergen. 
1875. Lord Kelvin (William 



SOUND, STEREOPHONIC 



168 



SPECTROSCOPE, X-RAY 



Thomson) (i 824-1 907) inv. 
silver chromate sounder. 
Sound, Stereophonic Repro- 
duction of 1 88 1. Clement 
Ader (Fr) pat. in Germany an 
"improved telephone equip- 
ment for theatres" which was 
used in Paris the same year. 
1925. System imp. by Kapeller. 
Sound, Speed of c. 1700. 
Estimated by Sir Isaac Newton 
at 968 ft. per second; and later 
by Romer ( 1 , 1 72 f.p.s.) ; Cassini 
(1,172 f.p.s.); Gassendi (1,473 
f.p.s.) ; and J.C.F. Sturm (1,435 
f.p.s.). 

Spark Ball-discharger 
(radio) Dev. by Prof. Righi, of 
Bologna. 

Speaking-trumpet 335 B.C. 
Used by Alexander the Great. 
1652. One const, by Saland from 
Athanasius Kircher's descrip- 
tion. 1 6*7 1. Speaking-trumpet 
philosophically explained by 
Sir Samuel Morland ( 1 625-95) . 
See also Megaphone. 
Speaking-tube (telekoupho- 
non) c. 1850. Inv. Francis 
Wishaw, of Adelphi, London. 
Specific Gravity Archimedes 
(c. 287-212 B.C.) made first 
attempt to measure specific 
gravity. 1603. Specific gravity 
of metals first determined by 
Ghetaldi (Arab) ( 1 566- 1627). 
Spectacles 1268. Mentioned 
by Roger Bacon (c. 1210-c. 
1293). 1270. Mentioned by 
Marco Polo as being used at 
Kublai Khan's court and by 
Meissner, who stated that old 
people used them. 1285. Inv. 
by Italian monk Nicholas 
Bullet. 1352. First picture to 
depict spectacles painted by 
Thomasso da Modena. 1430. 
Concave spectacles mentioned 



by Nicholaus of Cusa. 1480. 
St. Jerome (patron saint of the 
Spectaclemakers' Guild) 
painted (using an eyeglass) by 
Dominico Ghirlandajo. 151 7. 
Picture depicting Pope Leo 
X using a concave lens for 
myopia, painted by Raphael. 
1608. Johannes Lippershay 
(Hoi) (d. 1 6 19) credited with 
inv. of spectacles. 1 784. Bifocal 
spectacles inv. by Benjamin 
Franklin ( 1 706-90) . 1 884. 
Cemented bifocal lenses inv. 
1908. Fused bifocal lenses inv. 
1 9 10. One-piece bifocal lenses 
inv. 1840. Rimless spectacles inv. 
Spectro-heliograph 1890. Inv. 
H.A.Deslandres(Fr). 
Spectroscope Sir Isaac New- 
ton ( 1 642-1 727) disc, that 
refraction of light is always 
accompanied by dispersion into 
light of various colours. 1752. 
Thomas Melville (Scot) first 
obs. spectral lines. 1802. W. H. 
Wollaston (1 766-1828) disc. 
dark lines on solar spectrum. 
1 814-17. Joseph von Fraun- 
hofer (Ger) made spectroscope 
and assigned letters to element- 
indicating lines of the spectrum. 
1 86 1. Imp. spectroscope des. by 
R. W. Bunsen and G. R. 
KirchofF. 1865. Lecocq Bois- 
baudran erroneously explained 
spectroscopic phenomena. 
1867. Anders Jonas Angstrom 
(Swed) devised the unit of 
spectral wavelength named 
after him. 1878. J. C. Maxwell 
published his theory of spectro- 
scopy. (Sir David Brewster 
(1781-1868) inv. the lenticular 
spectroscope.) (See also Spec- 
trum analysis.) 
Spectroscope, X-ray Inv. by 



SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 



169 



STARLEY 



Sir William Bragg (1862- 1942) 
and his son. 

Spectrum Analysis 1800. 
Infra-red spectrum disc, by Sir 
William Herschel. 1801. Ultra- 
violet spectrum disc, by J. W. 
Ritter (1 776-1810). 1859. Disc. 
by R. W. Bunsen and G. R. 
Kirchoff. 

Speedometer, Motor-car 
1904. Governor type inv. L. E. 
Cowey. 1909. "Watford" type 
inv. A. E. Rutherford and R. B. 
North. 1 9 10. Magnetic type inv. 
J. K. Stewart. 191 1. W. H. 
Grossmann, of Dresden, inv. 
mechanical speed-indicator 
and recorder. 

Spermatoza (biology) 1679. 
First obs. and depicted by 
Anthony van Leeuwenhoek 
(Hoi) ( 1 632-1 723). 
Sphygmomanometer Use 
intro. by Pierre Carl Potain 
(1825-1901), of Paris. Intro. 
into England by Dr. Clifford 
Albutti (1836-1926), of Cam- 
bridge. (Recording sphygmo- 
manometer, or sphygmograph 
inv. by Dudgeon.) 
Spinet 1440. Square spinet 
first mentioned. 
Spinneret (viscose) 1842. Inv. 
Louis Schwabe, an English 
silk-weaver. 

Spinning, Ring 1828. Inv. by 
John Thorp, of Providence, 
Rhode Island. Post-1850. First 
decisive impact of ring spinning 
on textile industry. 
Spindle "Flyer," (spinning- 
wheel) 1530. Inv. byjohann 
Jurger, of Wattenbuttel, Bruns- 
wick. 

Spinthariscope Inv. by Sir 
William Crookes (1832-19 19). 
Spirit-level 1666. Inv. J. M. 
Thevenot (Fr) ( -1692). 



Splint, "Thomas" (surgery) 
Inv. Hugh Owen Thomas 
(1834-91), of Liverpool. 
Splint, "Long" Inv. Dr. 
Robert Liston ( 1 794-1847) . 
SPODE, Josiah 1880. Perfect- 
ed process of making English 
bone-china (q.v.). 
Spoon 1490 B.C. Earliest men- 
tion of spoons — Old Testament, 
Numbers, vii, 26. 
SPRAGUE, Frank Julian 
1884. Responsible for early dev. 
of the electric motor, particu- 
larly in respect of the street 
tramway car. 

SPRENGEL, Hermann (Ger) 
1865. Inv. the rotary, mercury 
vacuum-pump. 

Springs (mechanics) Philo of 
Byzantium (c. 250 b.c.) sug- 
gested use of bronze springs to 
power catapaults. c. 1665. 
Road-coach springs intro. into 
England. 1805. Semi-elliptical, 
laminated springs pat. by 
Obadiah Elliot. 1816. Atmo- 
spheric (steam) springs pat. by 
George Stephenson and Losh. 
Square, Set 1 100 b.c. In use by 
the masons of Ancient Egypt. 
Staff, Back (surveying instru- 
ment) 1607. Inv. by John Davis, 
of Sandridge, Devon. 
Staining, Microscopic 1885. 
Possibility of staining living 
tissues with methylene blue 
disc, by Ehrlich (Ger). 
Stamp, Postage 1840. Inv. by 
Sir Rowland Hill. 
Star, Double First one disc, by 
Sir William Herschel (1738- 
1822). 

Star, Variable 1596. First one 
("Mira" — omicron Ceti) disc. 
by Fabricius Aquapendente. 
STARLEY, James K. 1885. 
Deo. the direct-steering, free- 



STEARINE 



170 



STEERING-GEAR 



wheel, braked safety bicycle — 
the "Rover." 

Stearine c. 1823. Disc, by 
Michael Eugene Chevreul (Fr) 
( 1 786-1 889), thus founding the 
candle industry. 1825. J. L. 
Gay-Lussac (1 788-1850) 
founded a stearine factory 
which failed in Paris. 1832. 
Chevreul's disc, successfully 
applied by de Milly, who com- 
menced to make candles near 
Barrier de l'Etoile, Paris. Pro- 
cess later imp. by Wilson and 
Tighlmann. (See also Candle.) 
Steel 1665. Robert Hook first 
conducted investigations into 
structure of steel. 1740. Don- 
caster clockmaker Benjamin 
Huntsman inv. process of 
making copper-steel and nickel- 
steel by chemically controlling 
the mixture and re-heating 
it in a reverberatory furnace. 
1750. T. O. Bergmann (Swed) 
realized the importance of 
the carbon content on the 
hardness of steel. 1 851. William 
Kelly (U.S.) built his first con- 
verter; his claims as to the 
method used were, after his 
bankruptcy, made over to Sir 
Henry Bessemer, i860. Sir 
Henry Bessemer (1813-98) inv. 
his tilting converter. 1865. 
Robert Mushett inv. self-hard- 
ening tool-steel. 1875. S. G. 
Thomas and Percy Gilchrist 
eliminate phosphorus from steel 
by intro. limestone fire-bricks. 
1876. Bessemer inv. process for 
making cast-steel. 1882. Sir 
Robert Hadfield inv. man- 
ganese steel. 1884. Tungsten- 
chrome steel prod, in U.S. by 
ElwoodHaynes. (Michael Fara- 
day prod, chrome-steel.) 1889. 
Nickel-steel disc, by James 



Riley, of Glasgow. 1904. Leon 
Guillet experiments with iron 
and chromium to prod, stainless 
steel. 1911. P. Monnartz pat. 
stainless steel. 19 12-14. Austen- 
itic steel inv. by Edward Mauser 
and Benno Strauss (Ger) and 
prod, at Krupp's Works, c. 19 14 
Henry Brearley and Elwood 
Haynes, of Kokomo, Indiana, 
U.S. prod, stainless steel. (Tung- 
sten-chrome ("high-speed") 
steel inv. by F. W. Taylor (U.S.) 
and Maunsel White (U.S.).) 
Henry Le Ghatelier (1850- 
1936) inv. reverberatory gas 
furnace with heated air intake 
to make steel. (Reaumer (Fr) 
first used optical aids to inves- 
tigate structure of steel. Sorby 
first prepared microscope 
specimens of steel to investigate 
its structure.) 

Steel, Continuous Hot-strip 
Rolling of 1892. A steel-mill 
at Teplitz, Bohemia was using 
this method. 1902. Charles W. 
Bray des. a hot-strip rolling- 
mill. 1923. John B. Tytus des. 
an imp. null. 

Steelyard (See Balance.) 
Steering-gear, Motor-car 
1 7 14. Compensated gear inv. 
by Du Quet (Fr). 1772. Four- 
wheel steering wagon inv. by 
William Bailey. 1818. Du 
Quet's gear re-inv. by George 
Lenkensperger, of Munich and 
pat. in England for use on 
horse-drawn vehicles by 
Rudolph Ackermann, whose 
name the modern steering-gear 
bears. 1828. Stub-axles inv. by 
Nathan Gough, of Salford, 
Lancashire. 1838. Four-wheel 
steering re-inv. by Joseph Gibbs 
and A. Chaplin. 1873. L6on 
Boll6e (Fr) inv. two-pivot cam 



STEERING-GEAR, SHIP'S 



171 



STOCKING KNITTING 



steering-gear for his steam road 
coach "L'Obeissante." 1878. 
Jeantaud (Fr) modified the 
"Ackermann" gear to produce 
the Ackermann-Jeantaud gear. 
1 9 14. H. Maries inv. his steer- 
ing-gear. 1921. R. Bishop inv. 
his gear. 1931. "Burman" steer- 
ing-gear inv. by J. G. Douglas. 
Steering-gear, Ship's 1866. 
Hydraulic gear inv. by Clarke 
andEsplen. 1867. J. McFarlane 
Grey des. steam power steering 
for the "Great Eastern." 1877. 
Beaumont pat. steam steering- 
gear. 

Stencil Procopius (d. 560), in 
his Historiae Arcana, records that 
the Emperor Justinius, not 
being able to write, had the 
letters "JUST" cut in holes in 
a thin board to lay upon paper 
to direct his pen. 
STEPHENSON, George 
(1 781-1848) c. 1825. Pioneered 
the dev. of the steam railway 
locomotive, and const, many 
early English railways. 
Stereochromy (water-glass 
painting) Inv. by von Fuchs (d. 
1856). 

Stereochemistry 1848. Ori- 
ginated by Louis Pasteur (Fr) 
(1822-95) during his work on 
tartaric acids. 

Stereometer (liquid measurer) 
1350. Inv. 

Stereographic Projection 
Inv. by Ptolemy ( 1 00-1 61). 
Stereoscope 1838. Inv. by Sir 
Charles Wheatstone (1802-75). 
i860. Compound stereoscope, 
with endless bands of pictures 
inv. by S. Czugajewicz, of Paris. 
Stereotyping Late 17th cent. 
In use in Paris. 1725. Used by 
William Gedd, a Scots gold- 



smith and his son. (Method 
with plaster of paris.) 1728. 
Papiermach6, or wet-mat pro- 
cess inv. by Claude Genoux 
(Fr). (Flong process.) Firmin 
Didot (Fr) (1 764-1 836) imp. 
earlier processes. 1850. Gerard 
John de Witt pat. method of 
casting curved stereo plates on 
cylinders. 

Stethoscope 1761 (?i8i6). 
Wooden tube stethoscope inv. 
and first used for ausculation by 
Ren6 Th£ophile Hyacinthe 
Laennec (1781-1826), of 
Quimper, Brittany. Binaural 
stethoscope inv. and pioneered 
by Dr. Austin Flint (1812- 
1866), of New York. 
STEVIN (STEVINIUS), 
Simon (Hoi) (1 548-1 620) c. 
1585. Proved the law of the 
inclined plane and tested, with 
Jan Cornets de Groot at Delft, 
the truth of Aristotle's proposi- 
tion that the time of fall of a 
body through a given distance 
was inversely proportional to 
its weight. 

Still 1850. Maxwell Miller, of 
Glasgow, inv. imp. still for dis- 
tilling and rectifying spirits. See 
also Distilling. 

Stirrups 853 B.C. Assyrian 
bronze doors of this date show 
flat, board stirrups in use. 
a.d. 100. Big-toe stirrups inv. 
in India. 477. Foot stirrup first 
mentioned in China. 
Stocking Knitting Machine 
1589. Stocking-frame inv. by 
William Lee, of Nottingham- 
shire. 1590. Spring-beard 
needle inv. 1 764. Stocking knit- 
ting machine my. by Nottingham 
weaver. 1847. Latch-needle 
inv. by Matthew Towsend, of 
Leicester, i860. W. E. Newton 



STOKERS, MECHANICAL 



172 



STUART-ACKROYD 



inv. machine to shape heel and 
toe in a continous operation. 
1864. First loom to fully fashion 
stockings inv. by Cotton. 
Stokers, Mechanical 181 6. 
John Gregson inv. mechanical 
coal thrower. 18 16. John I. 
Hawkins and Emerson Dowison 
pat. underfeed stoker. 1819. 
William Brunton inv. revolving 
grate. 1822. Manchester black- 
smith John Stanley inv. sprinkler 
stoker. 1833. Richard Holm 
pat. first practical underfeed 
stoker. 1834. J. G. Bodmer 
(Swit) pat. horizontal, perfor- 
ated cylinder stoker. 1 84 1 . John 
Jukes pat. chain stoker. 1845. 
J. G. Bodmer pat. "drunken 
screw" stoker, i860. Jukes pat. 
imp. mechanical stoker. 1874. 
John West, of Maidstone, Kent, 
pat. mechanical stoker. 1882. 
Babcock and Wilcox installed 
first mechanically stoked water- 
tube boiler at Hamilton Palace 
Colliery. (See also Boilers.) 
STOKES, Sir George Gabriel 
(181 9-1903) Intro, the word 
"fluorescence" in his theoretical 
surveys of the field of lumines- 
cence of fluorspar and quinine 
sulphate. 

Stokes-Adams Syndrome 
(medical) 1827. Disc, by Adams 
and re-disc, by Stokes in 1842. 
STOLZEL, Heinrich (Ger) 
18 1 5. Inv. the musical instru- 
ment now known as the piston- 
horn. 

Stone, Artificial 1850. Joseph 
Gibbs inv. first method of 
making. (See also Concrete, 
cement and re-inforced con- 
crete.) 

Stone-crushing Machine 
1858. First used to prepare 
material for the roads in Central 



Park, New York. (See also 
Steam-roller.) 

STONEY, George Johnson 
(1826-1911) Intro, the term 
"electron." 

Stovaine (drug) 1909. Disc. 
Stratosphere 1 899-1 900. First 
announced as being elevated at 
10 km. over Europe. 
Streptomycin (drug) 1944. 
Disc, by Dr. Selmer A. Waks- 
man (U.S.). 1946. First used in 
U.S. against tuberculosis. 
Streptothridn (drug) 1942. 
Disc, by Dr. Selmer A. Waks- 
man (U.S.). 

Stress, Metal 1847. First 
accurately calculated in framed 
structures. 

Striae (In vacuo) 1 843. First obs. 
String Found in excavations 
at prehistoric site at Silbury 
Hill, Wiltshire. 

STRINGFELLOW, John 
( 1 799~ * 883) Lace-maker, of 
Chard, Somerset. Partner of 
William Samuel Henson ( 1 805- 
1888), with whom he collabor- 
ated in designing the motive 
power for early heavier-than- 
air flying-machines. 
Stroboscope(Phenakistascope) 
1832. Inv. Stampfer and inde- 
pendent inv. by Plateau (as 
Phenakistascope). 1850. Modi- 
fied by Uchatius and called 
' 'heliocinegraph. ' ' 
Strontium (element) 1808. 
Disc, by Sir Humphry Davy. 
STRUTT, John William See 
Lord Rayleigh. 

Strychnia 181 8. Disc, by 
Pelletier and Caventon. 
Strychnine 1951. Synthesized 
by R. B. Woodward, of Boston, 
U.S. 

STUART-ACKROYD, H. 
(1864-192 7) 1890. With C. R. 



■4»r 



STURGEON 



"73 



SULPHAPYRADINE 



Binney pat. first diesel-engine 
design. (See Diesel engine.) 
STURGEON, William ( 1 783- 
1850) 1825. & es ' *™i prod, the 
first electro-magnetic machine. 
STURM, Jacob Carl Franz 
(1803-55) Early worker on 
physical acoustics, who in 1827 
determined the velocity of 
sound at 1,435 ft* P er second 
while working in collaboration 
with Jean-Daniel Golladon. 
Subconscious Mind 1889. 
Disc, and investigated by Sig- 
mund Freud (1856- 1939). 
Submarine c. 1495. One des. 
by Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 
1519). 1598. Cornelius Drebbel 
(Hoi) ( 1 572-1 634) des. and 
const, a submarine propelled by 
rowers in a diving-bell. It was 
demonstrated before King 
James I on River Thames in 
1620. 1775. David Bushnell des. 
and builds submarine Turtle. 
1879. John Holland (Irish/ 
U.S.) inv. submarine completed 
in 1 88 1. Operated by one man, 
it was tried on the Passiac River, 
but sunk. It was, however, 
raised in 1926 and is now in a 
park at Paterson, New Jersey. 
Holland's next effort — Holland, 
was a success and six were 
ordered by the U.S. Navy. 
1885. First British submarine 
launched at Barrow. 1887. Sub- 
marine tried at Southampton, 
England. 1888. Lieut. Isaac 
Perral remained submerged 
in a submarine for one hour 
in Cadiz harbour. 1892. Sub- 
marine Sapolio crossed Atlantic 
Ocean in 68 days, arriving at 
Hudva. 

Submarine Gable See Cable, 
submarine. 
Sugar 325 B.C. First mention of 



sugar in Western India by 
Nearchus. a.d. 286. First men- 
tion of sugar in China. 1558. 
Jean de Lery, calvanist minister 
at Fort Coligny, Rio de Janiero, 
mentions sugar. Sugar disc, in 
urine by Dr. Thomas Wallis 
(1621-75), of Oxford. 1900. 
Sugar, fructose, galactose, sor- 
bose and mannose synthesized 
by Fischer. 

Sugar-beet 1747. A. S. Mar- 
graaf disc, that beet was rich in 
sugar. 1 80 1. First sugar-beet 
factory in world built by F. 
Achard in Silesia. 
Sugar-boiling 1657. Five-pan 
plant first desc. by de Rochfort, 
at St. Christophe, Barbados. 
1785. Double-bottomed sugar- 
boihng pan inv. by Thomas 
Wood. 1 81 3. Vacuum-pan inv. 
by Charles Edward Howard 
and first used at Jagerzeile, 
Vienna, by Vincent Mack. 
1 8 1 6 . Tubular steam-heated 
pan inv. Phillip Taylor, c. 181 7. 
Onesiphore Pecquer (Fr) inv. 
scum-eliminator. 181 7. Steam- 
heated oil in double-bottomed 
pans inv. by Wilson. 1824. 
Vacuum pans first used in 
France at Marseilles. 1827. Six 
Vacuum-pans in use in London. 
183 1. In the U.S. 1835. At 
Madgeburg, Germany. (See 
also Mill, Sugar.) 
Sulphanilamide (drug) 
(para-amido-benzene-sul- 
phonamide) 1906. Disc, by 
Gelmo, of Vienna. 1930. Dr. 
Gerhard Domagk analysed 
Gelmo 's 1906 production and 
isol. "Prontosil" therefrom. 
1935. Domagk used Prontosil 
on his daughter. 1937. Re-disc. 
Sulphapyradine (drug) (M. 
& B. 693) Disc, in the labora- 



SULPHUR 



174 



SUSPENSION SYSTEM 



tories of Messrs. May and 
Baker, London. 

Sulphur 400 b.c. Mentioned 
by Homer. 

Sulphur Dioxide Gas 2000 
b.c. Used by Ancient Egyptians 
for disinfecting and bleaching 
linen. 

Sulphuric Acid 13th cent. 
Prod, by dry distillation of alum 
or by burning sulphur over 
water. First prod, by burning 
sulphur with saltpetre by 
quack -doctor Joshua Ward. 
1 746. John Roebuck inv. lead- 
chamber process. 1749. First 
sulphuric acid plant on Roe- 
buck's pat. built at Preston 
Pans, near Edinburgh. 1766. 
First lead-chambered process 
factory in France. 1772. First 
Roebuck plant at Battersea, 
London. 1776. First Roebuck 
plant in France at Rouen. 1 793. 
First Roebuck plant in U.S. 
1 83 1. Peregrine Phillips, a 
Bristol vinegar manufacturer 
pat. process for sulphuric acid 
prod, with a platinum catalyst. 
SULZER, Johann Georg 
(1720-79) (Swit) 1760. First to 
mention sensation of taste 
experienced when silver and 
lead were allowed to come into 
contact in the mouth; thus 
anticipating Galvani's and 
Volta's discoveries. 
Sundial 1450 b.c. Shadow- 
clock began to be used in 
Ancient Egypt. 713 b.c. Men- 
tioned in Isiah xxxviii. 8. 550 
b.c. Inv. .(sic) by Anaximenes. 
540 b.c. First recorded "hemi- 
sphere" of Berosus. a.d. 613. 
Sundials first set up in churches. 
Sunspots First disc, and men- 
tioned by Averroes (n 26-1 1 98) 
(Arab). 1610. Johannes Fabri- 



cus and Christopher Scheiner 
(161 1 ) first to obs. sunspots 
through telescope. 1722. Influ- 
ence on terrestrial magnetism 
first disc, by Graham. 1851. 
Relationship of sunspots with 
earth's magnetic field disc, by 
J. von Lamont (Ger). 1851. 
H. S. Schwabe disc, periodicy 
of sunspots. 

Sun, Declination Tables of 
the 1292-95. First compiled by 
Robert Angles de Montpelier 
(Fr). 

Superchargers and Blowers 
1866. Rotary blower intro. by 
J. D. Roots (U.S.). 1891. Gas- 
blower or supercharger intro. 
by Dugald Clerk. 1926. Ren6 
Cozette (Fr) intro. imp. super- 
charger. Supercharger first 
intro. for marine engines by Dr. 
Buchi (Swit). 

Superheater, Locomotive 
Engine (See Locomotive, 
steam.) 

Superphosphate (See Ferti- 
lizers.) 

Superheating, Locomotive 
Engine 1845. Tried on the 
Great Western Railway of Eng- 
land. 

Surface-plate 1844. Inv. and 
prod, by Sir Joseph Whitworth. 
Surgery Pare (151 7-90) , father 
of modern surgery, inv. the 
technique of binding the 
arteries after amputation in- 
stead of cauterizing with a red- 
hot iron. 

Survey, Triangulated 1533. 
Intro, by Gemma Frisius (Hoi). 
1744-83. C. F. Cassini took 39 
years to map France by tri- 
angulated survey to scale of 
1 : 86,400. 

Suspension System, Motor- 
car 1 905 and 1 9 1 0. P. Haincque 



SWAMMERDAM 



175 



TANTALUM 



de St. Senoch (Fr) inv. hydraulic 
and compressed-air suspension 
systems in which compensation 
was made between the four 
wheels of the vehicle. (See also 
Springs.) 

SWAMMERDAM, Jan (Hoi) 
(1637-80) Microscopist and 
naturalist who, in 1669, disc, the 
modes of metamorphosis used 
bv insects. 

SWAN, Sir Joseph (1828- 
19 14) i860. Made early experi- 
ments in production of incan- 
descent electric lamps, first 
using U-shaped strips of car- 
bonized paper. 

Swash-plate Principle 
(mechanics) Applied in De 
Lavaud transmission in certain 
French motor-cars. 



Switch, Oil-quenched elec- 
tric 1897. Inv. by C. E. L. 
Brown. 

SYKES, William 1875. Inv - 
the "lock-and-block" railway 
signalling system. 
SYMINGTON, William 
( 1 764-1 831) 1786. Pat. a steam 
road carriage with rack-and- 
pinion drive; also did much 
pioneering work on early steam- 
propelled boats. 
Synthesis 1877. J. M. Crafts 
and Charles Friedel devised 
methods for large-scale syn- 
thesis. (See Crafts, J. M.) 
Syringe, Hypodermics. 1850. 
Inv. by Dr. Alfred Higginson 
(1808-84), after lis use na d. 
been suggested by Claude 
Bernard (Fr). 



T 



Tachometer c. 1840. Bryan 
Donkin, of Bermondsey, Lon- 
don inv. tachometer for use in 
mills. 

TALBOT, William Henry 
Fox (1800-77) Early 19th cent. 
Suggested the use of the bright 
lines seen in the spectroscope to 
detect substances. Applied the 
discs, of Niepce and Daguerre to 
paper in photograph. 1841. Inv. 
the callotype process. 
Tank (fighting vehicle) 1655. 
Mentioned by Marquis of 



Worcester in his Century of 
Inventions, as No. 31. 1420. 
Giovanni da Fontana sketched 
a military tank propelled by 
three rockets on rollers. 
Tank (for testing model ships) 
1872. Robert Froud built a 
250 ft. long testing tank at 
Torquay. 

Tantalum (element) 1801. 
Existence queried by Hatchett. 
1802. Disc, by Ekeberg (Swed). 
1905. Pure tantalum prod, by 
Dr. Weiner von Bolton, of 



TAPE AND WIRE RECORDERS 176 TELEGRAPH, ELECTRIC 



Berlin. 1905 (later in year). 
Dr. O. Fouerlin drew filaments 
of tantalum. 
Tape and Wire Recorders 

1898. Valdemar Poulsen (Dan) 
inv. first wire magnetic recorder 
which was shown at the Paris 
Exhibition of 1900. 1907. Poul- 
sen and Peder Pedersen inv. 
D.C. biasing, c. 1920. W. L. 
Carlson and G. W. Carpender 
(U.S.) inv. A.G. biasing. Late 
1920s. Kurt Stille (Ger) inv. 
steel tape recorder, and Dr. 
Pfleumer (Aus) inv. coated 
paper tape. 1939. Cellulose 
acetate tape used. 1940. P.V.C. 
tape and high-frequency A.C. 
biasing applied — the latter by 
Dr. Walter Weber (Ger) and 
Dr. H.J. von Braunmuhl (Ger). 
Marvin Camras (U.S.) was one 
of the most prolific inventors 
in this field. 

Tartaric Acid 1770. Disc, by 
C.W.Scheele( 1 742-86). 
TARTINI, Guiseppe (It) 
( 1 692-1 770) Italian violinist 
who disc, what came to be 
known as the "third tone" in 
musical acoustics — now known 
as the "difference tone." 
Taxi-cab 1888. First in world 
in service outside Stuttgart 
railway station — a Daimler 
vehicle. 1896. First taxi-cab in 
France — a Roger-Benz, ap- 
peared in Paris. 
Taximeter Inv. by A. Griiner 
(Ger). 

Technetium (element) 1937 
Disc, by C. Perrier and E. 
Segre, in Italy. 

Tedder, Hay 1800 Tedder inv. 
by Salmon, which was the basis 
of all modern types. 
Teeth, Artificial 1710. Made 
by Guillemeau (Fr) from gum 



elemi, white wax, powdered 
coral and pearls. 1788. Porce- 
lain used by Nicholas Dubois de 
Chement (Fr). Pierre Fauchard 
(Fr) ( 1 690-1 761) made arti- 
ficial teeth with a sprung upper 
set. 

Teleautograph 18 14. Ralph 
Wedgwood perfected hand- 
writing electric telegraph. 
Lenoir, Arlincourt, Jordery, 
and J. H. Robertson imp. 
Wedgwood's original instru- 
ment; E. A. Cooper in 1878 
producing the teleautograph. 
(See also Telegraph, electric.) 
Telegraph, Electric 1558. 
G. B. della Porta (It) (1535- 
1615) devised a compass-needle 
telegraph known as the "sym- 
pathetic telegraph." 1800. First 
electric telegraph pat. filed by 
Grout. 1809. Soemering pat. 
electric telegraph. 1825. Val- 
lance inv. static electric tele- 
graph. 18 1 6. Electrostatic dial 
telegraph inv. by Francis 
Ronalds, of Hammersmith, 
London. (Idea rejected by Lords 
of Admiralty in 181 7.) 1826. 
Harrison Dyer inv. a printing 
telegraph using chemically 
treated paper. 1830. M. H. 
Jacobi established first electric 
telegraph between Royal 
Palace and Ministerial office, 
using Arago's electro-magnetic 
machine — not batteries. 1832. 
Jacobi const, a 21 mile electric 
telegraph between Russian 
Emperor's winter palace and 
summer palace at Tsarskoie, 
using glass tubing to insulate 
wires. (Inv. also ascribed to 
Baron Schiling, of Kannstadt.) 
1834. C. F. Gauss and W. E. 
Weber (Ger) const. i£ mile 
electric telegraph. 1837. 



TELEGRAPH, PICTURE 



177 



TELEPHONE 



Steinhil (Ger) inv. electric 
telegraph. Five-needle elec- 
tric telegraph inv. by Charles 
Wheatstone. 1840. Wheatstone 
inv. dial telegraph, which was 
later imp. by Breguet, of Paris. 
1 84 1. Type-printing electric 
telegraph inv. 1844. S. B. Morse 
transmits first electric telegraph 
message from Washington to 
Baltimore, U.S.: "What God 
has wrought." 1854. Thomas 
John, of Vienna, inv. printing 
telegraph using ordinary paper. 
1858. Automatic transmission 
magnetic dial telegraph inv. 
1864. J. Hawkins Simpson inv 
printing telegraph as an im- 
provement of the " Typo 
telegraph" of Bouelli (It). 
Telegraph, Picture 1881. 
Primitive form dem. by Shelford 
Bidwell. 

Telegraph, Semaphore 1684. 
Dr. Robert Hooke (1635-1703) 
inv. semaphore telegraph for use 
with telescope. 1 700. Guillaume 
Amontons (Fr) (1 663-1 705) 
inv. semaphore telegraph which 
was tried over short distances. 
1780. Bossuet inv. pipe-and- 
water telegraph operating 
semaphores at each end of pipe 
three miles long. 1791. Claude 
Chapp6 (Fr) (1763-1805) inv. 
semaphore telegraph which 
was used from Paris to Lille. 
Models were made at Frank- 
furt and sent to England by 
William Play fair; being later 
adopted by the British Admir- 
alty — the first semaphore 
telegraph in England. 
Telegraph, Submarine 1842. 
S. B. Morse, an artist, con- 
ceived a sub-aqueous telegraph 
and connected Governor's 
Island with Castle Garden, 



New York. c. 1845. Capt. 
Taylor laid a submarine tele- 
graph line from the Admiral's 
House, Portsmouth, across the 
harbour to the railway terminus 
at Gosport. 1849. South Eastern 
Railway telegraph superinten- 
dent C. V. Walker laid a line 
from two miles off Folkestone 
Harbour to land and thence to 
London via Merstham tunnel, 
Surrey. 1851. Submarine tele- 
graph from Dover to Cap 
Gris Nez laid by Joseph Brett 
from tug Goliath. 1869. First 
trans-Adantic submarine tele- 
graph cable laid. 
Telegraphone {See Tape and 
wire recorders.) 
Telegraphy, Weather 1849. 
First tried by London news- 
paper Daily News. 
Telephone 1 82 1 . Charles 
Wheatstone attempts to trans- 
mit human voice electrically. 
1837. Charles G. Page (U.S.) 
conceived idea that electricity 
could carry sound, i860. 
Johann Reiss (Ger) inv. and 
const, a telephone but did not 
follow up the idea. 1876. Alex- 
ander Graham Bell (Scot) pat. 
telephone; Elisha Gray (U.S.) 
pat. his telephone two hours 
later. 1876. Emil Berliner inv. 
a telephone. 1878. Carbon 
granule microphone inv. by 
David Edward Hughes. 1892. 
Automatic switchboard intro. 
1906. Underground telephone 
cables intro. 1931. Trans- 
oceanic telephone services com- 
menced. 191 1. Telephonic 
communication between 
moving train and signal-box 
by induction inv. H. von 
Kramer (Ger) {Dem. on Strat- 
ford-on-Avon and Midland 



TELEPRINTER 



I78 



TELLURIUM 



Junction Railway. {See also 
Microphone.) 

Teleprinter 1906. Dev. by 
Joy Morton and Charles Crum 
(the Morkrum Co.). 191 7. 
A teleprinter devised by Ed- 
ward Kleinschmidt. 1925. 
Morkrum Co. and Klein- 
schmidt merged. 1931. Tele- 
printer exchange service set 
up by American Telephone 
and Telegraph Co. 
Telescope 1608. Hans Lipper- 
shay (Hoi) inv. the so-called 
"Galilean" telescope and 
spectacles {q.v.). 1609. Galileo 
Galilei (1564 — 1642) inv. tele- 
scope. 1669. Sir Isaac Newton 
(1642- 1 727) inv. reflecting tele- 
scope. 1 719. Jacques Eugene 
d'Allonville, Chevalier de Lou- 
ville (Fr) inv. portable transit 
telescope. 1 757. Achromatic 
telescope inv. John Dolland 
(1706-61). 1779. Diplantidian 
telescope giving two images, 
one reversed, inv. Edme Sebas- 
tian Jeurat, of Paris. 
Television, Mechanical 
1884. Paul Nipkow inv. scan- 
ning disc bearing his name. 
1926. John Logie Baird applied 
Nipkow disc in his first tele- 
vision transmitter. (1842. Alex- 
ander Bain proposed picture 
transmitter and receiver.) {See 
also Photo-electric cell.) 
Television, Electronic 1879. 
Senlecq (Fr) attempts television 
with light-sensitive cells. 1897. 
Ferdinand Braun, of Strasbourg 
dev. the cathode-ray oscillo- 
scope. 1905. Julius Elster and 
Hans Geitel, of Wolfenbuttel, 
perfect an imp. photo-electric 
cell based on earlier disc, by 
Carl Hertz. 1907. Boris Rosing, 
of St. Petersburg proposed tele- 



vision system using a mech- 
anical transmitter and a Braun 
oscilloscope as a receiver. 1908. 
A. A. Campbell-Swinton pro- 
posed use of cathode-ray tubes 
for both transmission and recep- 
tion of images. 1923. Vladimir 
Zworykin inv. iconoscope tele- 
vision camera, having con- 
ceived the idea of a charge- 
storage camera tube in 19 19. 

1923 (May 21). First practical 
demonstration of television 
photograph transmission when 
U.S. Bell Laboratories trans- 
mitted picture of Faraday. 

1924 (Dec. 1). Photo-radio- 
gram despatched from London 
to New York by Capt. Richard 
H. Ranger. 1928. Cathode-ray 
image-dissector inv. Philo T. 
Farnsworth (U.S.). 1930 (Aug. 
20). First transmission of tele- 
vision with "home picture" 
reception made from W2XCR, 
Jersey City and W2XCD, 
Passiac, to be received on 
screens at Hotel Ansonia, 
Hearst Building, and a house 
on Riverside Drive, New York. 
1930 (Sept.). Station W2XAD, 
New Brunswick, New Jersey, 
transmitted first weather-map 
on television. 1931 (Jan.). First 
sight-sound dramatic television 
production ("The Maker of 
Dreams") transmitted from 
station W9XAP, Chicago. 
1939. Orthicon or camera 
T.V. cathode-ray tube inv. 
Rose and lam. 
TELFORD, Thomas (1757- 
1834) Pioneer bridge-builder 
and civil engineer. 
Tellurium (element) 1798. 
Isol. by M. H. Klaproth. 1882. 
Disc, by Muller von Richen- 
stein. 



TELPHERAGE 179 

Telpherage (overhead wire 
railway) 1882. Electrical system 
inv. by Henry Charles Fleeming 
Jenkins, of Dungeness, Kent, 
and installed at Glynde, Sussex. 
See also Ropeway, Aerial. 
Temperature Chart (medi- 
cal) First used by Carl Wunder- 
lich (1815-77) (Ger). 
TENNANT, Smithson ( 1 76 1 - 
181 5) Disc, the metals iridium 
and osmium, together with 
titanium oxide. 

Tensile Testing Machine 
Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 
15 19) sketched a machine in 
which a sand-fed hopper hung 
from the wire being tested, the 
entry of sand being automatic- 
ally cut off by a spring when 
the wire broke. 1 729. Machine 
inv. by 's Gravezande (Hoi) 
imp. later by E. Marriotte, 
C. A. Coulomb, J. Rondelet 
and R. A. F. Reaumur. Steel- 
yard type inv. by Petrus van 
Musschenbroek (1 692-1 761) 
(Hoi) . Musschenbroek inv. lever 
tensile testing machine. Amsler 
(Swit) inv. hydraulic oil-pres- 
sure tensile testing machine. 
c. 1925. E. G. Coker popular- 
ized photo-elastic stress- 
analysis, c. 1925. X-rays began 
to be used for non-destructive 
testingr. (See also Elasticity.) 
Terbium (element) 1843. Disc. 
by Mosander. 

Terramycin (drug) 1949. 
Disc, by chemists at the Pfizer 
Chemical Company. 
Terra Pingois (Oily Earth) 
Theory 1669. Prop, by Johann 
Joachim Becher (Ger) (1635- 
82). 

Terylene 1940. Disc, by J. T. 
Dickson and J. R. Whinfield. 



THERMIT 

1944. First yarn made from 
terylene. 

TESLA, Nikola (185 7-1943) 
(Croat-U.S.) Pioneered gen- 
eration of high-frequency radio 
waves used in long-wave trans- 
mission, by inv. the rotary 
alternator and oscillator. 
Tetra-ethyl Lead (anti-knock 
internal-combustion engine 
fuel) 1922. Midgeley and Boyd 
(U.S.) disc, that tendency for 
engines to detonate (knock) 
was suppressed by addition of 
minute quantitities of tetra- 
ethyl lead. 

Textiles, Non-inflammable 
1859. Versmann and Oppen- 
heim (Ger) disc, that fabrics 
steeped in tungstate of sodium 
or sulphate or phosphate of 
ammonia burnt without flame. 
THABIT Ibn Querra (Arab) 
(826/7-901) Early 9th cent. 
Prop, the trepidation theory of 
equinoctial precession. 
THALES of Miletus (e. 640- 
546 B.C.) Pioneer of natural 
science who asserted that water 
was the prime element of all 
material things. First described 
natural magnets. 600 B.C. Intro. 
geometry into Greece. 
Thallium (element) 1861. 
Disc, with the spectroscope by 
Sir William Crookes (1832- 

1919). 

THENARD, Louis Jacques 

(Fr) ( 1 777-1857) 1818. Disc. 
hydrogen peroxide. 
Theodolite 1551. Inv. by 
Leonard Digges, whose idea 
was pub. by his son Thomas 20 
years later. 

Thermit (welding powder of 
aluminium and iron oxide) 



~' : m': 



THERMODYNAMICS, LAWS OF l8o 



THERMOSTAT 



First used by Howard T. 
Barnes, of McGill University, 
Montreal. 
Thermodynamics, Laws of 

First law prop, by Rudolf 
Clausius (182 2- 1 888), who 
originated the science, as well 
as that of the kinetic theory of 
gases. 1824. Second law dev. by 
Sadi Carnot, who dev. the 
theory of heat on the older 
caloric theory. 1834. Carnot's 
theory amplified and graphic- 
ally represented by Emile Cla- 
peyron (Fr) (1799-1864). 1906. 
Third law enunciated by 
Walther Nernst (Ger) (1864- 
1941). 

Thermo-luminescence 1676. 
Obs. by J. S. Elsholtz (Ger) 
when heating fluorspar. 
Thermometer (c. 250 b.c.) 
Philo of Byzantium and Heron 
of Alexandria (a.d. c. 100) both 
desc. experiments based on the 
expansion of air by heat. Clin- 
ical thermometer intro. by Sanc- 
torius (1561-1636). 1580. 
Savants of Padua and Florence 
tried to make thermometers. 
I 597- Thermoscope (thermo- 
meter) inv. by Galileo Galilei. 
1600. Air thermometer inv. by 
Scorpi. 1605. Cassoni (Cor- 
soni) des. heat indicator. 1609. 
Air thermometer inv. by Corne- 
lius van Drebbel (1572-1634), 
of Alkmar, Holland, as a sealed, 
twin-bulb instrument. 1 6 1 o- 1 1 . 
Air thermometer inv. by Sanc- 
torius of Padua. Drebbel's ther- 
mometer was modified by J. B. 
van Helmont (1 577-1 644) and 
by Jean Ray. 1655. Mercury 
thermometer inv. at Academy 
del Cimento, Florence. 1680. 
Mercury thermometer made by 
Edmund Halley (1 656-1 742). 



1700. Guillaume Amontons 
(Fr) ( 1 663-1 705) imp. on Gali- 
leo's thermoscope. 1730. 
R. A. F. Reaumur (Fr) (1683- 
J 757) inv. spirits-of-wine ther- 
mometer. 1733. Mercury ther- 
mometer inv. by M. de PIsle, of 
St. Petersburg. 1742. Centi- 
grade thermometer scale intro. 
by Anders Celcius (Swed). 
1749. Marten Stromer changed 
Celcius's ioo°-o° scale to o°- 
ioo°. Daniel Gabriel Fahren- 
heit (Ger) (1686-1736) a ther- 
mometer-maker, intro. the ther- 
mometer scale bearing his 
name. 1794. J. Six inv. self- 
registering, maximum-mini- 
mum thermometer. 1 799. Wet- 
and-dry-bulb thermometer 
anticipated by Leslie, i860. W. 
Symonds, of Dunster, Somerset, 
inv. mercury-spirit thermometer 
in which iron indices were reset 
by raising the instrument into a 
vertical position. (Metallic 
thermometers were inv. by 
Breguet. (See also Pyrometers 
and Thermostats.) 
Thermopile Inv. by James 
Prescott Joule (1818-89). 
Thermoscope (See Thermo- 
meter.) 

Thermostat 1609. Cornelius 
Drebbel (Hoi) inv. thermostat 
for an incubator. 1830. Andrew 
Ure (Scot) inv. a bi-metal 
thermostat. 1864. Thermostat 
inv. by Edward Rolland. 1880. 
C. E. Hearson inv. liquid 
thermostat similar to Dreb- 
bel's. 1 9 14. Bellows thermostat 
used by the U.S. Kelvinator 
Company; metal bellows 
having been used by L. Vidie 
(Fr) in his aneroid barometer 
of 1844. 1928. R. S. Portham 
inv. adjustable thermostat for 



THIMBLE 



181 



TIME-RECORDERS 



motor-cycle engines. 1930. 
Thermostat first used to con- 
trol heat of domestic gas-fires. 
Thimble Found in Hercu- 
laneum (a.d. 70). 1684. First 
made in Europe by Nicholas 
van Benschoten (Hoi). 1695. 
First made in England. 
THOLDE, Johann (Basil 
Valentine) 1546. Made first 
known mention of metal bis- 
muth. 

THOMPSON, Benjamin 
(Count Rumford) (U.S.) 
(1 752-1814) Pioneered calori- 
metric investigations and inv. a 
simple photometer. 
THOMSON, Sir Joseph John 
( 1 856-1 940) English physicist 
who in 1897 prod, experimental 
proof of die existence of par- 
ticles smaller than the atom. 
THOMSON, William (Lord 
Kelvin) (1824- 1907) With 
Rudolf Glausius (Gerj (1822- 
88), founded the science of 
thermodynamics. With d' 
Arsonval, intro. the coil galvano- 
meter with mirror readings. 
Thoracic Duct (anatomy) 
1647. First obs. by Jean Pecquet 
(Fr) (1622-74), of Montpelier. 
Thorium (element) 1828. Disc. 
by J. J. Berzelius (1 779-1848). 
Threshing Machine 1636. Sir 
John van Berg inv. threshing 
machine. 1722. Horse-driven 
threshing machine inv. by 
mathematician Due Quet (Fr). 
1 73 1. Michael Menzies inv. 
threshing machine with rotary 
flails, driven by water-wheel. 
1737. Horse-driven threshing 
machine inv. by Meiffen. 1743. 
Menzies imp. his machine. 
1762. De Malassagny (Fr) inv. 
threshing machine. 1768. 
Andrew Meikle and Robert 



Mackell des. hand threshing 
machine. 1774. Iderton, of 
Alnwick, Oxley, of Flodden, 
and Smart, of Warwick, des. 
threshing machine. 1775. 
George Rawlinson inv. thresh- 
ing machine. 1788. Andrew 
Meikle imp. van Berg's thresh- 
ing machine by fitting sieves 
and fans. 1798. Meikle des. 
steam-engine-driven threshing 
machine. 1800. Thomas Wigful, 
of Norfolk, inv. post threshing 
machine. 

Thrust-pad (mechanics) 
A. G. M. Mitchel, of Australia, 
inv. tilting thrust-pad. (Inde- 
pendently inv. by Prof. A. 
Kinsbury (U.S.).) 
Thulium (element) 1878. Disc. 
byP.T. Cleve(Swed). 
THURSTON, R. H. (1840- 
1903) 1 87 1. Pioneered the test- 
ing of lubricants, in a specially 
des. laboratory. 

Thyroxin (hormone) 19 14. 
Isol. by Edward Calvert 
Kendall. 

Tidal Analyser 1872. Pro- 
jected by Lord Kelvin. 
Tide-mill 1044. Tide-mills 
operating in lagoons near 
Venice, c. 1070. Tide-mill 
built at entrance to port of 
Dover. Bernard Forrest Belidor 
( 1 697-1 761) states in his book 
Architecture hydraulique that inv. 
made by Dunkirk carpenter 
Perse. 

TILDEN, W. A. ( 1 842-1 926) 
Disc, isoprene could be turned 
into artificial rubber, thereby 
giving the key to the industry. 
Tiles 1246. First made in 
England. 

Time-recorders 1750. 
Watchmen's tell-tale clocks inv. 
by Whitehurst, of Derby. 1885. 



TIME-SWITCH 



l82 



TOURNIQUET 



Bundy (U.S.) inv. printing time- 
recorder. 1887. Benjamin Fred- 
erick Merritt (U.S.) inv. time- 
recorder. 1888. First dial time- 
recorder registering employees 
in numerical order inv. by Dey, 
of Aberdeen ( ? by Dr. Alex- 
ander Day (U.S.). 1888. Em- 
ployees time-recorder inv. 
Willard Brundy (U.S.) (Inter- 
national Time-recorder 
Company). 1894. First time- 
recorder to record on employees' 
cards inv. Daniel L. Cooper, of 
Rochester, New York. 
Time-switch 1867. Inv. to 
control gas-lamps by Dr. Thur- 
gar. 1897. Gunning, of Bourne- 
mouth inv. gas-switch. 1904. 
Horstmann inv. automatic 
seasonally adjusting time- 
switch. 

Tin c. 1 750 B.C. First disc. 
Tinder 569 b.c. Inv. by 
Anacharis. 

Tin-plate 13th cent. Tinned 
iron used for parts of armour in 
Bohemia. 

Titanium (element) 1789. 
Disc, in Cornwall by Rev. 
Gregor. 1 794. Found by M. H. 
Klaproth in Hungary, and 
named by him. (W. A. Lampa- 
dius completely reduced titan- 
ium.) 

Tobacco-plant 1558. Culti- 
vated in Spain. 1586. Culti- 
vated in England (Gloucester- 
shire) by Virginian emigrants. 
Tobacco-mill (Snuff-mill) 
1828. Rotary tobacco-mill inv. 
by Samuel Wellman Wright. 
Tonic Sol Fa System 181 2. 
Inv. by Miss Glover, of Norwich. 
1828. Inv. ( ?) by M. Sudre (Fr), 
who gave it the name "Musical 
Language" or "telephony." 
1844. System dev. by Rev. John 



Curwen (181 7-1 880). {See also 
Cheve musical system.) 
Torpedo 1280-95. Syrian al- 
Hassan al Rammah proposed a 
rocket-propelled aerial torpedo. 
1777. Submarine torpedo inv. 
David Busnell (U.S.). 1861-65. 
Electrically fired torpedo used 
in U.S. 1864. Robert White- 
head inv. self-propelled sub- 
marine torpedo. 1865. Ship 
"Terpsichore" sunk at Chat- 
ham by the magnetic, elec- 
trically fired torpedo tried by 
McKay and Beardslee. 1866. 
Prof. F. Abel's submarine 
torpedo tried at Woolwich. 
1869. Whitehead inv. pendulum 
control for his torpedo. 1875. 
First self-propelled torpedo 
sunk a Turkish battleship. 
Torpedo-net 1655. Mentioned 
by Marquis of Worcester in 
his book Century of Inventions 
No. 11. 

Torque-convertor 1904. H. 
Fottinger, of Hamburg, inv. 
separate torque-convertor and 
hydraulic coupling. 1926. First 
applied to motor-cars by 
Reisler (Ger). 1928. First 
applied to motor-buses (Ley- 
land) by Alfred Lysholm 
(Swed). 1933. First applied to 
rail-cars (Ley land). 
TORRICELLI, Evangelista 
(It) ( 1 608-1 647) Amanuensis 
to Galileo. 1643. Inv. the Baro- 
meter. 

Torsion 1777. Theory out- 
lined by C. A. Coulomb (Fr) 
( 1 736-1 806), who in 1802 inv. 
the torsion balance. 1908. Hop- 
kinson-Thring Torsionmeter 
intro. 

Tourniquet (surgery) 1674. 
Inv. Morelli (Morel) (Fr) at 
Siege of Besan^on. 1718. Jean 



TOWN-PLANNING 



183 TRANSFORMER, ELECTRIC 



Louis Petit (Fr) (1 674-1 750) 
inv. screw tourniquet. 
Town-planning, "Grid- 
iron" Began in Ancient Greece 
when Hippodamus of Miletus 
re-shaped the Piraeus. 
Tracheotomy (surgery) 1825. 
Intro, by Pierre Bretonneau 
(1771-1862), of Tours, for 
laryngeal diptheria. 
Traction-engine, Steam 
1 6 18. Pat. filed by David 
Ramsey and Thomas Wild- 
goose. 1842. Traction-engine 
des. by William Worby. 1845. 
Clayton and Shuttleworth des. 
8 h.p. traction-engine with 
locomotive boiler. 1846. J. T. 
Osborne pat. John Boydefl pat. 
track-laying traction-engine. 
1849. Barret and Exhall, of 
Abingdon pat. Robert Willis 
des. traction-engine. 1854. John 
Fowler, of Woolston, Lincoln- 
shire, exhibited steam plough- 
ing traction-engine at Lincoln. 
1856. William Bray inv. trac- 
tion-engine with spike-fitted 
wheels for soft ground. 1858. 
Thomas Aveling builds his first 
traction-engine. 1864. Lotz, of 
Nantes, builds traction-engine 
and later steam omnibuses 
(q.v.). 1865. Shuttleworth des. 
first traction-engine with differ- 
ential transmission. 1870. Ave- 
ling builds first all-gear-drive 
traction-engine. 1878. Aveling 
pat. two-speed countershaft 
drive. 1880. Edward Foden 
builds his first two-cylindered 
traction-engine, and in 1887, 
one with two cylinders com- 
pounded. 1882. Gopeland, of 
Philadelphia, U.S., des. trac- 
tion-engine. 1887. Charles 
Burrell intro. traction-engine 
mounted on springs, 1890. 



Aveling intro. four-shaft trac- 
tion-engine. See also Steam- 
roller, and Road Vehicles, 
Steam. 

Tractor, Tracklaying 
("Caterpiller") 1825. Sir 
George Cayley ( 1 773-1857) inv. 
tractor calling it a "universal 
railway." 1826. James Bryan 
inv. a tractor. 1846. John Boy- 
dell inv. pat. tractor. 1855-58. 
Burrel-Tuxford-Boydell track- 
laying engine system intro. 
Traffic Signals 1866 (Dec. 
10). Inv. by Hodgson and set up 
in Westminster, near the 
Abbey. 

Trafficators, Motor-car 
1910. Mechanical trafficators 
inv. by J. H. Faulkner, but not 
allowed by law to be fitted. 
Transcendentals 1844. Disc. 
by Liouville (Fr). 
Transfer Machine 1924. First 
one in England made for 
Morris Motors by Archdale. 
Transfinite 1883. Inv. by 
Cantor (Ger). 

Transformer, Electric (in- 
duction-coil) 1829. Joseph 
Henry (U.S.) (1 797-1878) disc. 
principle of electric induction. 
1830. Michael Faraday 
( 1 791-1867) disc, and form. 
theory of electrical induction, 
independently to Henry. 1850. 
Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff 
(1803-77) inv. the induction- 
coil (transformer). 1882. J. D. 
Gibbs inv. the use of trans- 
formers in series. 1887. George 
Westinghouse (1846-1914) pat. 
air-cooled and water-cooled 
transformers. 1903. R. Hadfield 
(1859- 1 940) inv. first trans- 
former with silicon-steel core. 
1907. M. A. Codd inv. the 
"Mira" coil igniter (trans- 



TRANSMUTATION OF ELEMENTS 184 



TURBINE, GAS 



former) for motor-cars. 1926. 
Delco-Remy coil (transformer) 
ignition system for motor-cars 
intro. 

Transmutation of Elements 
1919. First achieved by Sir 
Ernest Rutherford in collabora- 
tion with James Chadwick. 
{See also Atom.) 

Traumatrope 1826. Intro. Dr. 
J. A. Paris. 

Traverser, Railway Track 
1850. Inv. by Ormerod and 
Shepherd. 

Treadle a.d. 2nd cent. In use 
in China. Late 12th cent. 
Alexander Neckham, of Lon- 
don, desc. a treadle workedloom. 
14 1 8. Treadle applied to pipe- 
organ as a keyboard. 
TREMBLEY, Abraham 
(Swit) (1700-84) c. 1745. Bio- 
logist who made first mention 
of the Leyden jar, or condenser. 
TREVITHICK, Richard 
(1771-1833) 1801. Const, a high- 
pressure steam road vehicle 
from Weath to Camborne 
Beacon, Cornwall. 181 2. Inv. 
the "Cornish" boiler. 1812. 
Inv. conical ore-crushing rolls, 
steam winding-engines, rock- 
drills, steam threshing-machines 
and a dredger. 

Trigonometry a.d. 2nd cent. 
First treatise written by Claud- 
ius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy). 5th 
cent. Paulisa (Hindu) wrote on 
trigonometry. 9th cent. Ben 
Musa (Arab) substituted sines 
for chords in trigonometry. 
10th cent. Abu'l Wafer (Arab) 
intro. tangent as independent 
function and not merely as 
ratio of sine to cosine. Also dev. 
trigonometry: Ibn Yunos, of 
Cairo (d. 1008); Uleg Beg 
(1393- 1 449); Purbach, of Aus- 



tria (1423-61); Georg Joachim 
(Rhaeticus) ; andBartholomaus 
Pitiscus (1561-1613). Hyper- 
bolic functions of trigonometry 
intro. by Johann Heinrich Lam- 
bert (1728-77). Trignometry 
abbreviations, "sin," "cos" and 
"tan" first used by Albert 
Girard (Hoi) (^S- 1 ^)- 
Trocar (surgery )Inv. by Sanc- 
torius ( 1 561-1636). 
Troposphere {See Strato- 
sphere.) 

Truck, Fork-lift 1830. Germ 
of the idea contained in S. W. 
Wright's pat. vehicle des. for 
West India Dock Company. 
Trumpet (clarion) 800. Inv. by 
the Moors. 

Tubbing (mine-shaft lining) 
1777. Inv. by John Carr. 
Tuberculosis (bacteria) 1882. 
Disc, by Robert Koch (Ger) 
(1843-1910), of Woolstein. 
Tubing {See Pipes.) 
TUDOR, Frederick (U.S.) 
( 1 783-1 864) 1806. Equipped 
brig Favourite to carry 130 tons 
of ice to St. Pierre, Martinique. 
See also Refrigeration. 
Tungsten (element) 1781. 
Disc, by d'Elhujar. 1783. Isol. 
by C. W. Scheele. 1786. 
Brothers De Luyart isol. tung- 
sten from tungstic acid. 1859. 
First tungsten-steel rods prod. 
Turbine, Gas 1648. Bishop 
Wilkins, in his Mathematical 
Magic proposed use of gas 
turbine to rock cradles or turn 
roasting-spits. 1791. John 
Barber pat. gas turbine and 
compressor. 1906. Lemale and 
Armengaud pat. gas turbines. 
1908. Holzwarth and Korting 
pat. gas turbines. 1909. Lake 
(U.S.) inv. pressurized fresh-air 
addition to improve force of jet. 



TURBINE, MERCURY 



185 



TURBINE, WATER 



1933. Leduc (Fr) des. jet- 
propelled aircraft without com- 
pressors. (See Aeroplanes, jet.) 
1939. Heinkel flew aeroplane 
with turbo-jet engine. 1941. 
Gloster- Whittle aeroplane, with 
engine des. by Sir Frank 
Whittle, flew. 1941. Caproni- 
Gampini jet aeroplane flew 300 
miles in Italy. See also Aircraft. 
Turbine, Mercury 19 13. 
W. R. L. Emmet dev. two-fluid 
cycle heat engine using water 
and mercury. 

Turbine, Steam 1629. Gio- 
vanni Branca pictured a steam 
turbine with a sufflator as 
boiler in a shaped human head 
of brass. 1641. Athanasius 
Kircher depicts small wind- 
vane turned by two steam jets. 
1776. John Barber pat. steam- 
wheel. 1784. Baron von Kem- 
perlin (Ger) pat. "reaction 
wheel," which was later 
brought to notice of James Watt 
by his partner Matthew Boul- 
ton; Watt taking out a pat. in 
England for his "steam wheel" 
in 1784. 1815. Richard Trevi- 
thick built his "whirling 
engine" of similar design to 
that of Heron of Alexandria 
(a.d. c. 100). 1837. Gilman 
desc. multi-cellular, radial-flow 
turbine in which the steam 
expanded in stages. 1837. 
Avery, of Syracuse, U.S., built 
steam-wheels 5 ft. in diameter; 
these later being const, by 
Wilson, of Greenock, Scotland. 
1838. Timothy Burstall pat. 
steam turbine with backward- 
curving steam jets. 1838. Heat 
desc. Heron-type steam turbine 
with trumpet-shaped nozzles. 
1843. Pilbrow experiments with 
steam nozzles and calculated 



optimum vane-speed as 1,250 
ft. per second. 1858. John and 
Ezra Harthan des. steam tur- 
bine, which was the forerunner 
of Gurtis's des. of 1896. 1882. 
Dr. Gustav de Laval (Swed) 
inv. single-nozzle steam turbine. 
1884. Sir Charles Algernon 
Parsons (1 854-1 931) pat. his 
first steam turbine (10 h.p.). 
1884. Robert Wilson, of 
Greenock, pat. radial-flow and 
axial-flow, and having both 
fixed and moving blades. 1885. 
De Laval inv. imp. steam tur- 
bine. 1896. Curtis (U.S.) inv. 
velocity-compounding steam 
turbine. 1903. Dr. Henrich 
Zoelly (Swit) inv. steam turbine 
for railway locomotives. Prof. 
Auguste Rateau (Fr) inv. com- 
pound impulse type steam tur- 
bine. 1 9 10. Birger Ljungstrom 
(Swed) inv. radial-flow steam 
turbine for railway locomotives. 
Turbine, Water 1743. J. T. 
Desaguliers (Fr) ( 1 685- 1 744) 
put into use a reaction water 
turbine previously inv. by R. 
Barber. 1750-54. Reaction 
water turbine inv. by Leonhard 
Euler (1707-83). 1 79 1. Re- 
action water turbine proposed 
by James Sadler. 1792. Impulse 
water turbine first (sic) pro- 
posed by John Bailey (U.S.). 
1823. Outward-flow reaction 
water turbine inv. by Benoit 
Fourneyron (Fr). 1824. Four- 
neyron and Prof. Claude Burdin 
(Fr) dev. outward-flow water 
turbine. 1826. J. V. Poncelet 
(Fr)proposedinward-flowwater 
turbine which was const, in New 
York later. 1827. B. Fourneyron 
(Fr) const, first radial outward- 
flow water turbine and installed 
it at Pont sur POgnon, Saone, 



TURKISH BATHS 



186 



TYPEWRITER 



France. i836.First inward-flow 
water turbine inv. by Howard 
and imp. by James B. Francis in 
1847. (Also att. to A. M. Swain 
(U.S.).) 1840. Francis also inv. 
inward-flow water turbine 
1 84 1. N. J. Jonval (Fr) intro. 
parallel-flow water turbine. 
1844. Boyden inv. diffuser for 
water turbines, which raised 
their efficiency by 6 per cent. 
1852. J. J. Thomson (Lord 
Kelvin) inv. vortex-wheel. 1854. 
Impulse water turbine inv. in 
CaUfornia. 1880. L. A. Pelton 
(with J. Moore) dev. the 
central-partition wheel- 
bucket now bearing his 
name. 19 13. Prof. H. C. V. 
Kaplan (Swed) pat. his pro- 
peller water turbine with blade- 
angles adjustable by a governor. 
1926. Kaplan water turbines of 
26,000 h.p. in use in Sweden. 
Turkish Baths i860. Intro. 
into England. 

Tychonic System (astro- 
nomy) Prop, by Tycho Brahe 
(Dan) (1564-1601). 
Tympanum, Artificial Inv. 
by James Yearsley ( 1 805-69) . 
Type, Printing a.d. 740. 
Wood and metal block printing 
in use in China. 1045. Movable 
earthenware type inv. by Pi 
Sheng (China). 13 14. Movable 
wooden type used in China. 
1392. Movable metal type in 
use in Korea. 1340. Movable 
metal type in use in China 
(inv. ?). 1452. Peter Schoffer 
(Ger) cast first metal type in 
matrices in the West. (Inv. not 
announced until 1457.) 1465. 
Gothic, or black-letter type 
used until this date. 1476. 
Aldus, of Venice, casts Greek 
type alphabet and intro. italics. 



Johann Gensfleisch Gutenberg 
(1397-1468) inv. (?) movable 
type. Typefaces des. : Plantin, 
by Christopher Plantin, of Ant- 
werp; Baskerville, by John 
Baskerville (1706-75); Gara- 
mond, by Claude Garamond 
( -1 561); Bodoni, by John 
Baptist Bodoni (It) (1740- 
1813). 1826. Arabic type inv. 
by Holman Hallock (U.S.). 
Typecasting Machines. 1 822 . 
First machines. 1828. 
Thomas Aspinall inv. type- 
casting machine. 1838. First 
successful typecasting machine 
(U.S.). 1841. Typecasting 
machine inv. by Ballanche, of 
Lyons. 1842. Sir Henry Besse- 
mer (1813-98) inv. piano-key- 
board typecasting machine. 
1846. Timothy Alden (U.S.) 
inv. Monotype. 1851. First suc- 
cessful English typecasting 
machine. 1859. Hattersley inv. 
typecasting machine. 1880. Dr. 
Mackie des. typecasting 
machine for newspaper War- 
rington Guardian. 1890. Linotype 
inv. 

Typewriter 1 744. Henry Mill 
pat. typewriter. 1784. Type- 
writer using characters for the 
blind inv. 1829. Austin Burt 
(U.S.) inv. typewriter. 1833. 
Xavier Progin, of Marseilles 
inv. typewriter. 1841 . Alexander 
Bain and Thomas Wright inv. 
typewriter. 1843. Charles 
Thurber, of Worcester, Mass., 
U.S., inv. first handwriting 
letter-spacing typewriter. 1844. 
Litdedale inv. embossing type- 
writer 1849. Pierre Foucault 
(Fr) inv. embossing typewriter 
shown in London. 1850. S. A. 
Hughes inv. blind typewriter. 
1 85 1. Sir Charles Wheatstone 



TYPHOID FEVER 



187 



UMBRELLA 



des. piano-keyboard typewriter. 
1856. A. E. Beach des. blind 
typewriter. 1866. John Pratt 
(U.S.) pat. typewriter in Eng- 
land. 1895. J- F. Hardy inv. 
shorthand typewriter. 19 10. 
Marc Grandjean, of Paris, inv. 
shorthand typewriter. 
Typhoid Fever 1896. Sero- 
diagnostic test disc, by Georges 
Widal, of Paris. Bacillus of 
typhoid disc, by Georg Caffky 
(Ger) (1850-1918). 
Tyres, Road 1845. R. W. 
Thompson (Scot) inv. first pneu- 
matic rubber tyre. 1855. 
Charles Goodyear (U.S.) 
(1800-60) pat. rubber tyres 
{pat. never sealed). 1855. Uriah 
Scott inv. rubber tyres 
{pat. never sealed). 1865. 
Thompson intro. solid tyres and 
fitted them to his traction 



engines. 1881. Clincher cycle- 
tyre inv. by W. H. Carment. 
1888. James Boyd Dunlop 
( 1 840-1 921) re-mo. pneumatic 
tyres for bicycles. 1904. Tube- 
less tyres inv. by Martin. (Valve 
for pneumatic motor-car tyres 
(Schraeder) inv. by M. C. 
Schweinert and H. P. Kraft in 
1 9 14.) 1904. Carbon black in 
rubber outer-covers first used 
by S. C. Mole. 19 10. First 
aeroplane tyres made by Dun- 
lop. 191 7. Bullet-proof tyres 
made by Dunlop. 1921. First 
use made of rayon in tyre 
casings. 1953. Tubeless tyres of 
natural rubber intro. 
Tyrosin (chemical) Disc, in 
urine by Friederich Theodor 
von Frerichs (Ger) (1819-85). 
Tyrothricin (drug) 1939. Disc. 
by Dr. Rene Dubos (Fr). 



U 



Ultra-microscope 1903. Inv. 
by R. A. Zsigmondy and 
H. Siedentopf. 

Ultrasonics 1965. Highest 
note (60,000,000 vibrations per 
second) generated by laser 
beam {q.v.) at Cambridge, 
Mass., U.S. (This is over 
1 million times higher in pitch 
than the upper audibility limit 
of human hearing.) 
Ultra-violet Light 1801. Disc. 
by Johann Wilhelm Ritter 



( 1 776-1810). Effect of ultra- 
violet light on human skin disc. 
by Neils Ryberg Finsen (Dan) 
(i860- 1 904). 

Umbrella (parasol) c. 1578. In 
use in Italy. 1 6 1 6. First mention 
of umbrella in England in 
comedy by Ben Jonson. 1622. 
In Paris. 1709. Imp. by Marius 
(Fr) similar to modern um- 
brella. Pre- 1 835. Carey inv. 
collapsible metal frame. (Later 
imp. by Deacon and J. G. 



UNIVERSAL JOINTS 



1 88 



VALVE 



Hancock, of Birmingham.) 
1850. Alapaca first used for 
umbrellas. 

Universal Joints (flexible 
couplings) 1 55 1. Inv. by Jerome 
Gardanus (It). Universal joints 
inv. by Dr. Robert Hooke 
(1635-1703). 1841. Inv. by 
J. G. Boomer. 19 14. Fabric 
"spider" universal joint inv. by 
John Hardy. 

Uranium (element) 1798. 
Disc, by M. H. Klaproth ( 1 743- 
1817), as oxide. 1931. F. W. 
Aston ( 1 877-1 946) announced 
detection of U.238 in the 
spectrograph of uranium hexa- 
fluoride. 1935. A. J. Demster 
(1866- ) pub. his detection of 
U.235 isotope. 1939. U.234 
isotope disc, by A. O. Nier. 
Uranus (planet) 1781. Disc, by 
Sir William Herschel (1738- 



1822). Satellites of Uranus disc. 
as follows: Nos. 1 and 2, by 
Herschel in 1787; 3 and 4, by 
Herschel in 1790; 5 and 6, by 
Herschel in 1794; 7, by Lassell 
in 1847; and 8, by Struve in 
1847. 

Urea 1828. First prepared 
synthetically by Friedrich 
Wohler (Ger) (1800-82). 1773. 
Urea said to have been disc. 
by H. M. Rouelk.) 
UREY, Dr. Harold C. (U.S.) 
1932. Joint discoverer of deu- 
terium ("heavy hydrogen") . 
Uric Acid 1 780. Disc, by C. W. 
Scheele (Swed). 
USHER, James 1849. Pat. the 
first steam-driven ploughing 
machine. 

U-tube Manometer 1874. Inv. 
by McLeod. (See also Gauge, 
pressure.) 



V 



Vaccination 1 780. Edward 
Jenner (1 749-1 823) conceived 
the idea of vaccination, which 
was ridiculed by the leading 
physiologists of the day. 1 796. 
Jenner's first patient, a boy 
named Phipps, was inoculated 
with cowpox lymph from a 
pustule on milkmaid Sarah 
Holmes, by Jenner. 1798. 
Jenner's disc. pub. 
Vacuum-cleaner 1901. Inv. in 
England by H. C. Booth. 



Vacuum-flask Inv. by Sir 
James Dewar. 

Valency, Chemical 1852. 
Assigned to atoms of the ele- 
ments by Edward Frankland. 
1858. August von Kekul6 (Ger) 
(1829-96) determined valency 
of carbon atom as four. 
VALENTINE, Basil (See 
Johann Tholde.) 
Valve (tap) c. 1730. Reversing 
valve inv. by Jacob Leupold, of 
Leipzig (1674- 1 727), for a pro- 



VALVE, HYDRAULIC 



189 



VEHICLE SUSPENSION 



posed high-pressure steam- 
engine with two single-acting 
cylinders. Des. used by Richard 
Trevithick, c. 1804. 
Valve, Hydraulic 17 13. 
Humphrey Potter inv. hydraulic 
valve. 

Valve, Safety 1681. Steelyard 
type inv. by Denis Papin. 1718. 
Imp. by Beighton. Woolfe inv. 
loaded-plug type. 1837. Benja- 
min Hicks, of Bolton, Lanca- 
shire, desc. use of ball-valve used 
in his safety valve, mentioning 
that the type had been used in 
water-pumps for over 100 years. 
Sockl, of Lambeth, London, inv. 
diaphragm type. Darnell, of 
Pentonvule, London, inv. float- 
ing type. 

Valves, Steam-engine 1799. 
Double slide-valve inv. and pat. 
by William Murdock (1754- 
1839. 1 80 1. Double slide-valve 
inv. Matthew Murray, of Leeds. 
c. 1820. George Stephenson 
and William Howe, of Chester- 
field inv. "Stephenson Link" 
valve-gear. 1832. William 
James, of New York, inv. link- 
motion valve-gear. 1844. 
Locomotive valve-gear inv. by 
Egide Walschaerts (Bel). 1849. 
George Henry Corliss (U.S.) 
(1817-88) inv. valve-gear. 1855. 
Green inv. valve-gear. 
Valve, Thermionic 1904. 
Two-electrode valve inv. by 
J. A. Fleming. 1907. Three- 
electrode valve inv. by Lee de 
Forest (U.S.). 

Valve (of Veins) c. 1680. Disc. 
by Fabricius ab Aquapendente, 
William Harvey's (1 578-1 657) 
tutor. 

Vanadium (element) 1801. 
Del Rio disc, vanadium in lead 
ore, but called it erythronium; 



which was later proved by 
Freidrich Wohler (1800-82) 
to be vanadium. 1830. Disc, by 
Sefstrom combined with iron 
ore and classed as an element. 
1865. Disc, in Cheshire copper- 
bearing beds by H. E. Roscoe. 
Van Allen Belts (astronomy) 
1958. Disc, by Dr. James Van 
Allen (U.S.). 

VARIGNON, Pierre (Fr) 
( 1 654-1 722) 1725. First recog- 
nized significance of the 
parallelogram of forces. 
VARLEY, S. Alfred (1832- 
1908) 1866-67. With Werner 
and Carl Siemens dev. a prac- 
tical self-exciting dynamo. 
Vasomotor Mechanism 
(anatomy) 1852. Vaso-constric- 
tor fibres disc, by Claude 
Bernard of St. Julien, Lyons 
(1813-78). 1867. Effect of 
nitrites on production of vaso- 
dilation disc, by Sir Lander 
Brunton (1847-19 16), of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, Lon- 
don. 

VAUCANSON, Jacques de 
(Fr) (1709-82) Outstanding 
inventor. 1748. Inv. wheel- 
driven silk-weaving loom. Also 
lathes and screw-cutting 
machines. 

VAUQjUELIN, L. N. (Fr) 
Disc, beryllium, 1797; chrom- 
ium, 1798; also quinic acid, 
asparagine and camphoric acid. 
Vector Analysis Method 
founded by A. F. Mobius (Ger) 
( 1 790-1868) and H. G. Grass- 
mann (Ger) (1809-77). (Simon 
Stennius originated vector 
analysis as parallelogram of 
forces.) 

Vehicle Suspension, Pneu- 
matic 181 2. Joseph Bramah 
(1748-18 1 4) pat. idea. c. 1825. 



VELOCIPEDE 



I90 



VICE 



George Stephenson and W. 
Losh pat. steam suspension 
system for railway locomotives. 
1834. W. H. Barlow inv. air- 
cushion vehicle suspension for 
railway coaches. 1839. Moses 
Poole inv. metal-box bellows 
vehicle suspension. 1842 
William Henry James inv. 
cushions of caouchouc to insert 
between frame and axles of 
railway coaches. (Other early 
pneumatic vehicle suspension 
system; inv. by Rayner, Bell, 
Hancock, Macintosh, Lyall and 
Richardson.) 1905. P. H. de St. 
Senoch (Fr) inv. equalized 
pneumatic vehicle suspension 
system; imp. in 1910. 191 1. 
I. Cowles and E. H. McDowall 
inv. hydro-pneumatic, oil equal- 
ized system. 

Velocipede (See Cycle.) 
Velvet 1272. First mentioned 
by Joinville. 1399. "velveto" 
mentioned in King Richard 
IPs will. 1680. First manufac- 
tured in England. 
Veneering 1600 b.c. Art of 
veneering practised in Egypt. 
Ventilation 600 b.c. Ventila- 
tion by draught of fires used at 
Lorion silver-mines by the 
Athenians. 1550. Georgius 
Agricola (1490- 1555) desc. and 
illus. many methods of mine 
ventilation, including by fans 
and bellows. 1740. Bellows 
ventilation installed on ship 
Sorbqy. Inv. by Stephen Hales 
( 1 677-1 761). Also used for 
granaries and prisons; dis- 
placing 25,000 cu. ft. per hour. 
1 748. French highway engineer 
Pommier equipped Hotel des 
Invalides, Paris, with an imp. 
ventilation system. 1 749. Sutton 



inv. non-bellows ventilation sys- 
tem. 1752. Hales applied wind- 
mill to ventilation of dwellings. 
1 81 9. Marquis de Chabanne 
planned ventilation system 
which was tried in London 
theatres. 

Venturi Meter 1887. Inv. 
Clemens Herschel (U.S.) who 
named it after Italian scientist 
Venturi. 

Venturi-tube 1787. Inv. (?) 
by Matthew Boulton (1728- 
1809). 1792. Pat. applied for by 
Whitehouse. 1797. Inv. by 
Giovanni Battista Venturi 
(It). (See also Hydraulic ram 
and Flow-meter.) 
Venus (planet) 161 1. Phases of 
Venus disc, by Galileo. 1639. 
Transit of Venus first obs. by 
telescope by Horrocks. 1667. 
Diurnal rotation of Venus disc. 
by Giovanni Dominico Cassini 
(It) (1625-1712). 
VERMUYDEN, Cornelias 
(Hoi) (d. 1665) c. 1650. Famous 
civil engineer and inv. who 
drained the fens north of Cam- 
bridge. 

Vernier Inv. Pierre Vernier 
(1580-163 7) of Ornans, Fr. 
VERSALIUS, Andreas (Bel) 
(1514-64) 1543. Wrote treatise 
De Fabrica corporis humanii, and 
therefore accepted as the father 
of modern anatomy. 
Vesta (planet) 1807. Disc, by 
Heinrich Wilhelm Matthaus 
Olbers (1 758-1840), of Bremen. 
Viaduct (See Bridge.) 
Vibro-cardiagraph Cathode- 
ray type dev. by Kauntz (Ger). 
Vice 420 b.c. Inv. (Leg.) by 
Archytas of Tarentum, pupil of 
Pythagorus. 1790. Quick-grip 
vice inv. by Joseph Bramah 



VIEWS, DISSOLVING 



*9« 



VIVANI 



(1748-18 1 4). 1862. Roberts 
inv. adjustable parallel vice. 
Views, Dissolving (lantern) 
inv. by H. L. Chide (1780- 
1874). 

VTLLAUME, Jean-Baptiste 
(Fr) 1849. Inv. 13 ft. high octo- 
basse (musical instrument). 
VINCI, Leonardo da (It) 
(1452-1519) One of the greatest 
geniuses who ever lived. 
Painter, sculptor, architect, 
civil and mechanical engineer. 
Inv. paddle-wheel, breech-load- 
ing cannon, mincing machine, 
ornithopter, helicopter, para- 
chute, and many other invs. 
Also made discs, in optics, 
perspective, friction, heat and 
astronomical theory. Unfor- 
tunately for technology, his 
invs. and discs, were not pub. 
until many hundreds of years 
after his death. (See Individual 
items.) 

"Vinyon" (man-made fibre) 
1933. First prod, in U.S. 
Violin 1200. First mentioned. 
Intro, into England in time of 
Charles I. Finest instruments 
made by Stradivarius, of 
Cremona between 1700 and 
1722. 

Virus 1885. Louis Pasteur 
(Fr) (1822-95) made first 
virus inoculation against rabies 
and hydrophobia on Alsatian 
boy, Joseph Meister. (See separ- 
ate headings.) 

Viscosimeter c. 1908. Inv. 
by Sir Boverton Redwood. 
Viscosity 1842. Laws govern- 
ing flow of viscous liquids disc. 
by J. L. M. Poiseuille. 
Vision, Persistence of a.d. 
130. Mentioned by Ptolemy in 
his second book of optics. 1824. 
Phenomenon first scientifically 



investigated by Dr. P. M 
Roget. 

Vitamins Disc, by Gowland 
Hopkins. 1911-12. Casimir 
Funk obtained a crystalline 
substance from rice polishings 
and named it "vitamine." 
Vitamin A 19 15. Disc, by 
E. V. McCullum. 1931. Isol. by 
P. Karrer. 1937. Synthesized 
by Kuhn and Minis. 
Vitamin B2 (lactoflavin) Syn- 
thesized by Dr. A. H. Cook in 
Germany. 

Vitamin B12 (cobalt complex) 
1948. Disc, by Rickes. 
Vitamin D 1882. Trousseau 
recognized that cod-liver oil 
was a cure for rickets. 1890. 
Pulm suggested that sunlight 
had an antirachitic action. 
1919. Huldschinski first em- 
ployed ultra-violet lamp to cure 
rickets. 1921. Hess and Unger 
demonstrate antirachitic effect 
of sunlight. 

Vitamin E 1922. Disc, by 
Herbert McLean Evans. 
Vitamin K 1939. Isol. from 
alfalfa and putrefying fishmeal 
by McKee and later same year 
synthesized by Binkley and 
Feiser. 1939. Anti-haemor- 
rhagic property dem. by Alm- 
quist and Klose. 
Vitamin P First obtained as 
crystals from lemon-juice and 
Hungarian red peppers by 
Gyorgyi Szent. 

VTTRUVIUS Pollio, Marcus 
(A.R.) (c. 50-26 b.c.) Famous 
practical engineer and inv. who 
contrived and explained the 
features of many different types 
of early cranes and hydraulic 
gear. 

VIVANI, Vicenzo (It) (1622- 
1 703) Famous early civil engin- 



VOGEL 



192 



WASHING MACHINE 



cer who, in 1679, carried out 
Leonardo da Vinci's control 
plans for the River Arno, 84 
years later. 

VOGEL, Hermann Carl 
(Ger) (1841-1907) 1879. 
Carried out much early experi- 
mental work connected with 
spectroscopic analysis. 
VOLTA, Count Alessandro 
(It) ( 1 745-1 827) 1800. Inv. the 
electric battery, or pile bearing 
his name. 



Voltaic Cell 1800. Inv. by 
Count Alessandro Volta. 
VOSSIUS, Isaac (Hoi) (1618- 
69) 1662. Discussed many 
hitherto unsolved optical prob- 
lems in his book On the Nature 
and Properties of Light. 
Vote-recorder 1861. First pat. 
by Thomas Alva Edison (U.S.) 
(1847-1931). 

VULTURIUS, R. 1472. Wrote 
and pub. the first book on 
engineering. 



W 



WAAGE, Peter (1833-1900) 
1867. With C. M. Guldberg 
formulated the fundamental 
law of chemical kinetics — the 
"law of mass action." 
WAALS, Johannes Died- 
erick van der (Hoi) (1837- 
1923) 1872. Formulated a new 
law of gas physics which ex- 
tended the older law prop, by 
Gay Lussac. 

WAGNER, Ernest (Ger) 
(1829-89) 1862. First to em- 
ploy the terms "carbohydrate" 
and "lipoid." 

Wagon, Travelling Mill a.d. 
340. In use in China. 
WALKER, Sears Cook (U.S.) 
(1805-53) c. 1845. Astronomer 
associated with die technicali- 
ties of the disparagement of 
Messrs. Adams and Leverrier's 
theoretical work which ended 



in the disc, of the planet 
Neptune. 

WALLIS, John (1616-1703) 
1668. With Sir Christopher 
Wren a champion of Descartes's 
"collision theory" of light. Did 
much pioneer mathematical 
work leading to the ultimate 
inv. of the Calculus (q.v.). 
Washer, Lock or Spring 
1855. Tab-type inv. E. J. H. 
Bentall for harrow-tines, i860. 
Tab-type inv. Lyttel Tyzard. 
1865. Serrated type inv. Fred- 
erick W. Paget. 
Washing Machine (crockery 
and textile) 1850. Cylindrical, 
hand-operated type with agi- 
tated water inv. Joel Houghton 
(U.S.). 1858. First rotary type 
pat. by Hamilton E. Smith, of 
Pittsburg, U.S., 1863. First self- 
reversible type inv. by H. E. 



WASSERMANN REACTION 



193 



WATER-CLOSET 



Smith. 1907. First self-con- 
trolled electric type — the 
"Thor " pat. by Alva J. Fisher 
(U.S.). 1909. P. & O. liner 
Orient fitted with two steam- 
heated, electric washing mach- 
ines and two electrically-driven 
centrifugal dryers. 
Wassermann Reaction 
(medicine) Blood test for syph- 
ilis disc, by von Wassermann, of 
Berlin (1866-1925). 
Watch 1504 Oldest watch now 
in existence kept at Imperial 
Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. 
Made by Peter Henlein, or 
Hele, of Nuremburg, where the 
first watches were made. (This 
watch is the earliest example of 
a true spring-driven "clock- 
watch.") 1580. First watch 
made in England. 1630. First 
watch made to have a glass. 
1655. Pocket time-piece men- 
tioned in Marquis of Wor- 
cester's Century of Inventions, 
No. 78. 1658. Robert Hooke 
inv. (sic) spring pocket-watch. 
1675. Christiaan Huygens des. 
a spiral spring-balance which 
was a success. (Robert Hooke 
and Abbe de Hautfeuille both 
claim credit for this inv.) 1686. 
Rev. Edward Barlow inv. 
repeating watch. 1688 (? 1696). 
Daniel Quare inv. repeating 
watch. 1704. Jewelled pivot- 
holes made of sapphires inv. by 
Nicholas Faccio de Duiller 
(Swit) and Peter Jacob De- 
baufe, a Swiss watchmaker. 
1755. Thomas Mudge inv. the 
"English lever" watch escape- 
ment mechanism. 1 766. Le Roy 
Pierre (Fr) des. a. chronometer 
with most features of a modern 
watch, including a bi-metallic 
balance-wheel of brass and 



steel. 1780. Luis Recordon inv. 
self-winding watch. (A watch 
running for one year without 
rewinding also made by Geneva 
watchmaker Jean Romilly 
(1714-96). 1789. Gong repeat- 
ing watch inv. by Recordon. 
1790. First wrist-watch made 
by Jaquet Droz and Paul 
Leschot, of Geneva. Pre- 1850. 
Keyless wind and hand-set 
watches inv. in Switzerland. 
1865. Roskopf (Swit) des. first 
cheap watch on mass-produc- 
tion lines. 1880. Buck (U.S.) 
des. the Waterbury Watch. 
(Louis Breguet (Fr) (1780- 
1820) inv. the water hair-spring 
bearing his name.) 
Water, Decomposition of 
(1784. Composition of water 
disc, by Henry Cavendish.) 
1789. Joan Rudolf Deiman 
(Hoi) and Adriaan Paetz von 
Troostwijk (Hoi) disc, decom- 
position of water electrolytic- 
ally. 1800. William Nicholson 
and Anthony Carlisle use a 
voltaic pile to decompose water 
into oxygen and hydrogen. (See 
also Electrolysis.) 
Water, "Aerated" 1807. Pat. 
by Henry Thompson. 1832 and 
1847. Pat. by F. C. Bakewell. 
1840. Pat. by Tylor. (See also 
Mineral waters, natural and 
artificial.) 

Water, Ghlorination of 1896. 
Process first used at Pola, Italy, 
to stem typhoid fever epidemic. 
1897. First installed in England 
at Maidstone, Kent, for the 
same reason. 

Water-closet c. 1460. Desc. by 
Sir John Harrington. 1778. 
Flush type inv. by Joseph 
Bramah. 1782. Water-seal trap 
for, inv. and pat. (Beachman, of 



WATER-FRAME 



194 WAVES, ELECTROMAGNETIC 



London, inv. self-acting water- 
closet and J. Dawson a portable 
water-closet.) 

Water-frame (See Spinning, 
loom.) 

Water-gas 1823. William de 
Vere and Henry S. Crane take 
out first pat. for illumination by 
water-gas. 1833. Jobard (Bel) 
inv. process for making water- 
gas from resins. (Process sold to 
Mme. Sellique and Tripier, of 
Paris and pat. in England and 
Austria by Jean de Marino.) 
1847. Stephen White, of Man- 
chester and H. M. Paine, of 
Worcester, Mass., U.S., pat. 
processes. 

Water-gauge 1776. Intro, by 
James Watt instead of the 
previously used pett-cocks. 
Water-glass 1644. Mixture 
mentioned by Johann Rudolf 
Glauber (1604-70). 1821. Von 
Fuchs inv. process of making. 
1845. Ransome, of Ipswich inv. 
process. 1857. Kuhlmann, of 
Lille inv. process using water- 
glass for hardening stone of 
buildings, to preserve them. 
Water-meter Running water 
first hydraulically measured by 
Gastelli (1 577-1 644). 1824. 
Diaphragm type inv. 1856. 
Siemens inv. inferential type. 
Kennedy inv. piston type. 
Waterproof Cloth 1 8 1 5 . Pro- 
cess for making inv. by James 
Syme(Scot) (1799-1870). 1835. 
Syme's process adopted and 
pat. by Macintosh. 
Waterwheel 13th cent. Crude 
sketch of undershot waterwheel 
appears in English MSS. 1405. 
Painting of overshot water- 
wheel preserved at Gottingen, 
Germany. 1556. Overshot 
waterwheel up to 40 ft. in 



diameter and giving up to 8 h.p. 
being const. 1582. Peter Morice 
const, tidal-driven waterwheel 
for London waterworks. 1588. 
A. Ramelli (1531-90) desc. 
under- and overshot water- 
wheels. 1682. S. Rannequin 
(Fr) installed waterwheel total- 
ling over 100 h.p. at Marly 
Waterworks, France. (Some 
power was transmitted by con- 
necting-rods over J mile.) c. 
1700. Waterwheel 40 ft. in 
diameter replaced one 12 ft. 
in diameter in Cornwall, c. 
1 750. Overshot waterwheel inv. 
(sic) by John Smeaton. 1826. 
Feathering waterwheel inv. by 
John Oldham. (The so-called 
"Whistling device" was the 
first evidence of the overshot 
waterwheel, to which it led.) 
1865. 72 ft. diameter, 150 h.p. 
waterwheel erected at Laxey, 
Isle of Man. 1880. Pelton 
waterwheel inv. in California. 
(See Turbine, water.) 1884. J. 
Duponchel (Fr) inv. twin, 
contra-rotating waterwheels. 
(See also Mills, water.) 
WATSON, William (1834- 
1915) Pioneer of early experi- 
ments in cylinder and disc-type 
electrostatic machines. 
WATT, James (1 736-1819) 
1763. Des. his first expansion 
steam-engine, to which he later 
made double-acting, and fitted 
with a centrifugal governor. 
His engines worked under what 
is termed "low-pressure." 1784. 
Formulated that 33,000 lb. 
raised 1 ft. in 1 min. equalled 
1 h.p. 1794. Inv. the steam 
indicator. 1810. With Matthew 
Boulton inv. machines for the 
Royal Mint. 
Waves, Electromagnetic 



wax, horsley's 



195 



WENZEL 



1887. R. H. Hertz successfully 
prod, electromagnetic waves of 
3 metres wavelength. 1887. Sir 
Oliver Lodge prod, electro- 
magnetic waves a little earlier 
than Hertz and first sent Morse 
code signals by radio. Nikola 
Tesla first prod, long electro- 
magnetic waves. {See also Radio 
telegraphy.) 

Wax, Horsley's (surgery) c. 
1885. Inv. by Sir Victor Horsley 
(1857-1916). 

Wax, Sealing 1554. Oldest 
known letter sealed with wax. 
1640. Mentioned by Francis 
Rosseau (Fr), of Auxerre. 1844. 
Finally superseded by adhesive 
envelopes. 

Weather Telegraphy 1849. 
First tried by London Daily 
News. 1859. First systematic 
weather forecasting intro. by 
Admiral Fitzroy. 1863. First 
international system intro. 
Weather Scale 1805. Devised 
by Admiral Sir Francis Beau- 
fort. 

WEBER, Ernst Heinrich 
(Ger) ( 1 795-1 878) 1825. Pion- 
eered study of acoustic wave- 
motion and interference. 
WEBER, Wilhelm Edouard 
(Ger) (1804-91). 1825. Col- 
laborated with his brother 
(above), and also pioneered 
work in electric telegraph 
design. 

WEBSTER, Noah (1758- 
1843) I7 8 3- Compiled Spelling- 
book of the English language. 
1807. Compiled first U.S. dic- 
tionary of the English language, 
which was finished in 1825. 
WEDGWOOD, Josiah ( 1 730- 
95) *759- Pioneered prod, of 
very hard pottery at his steam- 



engine-driven factory at Burs- 

lem. 

Weedkillers, Selective c. 

1945. "Methoxone" (4 chlor-2 
methyl - phenoxyacetic acid) 
disc. 

Weighing Machine 1821. 
Hydraulic weighing machine 
inv. by M. Henry. 
Welding, Arc 1801. Electric 
arc first prod, by Sir Humphry 
Davy. 1880. Fusion of metal 
into a weld by Slavianoff (Rus) , 
and by Charles Coffin, of 
Detroit, U.S. 1881. First instal- 
lation at Milton, Staffordshire, 
for reduction of aluminium. 
First attempt at arc welding 
made by De Meritons. c. 1886. 
Arc welding process devised by 
Prof. Elihu Thompson. 1887. 
Carbon rods first used in arc 
welding by M. V. Bernardos 
(Rus). 

Welding, Oxy-hydrogen 
1 80 1. Hydrogen-oxygen flame 
inv. by Robert Hare, of Phila- 
delphia, U.S. 1847. Hare re- 
duced 2 lb. of platinum in the 
oxy-hydrogen flame. 1895. Le 
Chatelier (Fr) measures heat of 
oxy-hydrogen flame. 1900. 
Edmund Fouch6 dev. first oxy- 
hydrogen torch. 
Welding, Thermit Inv. by 
Goldschmidt. 

Well, Artesian 1794. First in 
England sunk by Benjamin 
Vulliamy at Notting Hill, Lon- 
don. 1 84 1. Mulot completes 
1,798 ft. artesian well at Gren- 
elle, near Paris (Artois). 
WELSBACH, Carl Auer von 
(Ger) (1858-1929) 1897. Suc- 
ceeded in prod, malleable tan- 
talum. 1886. Inv. the gas-mantle. 
WENZEL, Karl Friedrich 
(Ger) (1740-93) c. 1777. Pion- 



WESTINGHOUSE 



I96 



WHISTLE, GALTON 



eered study of chemical associa- 
tion and dissociation. 
WESTINGHOUSE, George 

(U.S.) (1846-1914) 1880-90. 
Pioneered des. of electric trans- 
formers. 
WHEATSTONE, Sir Charles 

(1802-75) Prolific inventor. 

1837. Inv. with William Cooke, 
the needle telegraph, which was 
used between London and 
Slough, Buckinghamshire, in 

1838. 1845. Des. first dynamo 
with an electrically energised 
field. 

Wheel Pre-3000 B.C. Wooden 
disc wheels revolving on fixed 
axles in use in Sumeria. 2000- 
3000 B.C. Tripartite wheels of 
wooden planks in use. Post-2000 
B.C. Wheels with leather or 
copper tyres and copper- 
studded rims in use. Spoked 
wheels appear on painted clay 
models and carved seals from 
Mesopotamia; being intro. into 
Egypt and Crete soon after 1 600 
B.C., some having six or eight 
spokes. 500 B.C. Celtic wain- 
wrights of Bohemia and the 
Rhineland made spoked, dished 
wheels. Pliny (a.d. 23-79) men- 
tions wheeled plough, a.d. 200. 
15 ft., 2 2 -spoked water-raising 
wheels dev. by Roman mining 
engineers at Rio Tinto, Spain. 
1523. Fitzgerald mentions 
wheeled ploughs in England. 
1805. Artillery wheels inv. by 
Samuel Miller. 1808. Wire- 
spoked, cycle-type wheel inv. by 
Sir George Cayley. (The ten- 
sion wheel.) 1855. Keyed-on 
steel tyres inv. by Edward 
Turner for railway wheels. 
Wheel, Autocycle 1897. Cov- 
entry Motor Company intro. 
ladies 9 friction-drive unit. 1900. 



Singer autocycle wheel intro. 
1 914. Wall auto-wheel intro. 
1919. "Skootamota" intro. by 
A.B.C. Company. 191 9. "Ner- 
a-Car" des. by C. A. Neracher. 
1919, Lambretta-type, scooter- 
bike intro. by Pullin. 1926. "Ro" 
monocar scooter intro. 
Wheel-barrow c a.d. 230. 
Mentioned in Chinese litera- 
ture. 1 2 th cent. Mentioned in 
Western civilization. Men- 
tioned by Blaise Pascal (Fr) 
(1623-62). 

Wheel, Interchangeable 
motor-car 1904. "Stepney" 
spare rim inv. by T. M. and 
William Davies. 1905-06. 
Rudge-Whitworth detachable 
wheel inv. by J. V. Pugh. 1906. 
Detachable rim inv. by Louis 
Henry Perlman (U.S.). 1908. 
Warland dual rim inv. by P. W. 
Turquand and S. H. Cope. 
1908. Sankey interchangeable 
wheel of pressed steel inv. by 
Joseph Sankey. 1909. Captain 
detachable rim inv. by A. F. 
Gunstone. 

Wheel, Prayer 400. Vertical 
type in common use in China. 
c. a.d. 1 140. Yeh Meng-te (d. 
1 148) mentions wind-powered 
temple prayer wheels. See also 
Governor, Centrifugal. 
Wheel, Spring-spoked 1835. 
Iron-spoked "suspension" 
wheel inv. by Theodore Jones. 
Sprung wheel inv. by William 
Adams. 1875. Spring wheel inv. 
by De Mauni. 1902. sprung 
wheel inv. by Rousel Lecomte. 
1904. "Glyda" sprung wheel 
with resilient hub intro. 1904. 
"Empire" spring-spoked wheel 
intro. 

Whistle, Galton Inv. by 
Samuel Galton. (See also Siren.) 



WHITNEY 



197 



WINDMILL 



WHITNEY, Eli (U.S.) (1765- 
1825) 1793. Inv. the cotton gin, 
which was imp. three years later 
by Holmes. 

WHITTLE, Sir Frank (b. 
1907) Des. jet engine for aircraft 
which first flew in 1941 to 
provide practical experience 
and theoretical knowledge for 
the dev. of the gas-turbine. (See 

WHTTWORTH, Sir Joseph 

c. 1850. Pioneered accurate 
toolmaking, producing a micro- 
meter capable of reading to 
1 -1 0,000th of an inch. In 1844 
produced a perfectly true plane 
surface-plate. 

WEEN, Wilhelm (Ger) (1864- 
1928) 1893. Prop, the optical 
Law of Displacement. 
WOLCKE, Johan Carl (1732- 
96) Pioneered researches in 
calorimetry, in terms of the 
substance theory of heat. 
WILDE, Henry 1863. Inv. his 
separately excited dynamo. 
WILKINSON, John (1728- 
1808) Ironmaster who, in 1775, 
inv. an imp. cylinder-boring 
machine which he installed at 
his Bersham Ironworks. (See 
also Smeaton, John.) 
WILLANS, P. W. (1851-92) 
1874. Inv. high-speed steam- 
engine. 1885. Inv. high-speed 
central-valve steam-engine. 
WILLIAMS, Charles Grev- 
ille (1829-1910) i860. Prod. 
isoprene (artificial rubber). 
WILLIS, Robert 1849. Des. 
one of the first traction-engines. 
It was const, by E. B. Wilson, of 
Ransomes and May. 
WILLSLATTER, Richard 
(1872-1942) 1906-13. Investi- 
gated composition of plant 



pigments and disc, composition 
of chlorophyll. 

Winds, Rotation of (Law of 
Storms) c. 1850. Law enunci- 
ated by Dove. (See also Iso- 
therms.) 

Winds, Scale of 1806. Devised 
by Admiral Sir Francis Beau- 
fort. 

Windmill Legendary: First 
windmill (having eight sails) 
const, for Caliph Omar by his 
Arab slave Abu Lutua. 11 70. 
Windmill mentioned in a 
charter as existing at Swines- 
head, Lincolnshire. 1180. Post 
type windmill mentioned by 
Leopold de Lisle as existing in 
Normandy. 1185. Windmill at 
Weedley, Yorkshire valued at 
8s. per year. 1189. Windmill 
erected at Dunwich, Suffolk. 
1 191. Windmill built at Bury 
St. Edmunds, c. 1270 Earliest 
illus. of windmill in England 
Windmill Psalter, probably 
written at Canterbury. 1344. 
Documentary evidence of use 
of windmills for drainage in 
Holland. 1420. First illus. of 
tower windmill appears in 
French MSS. 1430. Water- 
draining scoop-wheels intro. into 
Holland at Polder. 1438-50. 
Illus. of first vertical axle wind- 
mill appears in wapub. note- 
book of Mariano Jacopo Tac- 
cola. 15th cent. First illus. of 
tower windmill in England 
appeared. 16th cent. Windmill 
sails with varying angle of 
incidence first used. 1589. 
Cornelis Dircksz Muys (Hoi) 
inv. mud-pumping "tjasker," 
windmill-driven. Muys (Hoi) 
inv. double-curved sails, or 
"zeeg." 1593. Cornelis Cor- 
nelisz (Hoi) inv. first windmill- 



WINDSCREEN WIPER 



198 



WISLIGENUS 



driven sawmill, and in 1597 a 
windmill-driven edge-runner 
mill for crushing oil seeds. 1 745. 
Edmund Lee inv. automatic 
fantail wind-facing device. 
1750. Andrew Meikle (1719- 
181 1 ) inv. self-reefing sails. 
Bevel-wheels intro. into wind- 
mill machinery. 1754. John 
Smeaton intro. cast-iron into 
windmill const. 1759. Smeaton 
experiments on model wind- 
mills to find best proportions. 
1769. Smeaton intro. use of 
cast-iron for windmill gearing. 
1772. Andrew Meikle inv. 
spring-sail with multiple hinged 
shutters. 1787. "Lift-tenter," 
with centrifugal governor inv. 
by Thomas Mead. 1789. 
Stephen Hooper inv. roller- 
reefing sail. 1807. William 
Cubitt (1795- 1 861) combined 
Meikle's and Hooper's invs. in 
his self-reefing sails. 1810. 
Water-pumping windmill 
erected in Scotland. 1826. 
Horizontal, drum-vaned wind- 
fliill appeared. 1836. Hori- 
zontal windmill pat. by William 
Symington. (See also Pane- 
mour) 1840. "Berton" wind- 
mill sail inv. i860. Air-brake inv. 
by Gatchpole, of Sudbury. 
1924. Dekker (Hoi) intro. aero- 
foil-section sails and roller shaft 
bearings, giving a 300 per cent 
increase in power output. 1941. 
Windmill electric generator 
with 200 ft. diameter, two- 
bladed sails erected at Grand- 
pa's Knob, Rudand, Virginia, 
U.S. (This was the first wind- 
powered public electricity 
supply in the world.) 1955. 
1 oo-kilowatt, hollow-bladed 
windmill driving an air turbine 



erected at St. Albans, Hertford- 
shire. 

Windscreen Wiper (motor- 
car) 1920. Suction type inv. by 
W. M. Folberth. 1923. Electric 
type appeared in U.S. (1925, 
in England). 

Wind-tunnel 1871. First made 
and used by Francis Herbert 
Wenham and John Browning 
c. 1880. H. F. Phillips made 
wind-tunnel 6 ft. long and 1 7 in. 
square with air-flow prod, by a 
steam injector. This was first 
use of wind-tunnel to determine 
lift and drag of plane and 
cambered vanes. 
Window-winders, Motor- 
car 1930. Geared type inv. by 
H. M. Hobson. 

Windows, Glass 650 Intro, by 
Bishop Biscop in English 
churches. 1 1 77. First built into 
English private houses. 
Winnowing Machine 1710. 
Intro, into England from Hol- 
land. See also Grain-cleaning 
machines. 

Wire Wire prod, for filigree 
work in Ur of the Chaldees by 
cutting a continuous strip from 
a circular metal sheet. 2500 
p.c. Wire prod, by drawing 
through dies in Egypt. 10th 
cent. Draw-plates in use at 
Augsburg. 1 ith cent. Brass wire 
mentioned, c. 1400 Wire inv. 
(sic) by Rudolph of Nurem- 
burg. 1 49 1. Wire-drawing 
machine mentioned by Conrad 
Celtes as having been inv. by 
Rudolph of Nuremburg. 1565. 
Wire intro. into England by the 
Dutch. 1663. First wire drawn 
in England at Mortlake, Surrey. 
WISLIGENUS, Johannes 
( 1 835-1 902) 1872. Disc, two 
types of lactic acid, only one of 



WOHLER 



«99 



WROBLEWSKY 



which was optically active: the 
principle of molecular asym- 
metry. 

WOHLER, Friedrich (Ger) 
(1800-82) 1827. Disc, beryl- 
lium. 1827. Disc, aluminium. 
WOLLASTON, Dr. William 
Hyde (1766-1828) 1803. Disc. 
palladium, and also inv. the 
camera lucida. 

Wood-joints 3000 B.C. In use 
in Ancient Egypt. 
Wood Preservation 1779. 
May, of Amsterdam, impreg- 
nates wood with preservative. 
1794. Sir Samuel Bentham 
experiments with vacuum im- 
pregnation. (See also Creosoting 
and Kyanizing.) 
Wood's (Fusible) Metal 
i860. Alloy of cadmium, tin, 
lead, and bismuth pat. by Dr. 
B. Wood, of Nashville, U.S. 
Woodworking Machinery 
1793. Sir Samuel Bentham inv. 
woodworking machinery for 
planing, rebating, mortising 
and curved and transverse saw- 
ing, to make complete window- 
sashes. 1802. Joseph Bramah 
inv. first rotary wood-planer. 
WORBY, William 1842. Des. 
steam tractor built by Ran- 
somes and May and exhibited 
at Bristol Royal Agricultural 
Show. 

WORCESTER, Marquis of 
(1601-67) 1663. Des. primitive 
steam pumping-engine. Wrote 



book Century of Inventions which 
desc. 100 novel ideas, some 
of which were not brought 
into use for many hundreds of 
years. 

WORTHINGTON, Henry 
Rossiter (1817-80) 1841. Inv. 
the direct-action steam pump. 
WRIGHT, Thomas 1845. 
Took out first British pat. for 
electric arc-lamp. (Clockwork- 
rotated, carbon discs.) 
WRIGHT, Brothers Wilbur 
andOrville (U.S.) 1900. Com- 
menced gliding experiments at 
Kill Devil Hills. 1902. Glided 
200 yards. 1903. Made first 
powered aeroplane flight with 
a 16 h.p. engine mounted on a 
glider. 1905. Made powered 
flight of 24J miles. (See Air- 
craft.) 

Writing 4000 B.C. Pictograms 
with 2,000 signs used at Erech, 
Sumeria. 3100 B.C. Heirogly- 
phics first appear in Egypt on 
King Narmer's Palette. 3000 
B.C. Cuneiform writing with 
shaped reed-end on clay. 2900 
b.c. 2,000-charactered Sum- 
erian writing reduced to 500- 
600 signs, of which 100 repre- 
sented syllables. 1594 b.c. 
Writing first taught to Latins 
by Princess of Phoenicia. 
WROBLEWSKY, Zygmunt 
Florenty von (1845-88) c. 
1883. One of the pioneers of 
cryogenic physics. 



XANTHIAN MARBLES 



200 



YUKAWA PARTICLES 



X 



Xanthian Marbles 1845. 
Disc, by Sir Charles Fellows. 
Xenon (element) 1898. Disc. 
Xerography 1937. Inv. by 
Chester Carlson (U.S.). 
X-rays 1895 (Nov.). Disc, by 
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen 
( 1 845-1 923), of Wurzburg. 



(Disc, announced Jan. 23, 

1896.) 

X-ray Screen (Barium 

platino-cyanide) 1853. Effect 

disc, by Stokes. 

X-ray Tube, High-voltage 

1 9 13. Inv. by Dr. Coolidge 

(U.S.). 



Y 



Yard 1305. Standardized by 
King Henry I of England as, the 
length of his arm. 
Year, Length of the Deter- 
mined to withn 12 seconds 
of accuracy by Hipparchus 
(160-145 B.C.). (Tropical 
year.) 

YOUNG, Thomas (1773- 
1829) Important contributor 



to 19th cent, science of acoustics 

and optics. 

Ytterbium (element) 1878. 

Disc, by Jean Charles Glissard 

de Marignac (Swit). 

Yttrium (element) 1 794. Disc. 

by Johann Gadolin (1760- 

1852). 

Yukawa Particles (See 

Mesons.) 



ZAMBONI 



aoi 



ZOOLOGY 



z 



ZAMBONI, Guiseppe (It) 
( 1 776-1846) 1 8 10. Re-disc, the 
dry pile electric battery of 
Georg Bernhard Behrens 
(1802). 

Z-crank Engine 1855. Inv. by 
Morton and Hunt, of Glasgow. 
ZEEMAN, Pieter (Hoi) 1896. 
With H. A. Lorentz (Hoi) disc. 
the connection between light 
and magnetism — the Zeeman 
effect. 

Zeeman Effect 1885. Obs. 
by Charles Fieviez, but ignored 
by him. 1896. Pieter Zeeman 
disc, connection between light 
and magnetism. 1897 J. J. 
Thompson proved electron 
charge at least 1,000 times 
as large as that of hydrogen 
atoms by study of the 
"Zeeman effect." 191 5. A. 
Semmerfeld (Ger) applied rela- 
tivity to the Zeeman effect. 
I 9 I 9- J* Starke (Ger) used 
electricity to produce the effect, 
where Zeeman had used mag- 
netism. See Addendum.. 
ZEISS, Carl (1816-88) One of 
the pioneers of scientific optical 
work and lens-making. 
Zero (symbol) Inv. in India in 
the early a.d. cents. 
Zero, Absolute 1908. Kam- 
merlingh Omnes prod, a tem- 
perature of 4. 2 above absolute 
zero. 1926. Debye and Giauque 
suggest use of electro-magnetic 
field to prod, absolute zero. 1933. 
Giauque and De Hass reduced 



temperature of gadolinium sul- 
phate to i° above absolute 
zero. 1939. Ashmead, of Gam- 
bridge, reduced temperature of 
ammonia-copper sulphate to 
0.002 ° above absolute zero. 
"Z.E.T.A." (Zero Energy 
Thermo-nuclear Assembly) 
1958. Announced as being in 
use. 

Zinc c. 500 B.C. Zinc found in 
hollow silver bracelets found at 
Rhodes. 1231. Zinc ore first 
noticed by Europeans. Zinc 
first mentioned as a distinct 
metal by Paracelsus (Swit) 
(1493-1541). 1 72 1. Zinc isol. 
in Western world by Henckel. 
1 738. Intro, to Western industry 
by Champion. 1809. Zinc mines 
disc, near Craven, Yorkshire. 
Zincography 181 5. Intro, into 
England. {Also known as Chemi- 
typy, Stylography, Galvano- 
graphy, and Glyphography.) 
Zirconium (element) 1 786. 
Disc, by M. H. Klaproth. 1792. 
Independendy disc, by Vauque- 
lin (Fr). 19 14. First obtained 
as a pure metal. 
Zoeprasdscope Inv. Eadweard 
Muybridge, of Kingston-on- 
Thames, Eng. 

Zdetrope, or "Wheel of Life" 
1824. First disc, by Horner. 
i860. Intro, as a toy by 
Desvignes (Fr). 
Zoology Science founded by 
Conrad Gesner (Swit) (1516- 
65), of Zurich. He was the 



ZSIGMONDY 



202 



ZWORYKIN 



father of modern zoology and 
wrote Historiae animalum. 
ZSIGMONDY, Richard 
Adolf (Ger) (i 865-1 929) 1903. 
Inv., with Siedentopf, the ultra- 
microscope. 

ZUCCI, Niccolo (It) (1586- 
1670) Planned and attempted 
to const, a reflecting telescope. 



Zurich Machine (rotary 
water-pump) 1746. Inv. by 
Wirtz, a dyer of Limmat, near 
Zurich. 

ZWORYKIN, Vladimir K. 
(U.S.) c. 1934. Inv. the icono- 
scope television camera. {See 
Television.) 



ADDENDUM 



Alloy, Tungsten-chrome 

1884. Inv. Elwood Haynes 
(U.S.), of Kokomo, Indiana. 
Blood Transfusion 1628. Jo- 
hannes Colle, of Padua Uni- 
versity, suggested, but did not 
perform, blood transfusion. 
1640. Francis Poller, vicar of 
Kilmanton, Somerset, made 
transfusion experiments. 1657. 
Dr. Thomas Sprat prophesied 
extraordinary success for blood 
transfusion. (Also Dr. (later 
Sir) Christopher Wren.) 1665. 
Dr. Richard Lower desc. tech- 
niques in his book on the 
heart. 1666 (new style). Dr. 
Wilkins and Thomas Cox, to- 
gether with Dr. Croon, per- 
formed transfusion experi- 
ments at Oxford; desc. by 
Samuel Pepys in Nov. 1667. 
1667 (June 15). Jean Denys, 
of Paris, transfused blood of a 
lamb to a boy of 15. 1667. 
Blood transfusion ceased to be 
practised in Eng. 1670. Blood 
transfusion became illegal in 
France. 1680. Francisco Folli, 
of Florence, claimed in his 
book to have been the origin- 
ator of blood transfusion in 
1654. 181 8. Dr. James Blun- 
dell, of Guy's and St. Thomas's 
hospitals, read to the Medico- 
Chirurgical Society accounts 
of a transfusion performed with 
help of surgeon Henry Cline. 
Blundell later collaborated 
with Drs. Doubleday and 



Waller (Charles). 1835. De- 
fibrinated blood used for trans- 
fusion by Sir Thomas Smith. 
1857. Higginson devised a 
syringe with ball-valves 
for blood transfusion. 1869. 
Dr. Braxton Hicks, of Guy's 
Hospital, tried sodium phos- 
phate as an anti-coagulant 
in the first blood trans- 
fusion made to save life. The 
result was fatal. 1901. Land- 
steiner, of Vienna, and Shat- 
tock, of London, detected 
presence of agglutins and iso- 
agglutins in blood. 1907. 
Jansky (Nor) determined the 
four blood groups. 1910. Jan- 
sky's work repeated by Moss, 
of Baltimore (U.S.). 191 3. 
Kimpton and Brown intro. use 
of paraffin-coated vessel for 
containing donated blood. 
1914. Lewisohn (U.S.) first 
used sodium citrate as an anti- 
coagulant. 1 914 (Nov. 14). 
Prof. Agate, of Buenos Aires, 
first successful life-saving blood 
transfusion between two hu- 
mans. Citrated blood was used. 
Blowpipe 1889. Thomas Flet- 
cher, of Warrington, first used 
blowpipe with oxygen for 
cutting metal. 1 901. Dr. Menne 
(Ger) used blowpipe for clean- 
ing blocked blast-furnace 
tuyeres. 1904. Society Anon- 
yme d'Oxyhydique Internat- 
ional, of Belgium, marketed a 
special type of blowpipe using 



ADDENDUM 



204 



ADDENDUM 



oxy-hydrogen for cutting 
metals. 

Flight Simulator 1930. Inv. 
by organ-builder Edwin A. 
Link, of Binghampton, N.Y. 
1934. Dem. before U.S. Army 
Air Corps at Newark, New 
Jersey. 1942. Link trainer in 
production. 1950. First elec- 
tronically controlled Link 
trainer (the C-11) for jet air- 
craft. i960. First solid-state 
digital computer (the Mark I) 
des. specifically for flight simu- 
lators. 

Magnetic Iron Oxide (Arti- 
ficial) 1842. Process for manu- 
facture disc, by Dr. William 
Gregory, of Edinburgh. 
Monorail 1907 (May). Louis 
Brennan (Irish) dem. model 
gyroscopic monorail at Royal 
Society Soiree, London. 1909 
(Nov). Brennan dem. full- 
sized car at Gillingham, Kent. 
1 9 10 (Mar). Brennan dem. 
same car at New Brompton, 
London. 

Plating 1909. Augustus Rosen- 
berg inv. dry plating method 
known as "Galvanit." 
Primary Cells, Electro- 
osmotic, c. 1909. Quinke, at 
Heidelberg, made first obser- 
vation of electro-osmotic effect. 
191 1. Botho Scherwin pat. 



electro-osmotic primary cell, 
working on Quinke's obser- 
vations, in Fr. 

Sherardizing (Galvanizing 
Process) 1901. Inv. by Sherard 
O. Gowper-Coles. 1903. Pro- 
cess made practicably workable. 
Steel Processes 1725. R.A.F. 
de Reaumur inv. iron-to-steel 
process by fusing wrought-iron 
with pig-iron. 1864. Friedrich 
and Wilhelm Siemens (Ger) 
and Pierre Martin (Fr) in- 
vented steel-making process. 
c. 1869. Emile and William 
Siemens, and Martin inv. im- 
proved process. 

Steel, Vanadium Alloy 1899. 
Augustus F. Weiner (Ger) and 
Prof. J. O. Arnold prod, first 
vanadium-steel ingot at 
Sheffield University. The coke- 
crucible process was used. 
Yellow Fever c. 1900. Maj. 
Walter Reed identified Aedes 
aegypti mosquito as the carrier 
and transmitter of yellow fever. 
1935. First successful vaccine 
developed by Dr. Max Theiler 
at Harvard University. 1936. 
Theiler's culture ("17-0") first 
tried out in November on Dr. 
Andrew J. Waller. 
Zeeman Effect 1968. Dr. 
Gerrit L. Verschuur (S. Africa) 
measured magnetic field of the 
Milky Way. 



NOTES 



NOTES